Difference between revisions of "Essay:Anticommunism Kills"

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his is a list about killings that were motivated by anticommunism. It does not include killings incidentally carried out by anticommunists (e.g. the Italo‐Ethiopian War). Despite its name, anticommunism normally affects not only communists but all other socialists as well, and often even just anybody sympathetic to socialism. Sometimes it also affects ethnicities, such as Chinese people, Jews, Mayans, and Serbs. As such, the actual tendency of the victims here is of minor relevance; what matters the most is the perpetrators’ motivations or causes.

Most of these killings were done directly; head‐to‐head. The only exceptions are fourfold: deaths caused by imperialist blockades or sanctions such as those on the RSFSR (1918–1921), Leningrad (early 1940s), the Republic of Cuba (1990s), the Republic of Iraq (1990s), the DPRK (1990s), and the FRY (1990s); deaths caused by explosives that detonated later than anticipated; deaths linked to nuclear weapons testing in the Cold War‐era United States; and deaths linked to comprehensive ‘decommunization’ programmes that antisocialists imposed on Easterners. Even if these indirect causes were subtracted, the total would still be well over fifty million. The total itself is composed using only the minimum of every statistic (with the exception of the disputable case of the Gulf Wars). Unspecified amounts, uncited guesses, and millions of hypothetical beings are excluded from this calculation.

1871, Paris: 18,000–30,000.[1]

1873–1875, Spanish Republic: ‘at least several thousand’.[2] >At least 10 of these were in Alcoy during 1873.[3]

1878, Berlin: 1–2.[4]

1880s, Poland: 7.[5]

1887, Chicago: 4–5.[6]

1891, Clichy: 1.[7]

1892, Montbrison: 1.[8]

1892, Poland: 46.[9]

1894, Paris: 2.[10]

1896, Montjuïc Castle: 5.[11]

1897, Vergara: 1.[12]

1905–1910, Russian Empire: over 15,000.[13] >About 100 of these were in Warsaw during 1905.[14] >151–200 were in Łódź during 1905.[15],[16] >Possibly 400 of these were in Moscow during 1905.[17]

1906, Cananea: 13.[18]

1906, Poland: 16.[19]

1907, Kingdom of Romania: 419–11,000.[20]

1909, Barcelona: 104–600.[21],[22]

1910s–1930s, Kingdom of Italy: over 3,000.[23] >4 of these were (desperate and rightfully frustrated) socialists killed for attempted magnicide.[24] >11 were in Turin during 1922.[25] >5 were in San Giovanni in Fiore during 1925.[26]

1911, Empire of Japan: 12.[27]

1911, Sidney Street: 2.[28]

1912, Lawrence: 2.[29]

1916, Dublin: 16.[30]

1916, Everett: 5.[31],[32]

1917, Wahnerheide: 2.[33]

1917–1923, Russia: 9,000,000.[34] >Over 1,000,000 of these were the direct result of civil warfare;[35] 1,000 were in Peregonovka during 1919[36] and 516 were in Russian Turkestan during 1917–1934.[37] An additional 20,000–300,000 of these were killed as part of the White Terror.[38]

1917–1923, Spain: 200.[39]

1917–1923, United States of America: ∼165.[40] >1917, Butte: 1.[41] >1919, Centralia: 1.[42]

1918, Finland: 32,500.[43] >1918, Vyborg: 1,200.[44]

1918–1919, Hungary: 11,666.[45]

1918–1919, Neocolonial Republic (Cuba): 7.[46]

1918–1923, German Empire: thousands.[47],[48] >1,000–1,500 of these were in Berlin during 1919.[49],[50] >12 were in Perlach during 1919.[51] >Over 1,000 were in Ruhr during 1920.[52] >At least 354 were during 1920–1922.[53] >24 were in Hamburg during 1923.[54]

1919, Buenos Aires: 700.[55]

1919, Latvia: thousands. >300 of these were in Mitau.[56] >3,000 of these were in Riga.[57],[58]

1919–1921, Hungary: 500–5,000.[59]

1920s, Clevelândia: at least 6.[60]

1920s, Kingdom of Spain: over 100.[61]

1920–1922, Patagonia: 300–1,500.[62]

1922, Estonia: 1.[63]

1923, Bulgaria: 841.[64]

1923, Empire of Japan: 6,000–10,000.[65]

1923, Kraków: 18–30.[66]

1924, Estonia: 301.[67]

1924, Tatarbunary: unknown.

1925, Halle (Saale): 6.[68]

1926, Lithuania: 4.[69]

1927, Charlestown (Boston): 2.

1927–1950, China: millions. >300–10,000 of these were in Shanghai during 1927.[70] >500 were in Huichang during the same year.[71] >800 were in a region west of Nanch’ang during the same year.[72] >2,000 were on their way to Canton during the same year.[73] >4,000–15,000 were in Canton (Guangzhou) during the same year.[74],[75] >300,000 were in south central China during 1928.[76] >143 were in Inner Manchuria during 1929.[77] >Over 1,000 were at Ching Kang Shan during the same year.[78] >About 4,000 were in the Kiangsi Province during 1931, and 10,000 later in the same year.[79] >1,000,000 were the fault of the Kuomintang and occurred during 1933–1934.[80] >8,000 were at Kuangch’ang during 1934.[81] >∼100,000 were during 1934–1937.[82] >584,267–900,000 were in China & Burma during 1937–1945.[83] >2,700,000 were due to the ‘Three Alls Policy’ enacted during the same period.[84]

1928, Ciénaga: 47–3,000.[85]

1929, Berlin: 33.[86]

1929, Lupeni: 16–58.[87]

1930s–1970s, Dominican Republic: 50,000.[88] >3,000 of these were during 1960.[89]

1930s–1996, Guatemala: 100,000–200,000.[90],[91],[92],[93] >At least 42,275 of these deaths had racial motivations and occurred during 1981–1983.[94]

1930, German Reich: 5.[95]

1931, Ådalen: 5.[96]

1931, Argentina: 4.[97]

1931, Vallenar: at least 21.[98]

1932, El Salvador: 30,000.[99]

1932, German Reich: several.[100]

1932, People’s Republic of Mongolia: 1,800.[101]

1932, Trujillo: 1,000–5,000.[102]

1932–1939, Manchuria, Mongolia, & Primorsky Krai: 32,000.[103] >236 of these were near Lake Khasan during 1938.[104] >9,868 were near the Khalkha River during 1939.[105],[106]

1933, Casas Viejas: 26.[107]

1933, Grivița: 7.[108]

1933–1945, German Reich: over 200,000.[109] >4 of these were in Altona during 1933.[110] >At least 22 of these were near Danzig during 1943–1945.[111]

1934, Asturias: over 1,700.[112]

1934, Minneapolis: 2.[113]

1934, Paris: unknown. (Nine?)

1934, Ránquil: 477.[114]

1934, San Francisco: 2–9.[115]

1934, Toledo: 2.[116]

1935, Recife & Rio de Janeiro: at least 119.[117]

1936–1939, Spain: 275,000–305,000.[118] >White Terror: 150,000–400,000.[119]

1937, Chicago: at least 10.[120]

1938, Sudetenland: unknown.

1939, Kresy: 1,475–5,327.[121],[122]

1939–1940, East Finland: 126,875–167,976.[123],[124]

1939–1975, Kingdom of Spain: 30,000–200,000.[125] >At least 2,166 of these were killed for violently resisting the régime.[126]

1940s, Malaysia & Singapore: about 50,000.[127]

1940s–1950s, the Philippines: 9,695.[128]

1940s–1956, the Baltic: 18,562.[129]

1940–1942, Mauthausen: 4,761–6,784. (An additional 200 ‘Red Spaniards’ died in other camps.)[130]

1940–1944, France: at least 30,000.[131] >1941, Vallée-aux-Loups: 2.[132] >1941 (unknown locations): 8.[133] >1944, Tulle: 213.[134] >1944, Oradour-sur-Glane: 642.[135]

1940–1944, Norway: scores. >At least 35 were saboteurs.[136] >20–23 were members of the Communist Central Committee.[137]

1941–1945, Yugoslavia: 245,549.[138] >1941, Kraljevo: around 2,000.[139] >1941, Kragujevac: 2,778–2,794.[140]

1941–1945, antisemitism in Europe: 5,290,000–6,200,000.[141],[142]

1941–1945, Eastern Front: 26,600,000–42,700,000.[143],[144] >About 123 of these were in Liepāja during 1941.[145] >13,000–16,000 of these were in or near Daugavpils during 1941–1943.[146]

1942, Leusderheide: 25.[147]

1942–1944, Albania: unknown. (Likely somewhere in the thousands.) >107 of these were in Borovë during 1943.[148] >Scores (possibly 127) were in Tirana during 1944.

1942–1954, Central Luzon: over 109.[149]

1943, Leusderheide: 12.[150]

1943–1957, U.P.A. operations in the Eastern Bloc: scores of thousands. >40,000 of these were Soviet soldiers, and 22,400 were socialist officials and civilians.[151]

1944, Ardeatine: 335.[152],[153]

1944, Marzabotto: 770.[154]

1944–1945, Czechoslovakia: 304–608.[155],[156]

1944–1950s, Greece: 38,000–38,839.[157] >1944, Athens: 28.[158]

1944–1963, Poland: more than 15,000.[159] >2,000 of these were specifically during 1945–1946,[160] and 79 were in Białystok Voivodeship during 1946.[161] About 32,400 were the fault of the U.P.A. and occurred during 1945–1948.[162]

1945, Hiroshima & Nagasaki: 129,000–226,000.[163]

1945, South Korea: 100,000.[164]

1946, Hrubieszów: unknown. (Maybe in the dozens.)

1946, Punnapra & Vayalar: ∼1,000.[165]

1946, Santiago: 6.[166]

1946–1953, French Indochina: 175,000–300,000.[167],[168]

1947, Taiwan: 35,000.[169] >18,000–28,000 of these were during the February 28 incident alone.[170]

1947–1960s, Romanian People’s Republic: unknown.

1948, Java: ∼12,000.[171]

1948–1988, Burma: over 60,000.[172] >1962, Rangoon University: at least 15.[173] >1986–1987, Shan State: at least 200.[174]

1948, Kingdom of Iraq: 300–400.[175]

1948–1960, Malaysia: 10,698.[176] >24 of these were in Batang Kali during 1948.[177]

1948–1949, Jeju Island: over 12,360.[178]

1948, South Jeolla Province: 439–2,000.[179]

1949, Mungyeong: 86–88.[180]

1949–1976, global C.I.A. operations: over 1,000,000.[181] >2,000–4,000 of these were Cubans.[182]

1950s, Germany: more than 1.[183]

1950s, Sendai: 4.[184]

1950s–1960s, People’s Republic of China: ∼41,000.[185]

1950s–1970s, Cambodia & Laos: over 2,500,000.[186],[187] >More than 19 of these were in Cambodia during 1967–1968.[188] >At least 500,000 were due to aerial warfare during 1965–1973.[189],[190] >1974–1997, Laos: over 460,000. (An annual minimum of twenty thousand.)[191]

1950s–1980s, Republic of Cuba: ∼1,000–20,000.[192] >158 of these were during 1981.[193] >1960, Havana: 75.[194] >1961, Bay of Pigs: 161–176.[195],[196]

1950s–2000s, Haiti: scores of thousands. >30,000–100,000 of these were during 1957–1986.[197] >3,000–4,000 were during 1986–1990s.[198] >Over 8,000 were during 2004–2005.[199]

1950, Taiwan: several.[200]

1950–1953, Korea: 1,800,000–4,500,000.[201],[202],[203] >100,000–200,000 of these died in the Bodo League massacre of 1950,[204] 163–400 in Nogeun-ri during the same year,[205] and 150–153 in Gyeonggi-do during the same.[206]

1951, Iran: ∼100.[207]

1951–1973, conterminous United States: 340,000–460,000.[208] >1953, Ossining: 2.[209],[210]

∼1951, Europe: ‘hundreds’.[211]

1953, Tehran: ∼300.[212]

1954, Tōkyō: 1.[213]

1954–1962, Algeria: 141,000–300,000.[214]

1955, off Great Natuna Islands: 16.[215]

1955, Sevastopol: 608.[216]

1955–1975, Vietnam: 3,000,000–5,100,000.[217],[218],[219] >14 of these were North Koreans killed during 1967–1969.[220] >20,587–40,994 were in South Vietnam during 1968–1971.[221],[222]

1955–2003, Sudan: ∼2,000,000.[223],[224]

1956, Hungary: 3,000.[225],[226]

1957–1979, Iran: ‘thousands’.[227]

1958, Lebanon: 1,000.[228]

1959, Seoul: 1.[229]

1959, Mosul: unknown. (Likely in the hundreds.)

1959, Tibet: 2,000.[230]

1960s, United States of America: at least 16.[231]

1960s, Republic of Indonesia: 500,000–3,000,000.[232],[233],[234],[235],[236]

1960s–1970, Eritrea: over one thousand. >946 of these were during 1967.[237] >200 were in Besik‐Dira.[238] >700 were in Ona.[239]

1960s–1980s, Korean Peninsula: hundreds. >Approximately 180 were in Seoul during 1960.[240] >13 of these were in the DPRK during 1964.[241] >397 were at the Korean Demilitarized Zone during 1966–1969.[242] >20 were in the DPRK during 1967.[243] >28–29 were somewhere near the DMZ during 1968.[244],[245] >110–113 were in the Republic of Korea during the same year.[246],[247] >3 were in Kumchon during 1970.[248] >3 were in Gangwon-do during 1976.[249] >1 was at the Korean Demilitarized Zone during 1979.[250] >144–2,000 were at Kwangju during 1980.[251] >3 were at the Han River during the same year.[252] >1 was at Gangwon-do during 1981.[253] >3 were at the Imjin River during the same year.[254] >1 was on the east coast during 1982.[255] >3 were during 1984.[256] >2 were during 1987.

1960s–1980s, the Philippines: 100,000.[257],[258] >At least 3,257 of these have been confirmed as extrajudicial.[259]

1960s–1990, Nicaragua: 25,000–100,000.[260],[261] >Over 3,000 of these were in the mountains east of Matagalpa during the 1970s.[262]

1960s–1991, Ethiopia: unknown.

1960s–1992, Angola: 300,000–1,500,000.[263],[264],[265] >2,016–15,000 of these were Cubans, and 54 were Soviets.[266]

1960s–1992, Mozambique: over 1,000,000.[267],[268]

1960s–1994, South Africa: about 7,200.[269]

1960s–present, Congo: 3,000,000–4,000,000.[270],[271] >60,000–70,000 of these were in Congo-Léopoldville during 1964.[272]

1960s–present, Colombia: over 67,000.[273],[274] >11,484 of these were since 2004 alone.[275]

1960, Hibiya Hall: 1.[276]

1960–1963, Ecuador: at least 5.[277]

1960–1965, Peru: unknown.

1961–1964, Brazil: several. >2 of these were at Recife during 1964.[278] >2–3 were in Rio de Janeiro during the same year.[279] >2 were in Minas Gerais during the same year.[280]

1962, Charonne: 9.[281]

1962–1970, North Yemen: 26,000.[282]

1962–1990, Sarawak: 400–500.[283]

1963, Republic of Iraq: 1,600–5,000.[284]

1963–1966, Malay Peninsula: 590.[285]

1963–1967, Aden Protectorate: 382.[286]

1963–1974, Guinea‐Bissau: over 6,000.[287]

1963–1976, Dhofar: over 433.[288]

1964, Neshoba County: 3.[289]

1964–1967, Bolivia: 42–54.[290] >1967, Catavi: 87.[291]

1964–1979, Rhodesia: over 10,000.[292]

1964–1982, United Mexican States: over 3,000.[293] >5 of these were in San Miguel Canoa during 1968.[294] >At least 300 were at the Plaza de las Tres Culturas during the same year.[295] >At least 30 were in Guerrero during 1970–1975.[296]

1965–1990, Thailand: thousands. >133 of these were during 1965–1967.[297] >3,008 were during 1971–1973.[298] >40 were during 1976.[299] >310 were during 1980.[300]

1966, El Salvador (Chile): 8.[301]

1966, Ghana: 20–1,600.[302]

1966–1967, Macau: 8.[303]

1966–1990, South West Africa: over 11,335.[304]

1966–1998, Northern Ireland: 368.[305],[306]

1967, Hong Kong: 26–51.[307]

1968, France: 5.[308]

1968–1989, Malaysia: 212.[309]

1969, Puerto Montt: 10.[310]

1969–1990s, Panama: 500–4,000.[311],[312],[313] >1992: ‘hundreds’.[314]

1970s–1980s, Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, & Uruguay: 13,000–80,000.[315],[316] >9,089–43,000 of these were in Argentina during 1974–1983.[317],[318],[319] >400 of these were in Bolivia during the 1970s,[320] and 58 specifically were during 1970.[321] >3,000–20,000 of these were in Chile during the 1970s–1990.[322],[323],[324],[325]

1970s–1980s, Southern Cone: ‘tens of thousands’. (An additional one hundred thousand to one hundred fifty thousand suffered torture.)[326]

1970s–1980s, Italian Republic: at least 301.[327]

1970s–1984, Grenada: 277.[328]

1970s–1992, Afghanistan: 500,000–1,800,000.[329],[330]

1970s–1994, Republic of El Salvador: 70,000–75,000.[331],[332],[333],[334] >50–100 of these were at the National Hospital Rosales during 1975.[335] >18–24 were at the San Salvador Cathedral during 1979.[336] >300–600 were in Chalatenango during 1980.[337] >800–1,200 were in El Mozote during 1981.[338] >Over 200 were in El Calabozo during 1982.[339]

1970s–1999, East Timor: 200,000–230,000.[340],[341],[342]

1970, Río Piedras: 1.[343],[344]

1970, Kent State: 4.[345]

1970, East Los Angeles: 4.[346],[347]

1971, West Pakistan: 300,000–3,000,000. (An additional eight to ten million fled.)[348],[349]

1972, Bosnia‐Herzegovina: 13.[350]

1975–1990, France & Spain: 66.[351]

1975–present, Socialist Republic of Vietnam: over 42,000.[352]

1976, Barbados: 73.[353]

1976, Montejurra: 2.[354]

1976–1980, Republic of Turkey: 2,109.[355]

1977, Atocha (Madrid): 5.[356]

1978, Guyana: over 900.[357]

1979, Yemen: hundreds.

1979, Greensboro (North Carolina): 5.[358]

1979–1981, Iran: 4,000.[359] >1981, Tehran: 50.[360]

1980s, Honduras: 400.[361]

1980–present, Peru: over 20,458.[362] >123 of these were in Putis during 1984.[363] >47–74 of these were in Accomarca during 1985.[364] >Over 133 of these were in Peruvian prisons during 1986.[365] >15 of these were in Barrios Altos during 1991.[366],[367] >9 of these were in the Santa Province during 1992. >10 of these were in La Cantuta during 1992.[368],[369]

1982, Chad: 40,000.[370],[371]

1982, Beirut: 4,000–5,000.[372]

1982, West Beirut: 450–3,500.[373]

1983–1984, Belgium: ‘several’.[374]

1985, Philadelphia: 11.[375]

1987, Lieyu: 19.[376]

1987, Ouagadougou: 13.[377]

1989, Beijing: at least 23.[378]

1989, Republic of Venezuela: 200–600.[379]

1989, Romania: more than 2.[380]

1990s, Republic of Cuba: at least 47,000.[381]

1990s–2000s, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: 1,000,000–3,000,000.[382]

1990s–2000s, Eastern Bloc: 1,000,000–10,000,000.[383] >500–1,052 were in Moscow during 1993.[384] >At least 32 (out of maximum of 96) were confirmed as homicides against journalists in the Russian Federation,[385] 1 of which was in Chechnya’s capital during 1993, 7 somewhere in Russia’s during the same year,[386] 5 somewhere during 1994,[387] 9 during 1995,[388] another 7 during the same year,[389] 1 during 1998,[390] and 2 during 1999.[391]

1990s–2000s, Yugoslavia: 107,000.[392] >44 of these were in Slovenia during 1991.[393],[394] >8,106 were in Croatia during 1991.[395],[396] >1,103 were in Vukovar during 1991.[397],[398] >At least 11,702 were in Kosovo during 1998–1999,[399] of which 300 were officials that the KLA killed and 1,008 that the NATO killed.[400] About 1,730–3,500 of them were non‐Albanian civilians, 8,661 were Albanians who either died or went missing,[401] and 3 were in a Chinese embassy (allegedly mistaken for a Yugoslav arms agency). >At least 12 were killed in magnicides during 1997–2000.[402]

1990s–present, Republic of Iraq: over one million. (If applicable. See citation below.)[403] >700,000 of these were during the 1990s.[404],[405] >654,000–1,000,000 were between 2003 and the present.[406],[407]

1990, Baku: 21–29.[408],[409]

1992, Cheorwon: maybe 3.[410]

1992–present, Northeast India: at least 8,530.[411]

1994, Yemen: unknown. (Likely in the hundreds.)

1994–present, Chiapas: over 51.[412] >1997, Acteal: 45.[413],[414]

1995, Imjin River: 1.[415]

1996, Gangneung: 13.[416]

1996, Nepal: 8,000–12,000.[417]

1997–present, India: 3,402–4,041.[418] >At least 905 were specifically since 2009.[419]

1997, Albania: unknown. (Possibly 1,500.)

1999, Northern Limit Line: unknown. (Allegedly 17–30.)

20th century, Federal Republic of Germany: over 20.[420] >1971–1979: 9–14.[421],[422]

2000s–present, Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela: dozens of thousands. >300 of these were in the countryside during 2001–2006.[423] >7–12 of these were in El Silencio during 2002.[424] >At least 9 of these were during 2013.[425] >At least 16 of these were during 2014.[426] >At least 55 of these were during 2017.[427] >40,000 were during 2017–2018.[428] >Possibly 14 or so of these were during 2019.[429]

2001, East China Sea: 15.[430]

2001–2010, the Philippines: 1,200.[431]

2002, Northern Limit Line: unknown. (Allegedly 13.)

2009, off the coast of Daecheong Island: 1–10.[432]

2011, Libya: 30,000–100,000.[433]

2011, Oslo & Utøya: 77.[434]

2011–present, Syria: over 6,000.[435],[436]

2017, City of Charlottesville: 1.[437]

2017, Calabarzon: 15.[438]

2018, Republic of Nicaragua: at least 44.[439]

Total: no less than 66,557,830‬.

Pessimistic estimate (all maxima added together): ∼111,611,776‬.

References

  1. The Anarchist FAQ; International Encyclopedia of Terrorism, page 52; Atrocities, Massacres, and War Crimes: An Encyclopedia, page 515; & Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, page 1470.
  2. Ibid., page 189.
  3. The Bakuninists at Work.
  4. https://www.marxists.org/glossary/events/a/n.htm#anti-socialist-law (One of these men committed suicide, but it is unlikely that the officials would have spared his life. His inclusion is left to the reader’s own judgement.)
  5. Albert Szymanski, Class Struggle in Socialist Poland, page 4.
  6. https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secA5.html#seca52 (The small gap here is because one of the inmates committed suicide while on death row. The inclusion of such cases is left to the reader’s personal judgement.)
  7. Jean Maitron, Le mouvement anarchiste en France: des origines à 1914.
  8. Ravachol.
  9. Albert Szymanski, Class Struggle in Socialist Poland, page 4.
  10. Auguste Vaillant & Emile Henry.
  11. Historical Dictionary of Spain, page 448.
  12. Michele Angiolillo.
  13. Ibid., page 340.
  14. Ibid., page 5.
  15. Włodzimierz Kalicki, Rok 1905: Przebudzeni bombą; Dzieje oręża polskiego; & Portal Historyczny - Artykuł.
  16. Ibid., page 5.
  17. https://web.archive.org/web/20160303185620/http://www.marxist.com/bolshevism-old/part2-5.html
  18. ARMED AMERICANS AT GREENE'S MINE; Rushed Into Mexico from Arizona Against Gov. Kibbey's Orders.
  19. Rudolf Rocker, The London Years.
  20. Markus Bauer, Cauzele și originea răscoalei țărănești din 1907; J. William Leasure, The historical decline of fertility in Eastern Europe; Lavinia Betea, 1907-2007: Revolta fără conducători din Regatul României; Charles Ragin & Daniel Chirot, The Market, Tradition and Peasant Rebellion: The Case of Romania in 1907, pages 428–444; & Philip Gabriel Eidelberg, The Great Rumanian Peasant Revolt of 1907: Origins of a Modern Jacquerie. A report from the secret police argued that the anarchist propaganda contributed to this revolt. An example given is a certain village teacher, Nicolăescu-Cranta (comrade of anarchist Panait Mușoiu), who helped instigate the revolts through the speeches that he gave to the peasants. See Vlad Brătulescu, Anarhismul în România.
  21. Anarchist Organisation: The History of the F.A.I.‎, chapter 2, page 48.
  22. Ibid., page 329.
  23. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 330.
  24. That is, Angelo Sbardellotto, Anteo Zamboni, Giacomo Matteotti, and Michele Schirru.
  25. https://web.archive.org/web/20171027152138/http://ita.anarchopedia.org/Strage_di_Torino_(18-20_dicembre_1922)
  26. Saverio Basile, Marianna Mascaro, Barbara Veltri, Filomena Marra & Antonia Silletta.
  27. Hugh Cortazzi & Ian Hill Nish, Britain & Japan: Biographical Portraits.
  28. Siege on Sidney Street.
  29. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 369.
  30. ICA members, including J. Connolly later.
  31. The Tacoma Times, November 6, 1916, page 1 (also reported: twenty IWW & twenty Everett citizens were wounded).
  32. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 369.
  33. Deutsche Geschichte 1919–1945.
  34. Megan Trudell, The Russian civil war: a Marxist analysis & Tony Cliff, Lenin 3: Revolution Besieged. Most of these were victims of famine, but it and these nine million dead are both still attributable essentially to foreign invasions (British, French, Czechoslovakian, Japanese, Polish, &c.) and to the blockade that the capitalist powers organized.
  35. Grigori F. Krivosheev, Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century.
  36. Le Banquet des Généraux
  37. Grigori F. Krivosheev, Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century.
  38. Эрлихман, Вадим (2004). Потери народонаселения в XX веке. Издательский дом «Русская панорама». Revolutions and Counter-Revolutions: 1917 and Its Aftermath from a Global Perspective, page 58.
  39. Historia y Opinión : El Pistolerismo en Barcelona, La prensa mata a Buenaventura Durruti en 1923, Los Solidarios, la Dictadura de Primo de Rivera y la dictablanda.
  40. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 370. In the early twentieth century, European‐Americans often perceived black folks as proxies to anarchism and communism—if not anarchists or communists themselves. Jeff Woods’s Black Struggle, Red Scare notes that ‘Across the country, anti‐Communists launched campaigns to identify and eradicate the red menace, both real and perceived. Among those targeted nationwide as potential subversives were blacks. […] With reports such as these, as well as some widely publicized statements in the radical press claiming Negro allegiance with bolshevism, large numbers of Americans inside and outside the South accepted the argument that the country’s racial unrest was due in some part to Communist agitation. The charges were unquestionably exaggerated, especially by organizations such as the the Ku Klux Klan.’ See Red Scare: A Study in National Hysteria, 1919–1920, chapter 11, for more.
  41. America’s Unofficial Religion — The War On An Idea.
  42. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 369.
  43. Paavolainen, Eerola, Westerlund, Suodenjoki, Tikka & al.
  44. Lars Westerlund, Me odotimme teitä vapauttajina ja te toitte kuolemaa.
  45. Ibid., page 344.
  46. Frank Fernández, Cuban Anarchism: The History of A Movement, chapter 2.
  47. Ben Reynolds, The Coming Revolution, page 178 & Jay Winter, The Cambridge History of the First World War: The State, page 260.
  48. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 330.
  49. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 330.
  50. To the Masses, page 105.
  51. Max Hirschberg & Reinhard Weber, Jude und Demokrat; Douglas Morris, Justice Imperiled: The Anti-Nazi Lawyer Max Hirschberg in Weimar Germany, page 194; & Axis History Factbook. (Ironically, most of the dead were actually members of the Social Democratic Party.)
  52. Heinrich August Winkler, Germany: The Long Road West, Volume 2, page 371.
  53. Robert George Leeson Waite, Vanguard of Nazism, pages 214–216, (quoting, among other sources, Fried, Guilt of the Germany Army, 197, who in turn is quoting the Münchener Post, Dec 27, 1922).
  54. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 330.
  55. Horacio Ricardo Silva, Días rojos, verano negro: enero de 1919, la semana trágica de Buenos Aires.
  56. Modris Eksteins, Walking Since Daybreak: A Story of Eastern Europe, World War II, and the Heart of Our Century (page 73).
  57. Modris Eksteins, Walking Since Daybreak: A Story of Eastern Europe, World War II, and the Heart of Our Century (page 73).
  58. Philip Farr, Soviet Russia and the Baltic Republics.
  59. A konferencián elhangzott előadás szövegei; Magyarország a XX. században; & Török Bálint, Trianon magyar szemmel.
  60. John W. F. Dulles, Anarchists and Communists in Brazil, 1900–1935, page 363.
  61. Ibid., chapter 2, pages 60 & 64.
  62. Juan Archibaldo Lanús, La causa argentina (pages 46 & 393).
  63. Philip Farr, Soviet Russia and the Baltic Republics.
  64. Музей на революционното движение в България.
  65. Encyclopedia of Korean Culture; A play teaching the history of the Great Kanto Earthquake massacres to Japanese youth; Yokohama recalls texts describing 1923 'massacre' of Koreans; 1923 Kanto Earthquake Massacre seen through American viewpoints; Robert Neff, The Great Kanto Earthquake Massacre; Joshua Hammer, Yokohama burning: the deadly 1923 earthquake and fire that helped forge the path to World War II; & The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923. (See also: https://web.archive.org/web/20070825113418/http://rekishi.jkn21.com/; Murder of an Anarchist Recalled: Suppression of News in the Wake of the 1923 Tokyo Earthquake; & Mikiso Hane, Reflections on the Way to the Gallows.)
  66. Andrzej Osęka, Gumowa kula demokracji & Wspomnienie o adw. Eugeniuszu Śmiarowskim (1878–1932).
  67. Philip Farr, Soviet Russia and the Baltic Republics.
  68. Chicago Daily Tribune, German Police Kill Six in Riot at Red Meeting, page 7; dated March 14, 1925.
  69. Philip Farr, Soviet Russia and the Baltic Republics.
  70. China Rising: The Revolutionary Experience
  71. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 361.
  72. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 361.
  73. Ibid., page 362.
  74. Philip S. Jowett, The Armies of Warlord China 1911–1928, https://ihistory.ifeng.com/50469226/news.shtml
  75. Ibid., page 362.
  76. Zhou Enlai: A Political Life, page 38.
  77. Grigori F. Krivosheev, Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century.
  78. Ibid., page 362.
  79. Ibid., page 362.
  80. Edgar Snow, Red Star Over China, page 162 & Sterling Seagrave, The Soong Dynasty.
  81. Ibid., page 362.
  82. Ibid., page 363. (It is possible that a minority of these died from natural causes, but the exact number is unknown.)
  83. Meng Guoxiang & Zhang Qinyuan, 关于抗日战争中我国军民伤亡数字问题 & Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, pages 368 and 527.
  84. Herbert P. Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, or specifically Mitsuyoshi Himeta, 日本軍による『三光政策・三光作戦をめぐって. For the anticommunist motives, see Modernization and Revolution in China: From the Opium Wars to World Power by Jay Corrin, June Grasso, & Michael Kort.
  85. The Santa Marta Massacre and Eduardo Posada-Carbó, Fiction as History: The bananeras and Gabriel García Márquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude.
  86. Uwe Klussmann, „Blutmai“ im Wedding.
  87. 16 RUMANIA MINERS SHOT BY SOLDIERS; Another Report Says 58 Are Killed, The New York Times, August 7, 1929, p. 9; City of Lupeni; Jack R. Friedman, Furtive Selves: Proletarian Contradictions, Self-Presentation, and the Party in 1950s Romania; and Bitter Victory for Romanian Miners.
  88. Rafael Trujillo and the Forgotten Genocide, https://web.archive.org/web/20131203001432/http://www.lalupa.com.do/2012/10/la-matanza-de-1937/, Capdevilla, La Dictature de Trujillo, République Dominicaine. See Killing Hope, chapter 29, for details.
  89. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  90. M. Parenti, Blackshirts and Reds, page 25.
  91. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  92. W. Blum, Killing Hope.
  93. 10 of the Most Lethal CIA Interventions in Latin America.
  94. La Comisión para el Esclarecimiento Histórico.
  95. 5 Die in German Riots in Memory of Red Martyrs, Chicago Daily Tribune: 3. January 16, 1930.
  96. Massakern i Ådalen har tonats ner.
  97. Felipe Pigna, Los Mitos de la historia argentina.
  98. Gonzalo Izquierdo, Historia de Chile, page 37.
  99. Edward A. Lynch, Cold War’s Last Battlefield, The: Reagan, the Soviets, and Central America, page 49; El Salvador - Economic Crisis and Repression; & Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 380.
  100. Ian Kershaw, Hitler: 1889-1936 Hubris, pages 244–245.
  101. Б.Зинамидар. Гадаадаас турхирсан 1932 оны бослого.
  102. Luis Alberto Sánchez, "5+mil" Política sin caretas, page 179; Mario Vargas Llosa, "5+mil" Literatura y política, page 24; & Peru (1912-present).
  103. Nomonhan: Japan Against Russia, 1939, Volumes 1–2, page 1176 & The Soviet Strategic Offensive in Manchuria, 1945: ‘August Storm’, page xxi.
  104. Blood Lies, chapter 5.
  105. M. Kolomiets, Boi u reki Khalkhin-Gol & Халхин-гольское сражение: пересмотр статистики.
  106. Blood Lies, chapter 5.
  107. Julián Casanova, De la calle al frente, page 113.
  108. Legendele Griviţei - comuniştii declaraţi singurii vinovaţi.
  109. Nikolaus Wachsmann, KL: A History of the Nazi Concentration Camps, page 31.
  110. Robert Bohn, Die nationalsozialistische Sondergerichtsbarkeit in Schleswig-Holstein.
  111. Bo Lidegaard, Countrymen, page 155.
  112. H. Thomas, The Spanish Civil War. Examples of antisocialist motives can be read in Unearthing Franco’s Legacy (page 62) and Deadly Embrace (pages 252–254).
  113. Jeremy Brecher, The Minneapolis Teamsters strike, 1934.
  114. Andrés Solimano, Capitalismo a la chilena: Y la prosperidad de las elites, page 45; El Partido Comunista de Chile y el levantamiento de Ranquil; & Téllez Lúgaro & al., El levantamiento del a Alto Biobío y el Soviet y la República Araucana de 1934.
  115. Fred Glass, From Mission to Microchip: A History of the California Labor Movement.
  116. Bernard, Stershner, Depression and New Deal in Ohio, Ohio History, Autumn 1977, p. 262.
  117. Os 50 anos da primeira intentona comunista; A Intentona Comunista: o que é fato e o que é boato; & Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 385.
  118. Stanley Sandler, Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia, Volume 1, page 160 & Manuel Álvaro Dueñas in La gran represión: los años de plomo del franquismo.
  119. Morir, matar, sobrevivir. La violencia en la dictadura de Franco & A Time of Silence: Civil War and the Culture of Repression in Franco’s Spain.
  120. Ahmed A. White, The Drive to Organize Steel. The ‘Little Steel’ Strike of 1937: Class Violence, Law, and the End of the New Deal.
  121. Grigori F. Krivosheev, Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century.
  122. Igor Bunich, Operatsiia Groza, Ili, Oshibka V Tretem Znake: Istoricheskaia Khronika, page 88. Contrary to popular belief, the anti‐Soviet forces were renegades who acted illegally during this operation.
  123. Grigori F. Krivosheev, Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century.
  124. Juri Kilin, Rajakahakan hidas jäiden lähtö & Pavel Petrov, Venäläinen talvisotakirjallisuus. For the Finnish government’s anti‐Soviet sentiment and the origins of the conflict, see here.
  125. Michael L. Coulter, "publicly+executed" Encyclopedia of Catholic Social Thought, Social Science, and Social Policy, page 440; Nigel Townson, Spain Transformed, page 250; & Lorraine Ryan, Memory and Spatiality in Post-Millennial Spanish Narrative, page 32.
  126. Antonio Téllez, Armed resistance to Franco.
  127. Ooi Giok Ling, Southeast Asian Culture and Heritage in a Globalising World – Diverging Identities in a Dynamic Region. For some examples of anticommunist motivation, see here.
  128. Ibid., page 616. See Killing Hope, chapter 4, for details.
  129. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts, page 538 & The Latvians: A Short History, page 155.
  130. David Wing Pike, Spaniards in the Holocaust: Mauthausen, Horror on the Danube.
  131. Terry Crowdy, French Resistance Fighter: France’s Secret Army.
  132. http://maitron-en-ligne.univ-paris1.fr/spip.php?article157866&id_mot=21
  133. A Train in Winter: An Extraordinary Story of Women, Friendship and Survival in World War Two, chapter three.
  134. This was retaliation for the Maquis FTP’s resistance. (See below.)
  135. Adolf Diekmann said that this massacre was retaliation for partisan activity (i.e. the Maquis FTP) in nearby Tulle.
  136. Lars Borgersrud, I spissen for sabotasjekampen, Aftenposten, page 5.
  137. Arne Ording, Gudrun Johnson, & Johan Garder, Våre falne 1939–1945 & Nordre gravlund.
  138. Vladimir Geiger, Ljudski gubici Hrvatske u Drugom svjetskom ratu koje su prouzročili "okupatori i njihovi pomagači".
  139. National Socialist Extermination Policies, page 176. The Supreme Command of the anticommunist’ Armed Forces issued an order on the suppression of ‘Communist Armed Resistance Movements in the Occupied Areas’. This decree specified that all assaults against the Germans on the Eastern Front were to be ‘regarded as being of communist origin’, and that a hundred hostages were to be shot for every Reich soldier killed and fifty for every soldier wounded. It was intended to apply to all of Eastern Europe; an identical policy had already been implemented in Serbia as early as 28 April 1941, aimed at deterring guerrilla activity. See Jozo Tomasevich, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, pages 140–146 and Stevan K. Pavlowitch, Hitler’s New Disorder, page 61. Otto von Bischofhausen (claims to have) suggested to Major Paul König that, instead of using Kragujevac’s population, the hostages be gathered from surrounding villages which were known to be ‘completely strewn with communists’. See von Bischofhausen’s The Hostage Case, page 981. The anticommunists did dismiss some hostages, but those unpardoned were accused of being communists or spreading ‘communist propaganda’; the Zbor officials said they were not ‘worth saving’ since they had ‘infected the younger generation with their leftist ideas.’ See Ana Antić, Police Force Under Occupation, page 29. The anticommunists shot a couple thousand people that they held at a barracks and a courtyard. See Glenny Misha, The Balkans, page 492.
  140. National Socialist Extermination Policies, page 176. The Supreme Command of the anticommunist’ Armed Forces issued an order on the suppression of ‘Communist Armed Resistance Movements in the Occupied Areas’. This decree specified that all assaults against the Germans on the Eastern Front were to be ‘regarded as being of communist origin’, and that a hundred hostages were to be shot for every Reich soldier killed and fifty for every soldier wounded. It was intended to apply to all of Eastern Europe; an identical policy had already been implemented in Serbia as early as 28 April 1941, aimed at deterring guerrilla activity. See Jozo Tomasevich, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, pages 140–146 and Stevan K. Pavlowitch, Hitler’s New Disorder, page 61. Otto von Bischofhausen (claims to have) suggested to Major Paul König that, instead of using Kragujevac’s population, the hostages be gathered from surrounding villages which were known to be ‘completely strewn with communists’. See von Bischofhausen’s The Hostage Case, page 981. The anticommunists did dismiss some hostages, but those unpardoned were accused of being communists or spreading ‘communist propaganda’; the Zbor officials said they were not ‘worth saving’ since they had ‘infected the younger generation with their leftist ideas.’ See Ana Antić, Police Force Under Occupation, page 29. The anticommunists shot a couple thousand people that they held at a barracks and a courtyard. See Glenny Misha, The Balkans, page 492.
  141. German anticommunists treated Jews and communists almost synonymously, especially during the war. For instance, Heinrich Himmler told an SS gathering that ‘[Russia has been united by the Jews in a religion, a world‐view, called Bolshevism.]’ For other examples of anticommunists equating Jews with us, see here. For an audio explanation, click here.
  142. Wolfgang Benz, Dimension des Völkermords, page 17.
  143. Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union Before 1991, & Michael Haynes, Counting Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War. It is important to note that the minimum of twenty‐six million is merely the excess deaths rather than the total. However, the maximum of forty‐two million would include some false positives, that is to say, profascist citizens (included merely because of their national origin) and possibly even a couple million migrants, who did not necessarily die at all during the 1940s. Thus determining a more exact estimate would be very difficult.
  144. W. Blum, Killing Hope.
  145. Andrew Ezergailis, The Holocaust in Latvia 1941–1944 The Missing Center.
  146. Frankel-Zaltzman, Haftling № 94777 & Ezergailis, The Holocaust in Latvia.
  147. Abraham Menist, Cornelis Hermanus Gerritsen, Gerrit Jan Koeslag, Henk Sneevliet, Jan Edel, Jan Schriefer, Rein Witteveen, Willem Frederik Dolleman (Marx-Lenin-Luxemburg-front); Adrianus Keizer, [Antoon van der Kleij, Barend Gerrit Hazenkamp, Frans Huijser, Gerard Wilschut, Jan van Pelt, Joseph Jacob Rozendaal, Martinus Rijken, Willem de Graaff, Willem van Oort (Comunist Party of Netherlands); and Hendrik Muije, Izaak Sies, Jacobus Philippus Hoek, Klaas Kaspers, Theodorus Bernhardus Drost, Willem Karel de Jongh, and Willem de Ruiter (Nederlandse Volksmilitie and the Comunist Party of Netherlands).
  148. Blutiges Edelweiß: die 1. Gebirgs-Division im Zweiten Weltkrieg, page 434.
  149. Benedict J. Kerkvliet, The Huk Rebellion: A Study of Peasant Revolt in the Philippines, page 113.
  150. Andries van Zutphen, Caspar Speksnijder, Cornelis van der Kraats, Elias Waas, Hendrik Speksnijder, Hendrik van Kleef, Jacob Vleeschhouwer, Jacobus Florijn, Jan Dirk Nederlof, Johannes Kibbel, Karel Meijer, & Krijn Breur.
  151. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts, page 538 & The Latvians: A Short History, page 155.
  152. The Concise Encyclopedia of World War II, page 65 & Atrocities, Massacres, and War Crimes: An Encyclopedia, pages 24–25.
  153. Ibid., page 494.
  154. Atrocities, Massacres, and War Crimes: An Encyclopedia, page 441.
  155. Marie Hrošová, Na každém kroku boj.
  156. Ibid., page 494.
  157. Greek Civil War; The crimes of Winston Churchill; & Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts, page 539. See Killing Hope, chapter 3, for details.
  158. British massacres of the 20th century.
  159. Albert Szymanski, Class Struggle in Socialist Poland, page 26 & Jerzy Ślaski, Żołnierze wyklęci, pages 250–251. (Both the London Polish Government and the Home Army were antidemocratic and violently Judeophobic. In no meaningful way were they opposed to all of fascism; they were simply anti‐German. Yet modern antisocialists portray them merely as ‘defending their homeland’ or ‘fighting for freedom’.)
  160. Dorothy W. Douglas, Transitional Economic Systems, page 321.
  161. Informacja o ustaleniach końcowych śledztwa S 28/02/Zi w sprawie pozbawienia życia 79 osób.
  162. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts, page 538 & The Latvians: A Short History, page 155.
  163. Many are naturally going to find it very strange to see Hiroshima and Nagasaki here; most of the victims were likely neither socialists nor even perceived as such (though many were proletarians). Nevertheless, recent evidence strongly suggests that the White House ordered the bombings largely due to their anti‐Soviet sentiment; many U.S. officials knew at the time that the bombings were otherwise unnecessary, but "keep+the+Russians+straight" the White House wanted to ‘keep the Russians straight.’ Joseph Rotblat, the only scientist to leave the Manhattan Project, admitted in the 1980s that the weapon was originally intended for the Soviets. In other words, unlike other actions against Imperial Japan, these were both motivated by antisocialism. See here for more information. For an audio explanation, click here.
  164. John Merrill, The Peninsular Origins of the War.
  165. Manorama Yearbook 2011
  166. 27 de enero de 1946: Matanza de trabajadores en plaza Bulnes. (This was specifically an assault on syndicalists.)
  167. Bernard Fall, The Two Vietnams; Micheal Clodfelter, Vietnam in Military Statistics; Stanley Kutler, Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War; and the Vietnamese government.
  168. William Eckhardt, World Military and Social Expenditures 1987–88.
  169. M. Parenti, Blackshirts and Reds, page 25.
  170. Formosa killings are put at 10,000, by Tillman Durdin.
  171. Adrian Vickers, A History of Modern Indonesia, page 110.
  172. Martin John Smith, Burma: insurgency and the politics of ethnicity, page 119.
  173. Bertil Lintner, The Rise and Fall of the Communist Party of Burma, page 21.
  174. Ibid., page 44.
  175. Hanna Batatu, The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq: A Study of Iraq’s Old Landed Classes and of its Communists, Ba’thists, and Free Officers.
  176. ‘Royal’ day for police force (see also The Malayan Emergency & Indonesian Confrontation: The Commonwealth's Wars 1948-1966, page 109, Old Labour, New Labour, same old Labour & Starvation is an imperial resource for Britain).
  177. British massacres of the 20th century.
  178. The National committee for Investigation of the about the Jeju April 3 Incident
  179. 439 civilians confirmed dead in Yeosu-Suncheon Uprising of 1948
  180. Compensation claim period limitless for inhumane state crimes, 문경 양민 학살 진실 밝혀질까, 민간인학살 울산-문경 두 판결문 비교, 두 민간인 학살 사건, 상반된 판결 왜 나왔나?
  181. John Stockwell, The Secret Wars of the CIA.
  182. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  183. W. Blum, Killing Hope.
  184. The Three Big Rail Mysteries that Defined Japan’s Summer of 1949.
  185. W. Blum, Killing Hope.
  186. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  187. F.G., What Went Wrong with the Pol Pot Regime, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/allegations_of_United_States_support_for_the_Khmer_Rouge, Cambodia and Vietnam, and see Killing Hope, chapter 20, for more. (The Khmer Rouge’s own handiwork produced a toll probably closer to 90,000–300,000 than anything over one million; the imperialists’ actions were far more devastating.)
  188. Ben Kiernan, The Samlaut Rebellion, 1967–68.
  189. M. Parenti, Blackshirts and Reds, page 25.
  190. W. Blum, Killing Hope.
  191. E. S. Herman & N. Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent, page xxxvi. They mention how undetonated bombs caused fatalities even after the conflict’s ending.
  192. Joanna Swanger, Rebel Lands of Cuba: The Campesino Struggles of Oriente and Escambray, 1934–1974, page 243; Lillian Guerra, Visions of Power in Cuba: Revolution, Redemption, and Resistance, page 43; Timothy P. Wickham-Crowley, Exploring Revolution: Essays on Latin American Insurgency and Revolutionary Theory, page 63; Conflict, Order, and Peace in the Americas; Samuel Shapiro, Invisible Latin America, The World Guide 1997/98: A View from the South; H. A. Reitsma & J. M. G. Kleinpenning, The Third World in Perspective; & Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 637.
  193. W. Blum, Killing Hope.
  194. Ibid., page 638.
  195. José Ramón Fernández, Playa Giron/Bay of Pigs: the White House’s First Military Defeat in the Americas & Victor Andres Triay, Bay of Pigs: An Oral History of Brigade.
  196. Ibid., page 638.
  197. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  198. Kathleen Marie Whitney, Sin, Fraph, and the CIA: U.S. Covert Action in Haiti & The Destabilization of Haiti. See also Killing Hope, chapter 55, for details.
  199. Athena Kolbe & Royce Hutson, UN peacekeepers in Haiti.
  200. Jay Taylor, The Generalissimo’s Son: Chiang Ching-kuo and the Revolutions in China and Taiwan, page 192.
  201. https://docs.google.com/document/d/1we5OEdteZFfAh11v0s_RVh3LWAkVICGrFnvksVynGxw#heading=h.2mt5q77thopy (and see Killing Hope, chapter 5, for details).
  202. M. Parenti, Blackshirts and Reds, page 25.
  203. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  204. South Korea owns up to brutal past; Charles J. Hanley & Hyung-Jin Kim, Korea bloodbath probe ends; US escapes much blame; & Robert A. Shaines, Command Influence: A story of Korea and the politics of injustice, page 73.
  205. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/U.S._Department_of_the_Army_No_Gun_Ri_Review_Report#II._Key_issue_2:_U.S._and_ROK_refugee_control_policies
  206. 고양 금정굴 민간인 학살…법원 "유족에 국가배상을
  207. W. Blum, Killing Hope.
  208. Keith Meyers, Some Unintended Fallout from Defense Policy: Measuring the Effect of Atmospheric Nuclear Testing on American Mortality Patterns. Yes, nobody ever said that the victims were socialists, but without the crusade against communism there would be no justification for holding these tests at all.
  209. America’s Unofficial Religion — The War On An Idea.
  210. The Judgment of Julius & Ethel Rosenberg, Wexler; Invitation to an Inquest, Walter & Miriam Schneer; The Great Fear, David Caute; Spying on Americans, Theoharis.
  211. W. Blum, Killing Hope.
  212. New York Times, 20 August 1953, p. 1 & The Times (London), same date. Although Mossadegh and most of his associates were far from socialists, the C.I.A. nevertheless instigated the coup on grounds that it would prevent a potential ‘communist takeover’. See Killing Hope for further information.
  213. Jack Niedenthal, A Short History of the People of Bikini Atoll and As I See It: Gov't must delve deeper into radiation exposure from Bikini Atoll incident.
  214. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 551. At least one government organization (the C.I.A.) supported the conflict on grounds that it would prevent a ‘communist takeover’. See Killing Hope, chapter 24, for more details.
  215. https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-07/21/content_350313.htm, https://toi.in/YILIsZ
  216. Ibid., page 526.
  217. M. Parenti, Blackshirts and Reds, page 25.
  218. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  219. Charles Hirschman & al., Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate.
  220. North Korea fought in Vietnam War & Merle Pribbenow, North Korean Pilots in the Skies over Vietnam.
  221. Edward Miller, Behind the Phoenix Program.
  222. W. Blum, Killing Hope.
  223. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  224. For a few examples of anticommunist motives, see Sudan, a country study, pages 33‐38. While the SPLA itself was probably never a socialist organization, important groups such as Anyanya II have nevertheless denounced them as procommunist. See here.
  225. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  226. It has sometimes been said that the rebels were simply socialists opposed to the Soviet Union. This was likely true in the seasons preceding the event, but it is unlikely that most or all of the militants remained socialist or leftist by the time the Red Army arrived. See here for details.
  227. Ministry of Security SAVAK. See Killing Hope, chapter 9, for details.
  228. Ibid., page 593.
  229. Andrew C. Nahm & James E. Hoare, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Korea, page 110.
  230. 34. China/Tibet (1950-present) (It is unclear how they obtained this statistic, but the statistic for the Tibetan losses most likely derives from nothing but the Tibetan government‐in‐exile itself. See here for commentary. Given furthermore the régime’s unpopularity among the masses, it seems highly unlikely that the P.L.A. had to kill dozens of thousands of Tibetans, let alone in only two weeks.)
  231. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 636.
  232. M. Parenti, Blackshirts and Reds, page 25.
  233. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  234. John Stockwell, The Secret Wars of the CIA.
  235. W. Blum, Killing Hope.
  236. U.S. Embassy Tracked Indonesia Mass Murder 1965; Indonesia's killing fields; Looking into the massacres of Indonesia’s past; & Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 622.
  237. Ibid., page 552.
  238. Ibid., page 552.
  239. Ibid., page 552.
  240. 4·19때 경찰이 계엄사령관에 총탄 10만발 빌려달라 요청
  241. Four South Korean agents crossed the DMZ and murdered thirteen North Korean soldiers.
  242. Scenes from an Unfinished War: Low-Intensity Conflict in Korea
  243. Six South Korean agents crossed DMZ and accessed a North Korean guard post; in the process they murdered twenty North Korean soldiers.
  244. Bolger Daniel, A Continuous Nightmare & Scenes from an Unfinished War: Low‐Intensity Conflict in Korea, 1966–1968.
  245. Incursions.
  246. North Korean Provocative Actions, 1950 - 2007 & filtration of North Korean Commando Troops into Ulchin-Samchok Area.
  247. Incursions.
  248. Incursions.
  249. Incursions.
  250. Incursions.
  251. TV shows tarnish Gwangju history; The Kwangju Popular Uprising and the May Publisher; Daryl M. Plunk, South Korea’s Kwangju Incident Revisited; & Flashback: The Kwangju massacre.
  252. Incursions.
  253. Incursions.
  254. Incursions.
  255. Incursions.
  256. 3 KOREANS KILLED AS SOLDIERS TRADE SHOTS IN THE DMZ.
  257. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  258. Alfred McCoy, Dark Legacy: Human rights under the Marcos regime & Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 624.
  259. Alfred McCoy, Dark Legacy: Human rights under the Marcos regime & Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 624.
  260. M. Parenti, Blackshirts and Reds, page 25.
  261. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  262. Ibid., page 640.
  263. M. Parenti, Blackshirts and Reds, page 25.
  264. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  265. The Oxford Handbook of Modern African History, page 108 & Encyclopedia of Conflicts Since World War II, page 266. See also Killing Hope, chapter 41, for details.
  266. Peter Polack, The Last Hot Battle of the Cold War, chapter 13; Bush War: The Road to Cuito Cuanavale, page 165; and Dmitry Sudakov, Soviet Union and Russia lost 25,000 military men in foreign countries.
  267. M. Parenti, Blackshirts and Reds, page 25.
  268. U.S. Supports “One of the Most Brutal Holocausts Since WWII”
  269. http://www.justice.gov.za/trc/report/finalreport/Volume5.pdf (the White House & 10 Downing Street supported Apartheid as they considered it a defence against communism). See also: the Suppression of Communism Act 44 of 1950.
  270. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  271. Africa Faces New Threat of New Colonialism.
  272. Chronology of the Democratic Republic of Congo/Zaire
  273. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  274. Colombia: Peace Crumbles as Social Leaders Killed With Impunity.
  275. Logros de la Política Integral de Seguridad y Defensa para la Prosperidad.
  276. Michael Newton, Famous Assassinations in World History: An Encyclopedia, page 234.
  277. W. Blum, Killing Hope.
  278. Elio Gaspari, A ditadura envergonhada, page 157.
  279. Elio Gaspari, A ditadura envergonhada, page 157.
  280. Elio Gaspari, A ditadura envergonhada, page 157.
  281. https://www.larousse.fr/encyclopedie/divers/laffaire_du_métro_Charonne/186074
  282. Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, 1948-1991, page 56.
  283. Malaya rebels on move again
  284. Kanan Makiya, Republic of Fear: The Politics of Modern Iraq & Bryan R. Gibson, Sold Out? US Foreign Policy, Iraq, the Kurds, and the Cold War.
  285. Michael Carver, Conventional Warfare in the Nuclear Age.
  286. https://www.roll-of-honour.com/Databases/Aden/ & https://www.psywar.org/aden.php
  287. William Eckhardt, World Military and Social Expenditures 1987–88.
  288. Ibid., page 575.
  289. Don Whitehead, Murder in Mississippi (September 1970; Reader’s Digest: 194).
  290. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 649. It is known that a squad of fifty‐nine revolutionaries entered Bolivia on November of 1966, but by February of 1969 only nineteen or five remained. Worth noting is that a notorious anti‐Semite played an important rôle in these executions. See Killing Hope, chapter 36, for details.
  291. Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 649. It is known that a squad of fifty‐nine revolutionaries entered Bolivia on November of 1966, but by February of 1969 only nineteen or five remained. Worth noting is that a notorious anti‐Semite played an important rôle in these executions. See Killing Hope, chapter 36, for details.
  292. Rhodesian Bush War/Second Chimurenga/Zimbabwe Liberation Struggle
  293. Adela Cedillo & Fernando Herrera Calderon, Challenging Authoritarianism in Mexico: Revolutionary Struggles and the Dirty War, page 23.
  294. Amir Abou-Jaoude, ‘Canoa: A Shameful Memory’ is shamelessly enticing & Community, Power, and Memory in Díaz Ordaz’s Mexico: The 1968 Lynching in San Miguel Canoa, Puebla.
  295. The most terrifying night of my life & E. Kriza, Anti-Communism, Communism, and Anti-Interventionism in Narratives Surrounding the Student Massacre on Tlatelolco Square.
  296. Ibid., page 640.
  297. A Profile of Communist Insurgency--The Case of Thailand.
  298. Narratives of the "Red Barrel" Incident: Collective and Individual Memories in Lamsin, Southern Thailand.
  299. Ibid., page 621.
  300. Ibid., page 621.
  301. La masacre de El Salvador: la Revolución en Libertad se mancha con sangre obrera
  302. Mary E. Montgomery, The Eyes of the World Were Watching, page 221 & Osei Boateng, How Nkrumah was lured to his end, New African, December 1999. See Killing Hope, chapter 32, for details.
  303. Kill 7, Fell Hundreds in Macao Riots, Chicago Tribune, December 5, 1966, page 3.
  304. James Corum & Wray Johnson, Airpower in small wars: fighting insurgents and terrorists, page 315. Of note is that apartheid portrayed the conflict as a resistance to Soviet ‘expansionism’. See Gary Baines, South Africa’s ‘Border War’ for more information.
  305. CAIN: Sutton Index of Deaths & Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts, page 542.
  306. British massacres of the 20th century.
  307. Gary Ka-wai Cheung, Hong Kong’s Watershed: The 1967 Riots, page 123.
  308. Juin meurtrier à Sochaux; Patrick Rotman, Mai 68 raconté à ceux qui ne l'ont pas vécu; Mai 68 : nouveaux témoignages; 10 juin 1968, la noyade d'un lycéen près de Flins (Yvelines); F. Joignot, Y a-t-il eu des violences policières en Mai 68 ?; and Jean-Pierre Le Goff, "nuits+du+10+et+du+11" Mai 68, l'héritage impossible.
  309. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a505882.pdf
  310. Preguntas Por Puerto Montt & A 37 Años de la «Masacre de Puerto Montt» Un Hecho que Marcó Trágicamente la Historia del País.
  311. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  312. 10 of the Most Lethal CIA Interventions in Latin America.
  313. What Really Happened to Panama is a Different Story.
  314. The CIA as Organised Crime
  315. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  316. Victims of Operation Condor, by Country.
  317. M. Parenti, Blackshirts and Reds, page 25.
  318. 10 of the Most Lethal CIA Interventions in Latin America.
  319. John Dinges, The Condor Years: How Pinochet And His Allies Brought Terrorism To Three Continents, page 140; Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 650; & United States Senator Instigates Argentine Coup and Blood Bath.
  320. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  321. Cartagena T. Jenny, A 40 años de la guerrilla de Teoponte
  322. M. Parenti, Blackshirts and Reds, page 25.
  323. Chile under Pinochet - a chronology; Temma Kaplan, Democracy: A World History, page 120; William H. Meyer, Human Rights and International Political Economy in Third World Nations, page 186; Phil Gunson, Andrew Thompson, & Greg Chamberlain, The Dictionary of Contemporary Politics of South America, page 208; Chile recognises 9,800 more victims of Pinochet’s rule; & Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, page 650.
  324. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  325. 10 of the Most Lethal CIA Interventions in Latin America.
  326. The Shock Doctrine
  327. A former Gladio agent, Roberto Cavallero, went public to charge that there was a direct link between Gladio and Italy’s wave of terrorist bombings in the 1970s and early 1980s which left at least three hundred dead. He said that Gladio had trained him and many others ‘to prepare groups which, in the event of an advance by left wing forces in our country, would fill the streets, creating a situation of such tension as to require military intervention.’ (He was of course referring to electoral advances of the Italian Communist Party, not a Soviet invasion.)’ […] ‘The 1978 kidnapping and murder of Aldo Moro, the leader of the Christian Democrats, which was attributed to the Red Brigades, appears now to have also been the work of Gladio agents provocateurs who infiltrated the organization.’ — W. Blum, Killing Hope
  328. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  329. M. Parenti, Blackshirts and Reds, page 25.
  330. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  331. M. Parenti, Blackshirts and Reds, page 25.
  332. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1891145.stm, South America, Central America and The Caribbean, Kohn’s Dictionary of Wars, Britannica. See also Killing Hope, chapter 54, for details.
  333. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  334. 10 of the Most Lethal CIA Interventions in Latin America.
  335. Notas para un testimonio & El Universitario, Época XIII, № 14, 2010.
  336. 1979: El Salvador cathedral bloodbath
  337. Belisaric Betancur, Reinaldo Figueredo Planchart, Thomas Buergenthal, Report of the UN Truth Commission on El Salvador & Guidi Ruxandra, These isolated towns in dangerous El Salvador are murder-free zones.
  338. Ian Urbina, O.A.S. to Reopen Inquiry Into Massacre in El Salvador in 1981.
  339. La masacre que quedó impune en El Salvador.
  340. M. Parenti, Blackshirts and Reds, page 25.
  341. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  342. Still Unreported by the Press: Ten Years of Genocide in East Timor & Henry Kissinger and Gerald Ford Lied to the American Public about East Timor. See also Funu: The Unfinished Saga of East Timor & A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s for the anticommunist impetus.
  343. Perhaps of especial interest is that historian Robert Dallek noted in Nixon and Kissingerthat the Johnson administration had also tried unsuccessfully to discover a connexion between antiwar groups and Communists, and that in both 1967 and 1968 the C.I.A. reported “no convincing evidence of control, manipulation, sponsorship, significant financial support of student dissidents by any international communist authority.” On June of 1969, the C.I.A. told Huston that they still could not find signs of “foreign communist support to revolutionary protest movements in the United States.” Yet the President, like the one before him, obstinately advocated the idea that international communism was behind the opposition to both his war and his administration.
  344. Antonia Martínez Lagares.
  345. Perhaps of especial interest is that historian Robert Dallek noted in Nixon and Kissingerthat the Johnson administration had also tried unsuccessfully to discover a connexion between antiwar groups and Communists, and that in both 1967 and 1968 the C.I.A. reported “no convincing evidence of control, manipulation, sponsorship, significant financial support of student dissidents by any international communist authority.” On June of 1969, the C.I.A. told Huston that they still could not find signs of “foreign communist support to revolutionary protest movements in the United States.” Yet the President, like the one before him, obstinately advocated the idea that international communism was behind the opposition to both his war and his administration.
  346. Perhaps of especial interest is that historian Robert Dallek noted in Nixon and Kissingerthat the Johnson administration had also tried unsuccessfully to discover a connexion between antiwar groups and Communists, and that in both 1967 and 1968 the C.I.A. reported “no convincing evidence of control, manipulation, sponsorship, significant financial support of student dissidents by any international communist authority.” On June of 1969, the C.I.A. told Huston that they still could not find signs of “foreign communist support to revolutionary protest movements in the United States.” Yet the President, like the one before him, obstinately advocated the idea that international communism was behind the opposition to both his war and his administration.
  347. To Sin Against Hope, page 100.
  348. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  349. Women and Climate Change in Bangladesh, page 40; Plight and Fate of Women During and Following Genocide, page 55; Exploring Social Psychology 4E, page 269; https://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB79/BEBB6.pdf & Crisis in South Asia — A report to the Subcommittee investigating the Problem of Refugees and Their Settlement, Submitted to U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, 1 November 1971, U.S. Govt. Press, page 66. Sen. Kennedy wrote, ‘Field reports to the U.S. Government, countless eye-witness journalistic accounts, reports of International agencies such as World Bank and additional information available to the subcommittee document the reign of terror which grips East Bengal (East Pakistan). Hardest hit have been members of the Hindu community who have been robbed of their lands and shops, systematically slaughtered, and in some places, painted with yellow patches marked 'H'. All of this has been officially sanctioned, ordered and implemented under martial law from Islamabad.
  350. ‘Zakleli su se na pištolj, nož i raspelo, a onda u akciji Raduša ubili 13 građana’ (motive)
  351. Las otras víctimas, by Luis R. Aizpeolea.
  352. Vietnam War Bomb Explodes Killing Four Children & Vietnam war shell explodes, kills two fishermen. (Yes, these deaths may have been unintentional but don’t forget why the bombs existed in the first place.)
  353. https://web.archive.org/web/20160107123024/http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/book/caminos-guerrero-2.htm, https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB153/
  354. https://web.archive.org/web/20081024182742/http://perso.wanadoo.es:80/federalismo.confederal/
  355. Devrimci Yol Savunması (Defense of the Revolutionary Path).
  356. http://perso.wanadoo.es/agusromero/nc37/memoria.htm
  357. John Judge, The Black Hole of Guyana: The Untold Story of the Jonestown Massacre.
  358. Ibid., page 638.
  359. MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base and Saddam Key in Early CIA Plot.
  360. Radical Islam: The Iranian Mojahedin, page 219.
  361. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  362. https://www.cverdad.org.pe/ifinal/pdf/Tomo%20-%20ANEXOS/ANEXO%202.pdf (see also A Sober Look at the Situation of the Peru Revolution and Its Needs).
  363. https://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7449079.stm
  364. Notorious Pervuian School of the Americas Graduates; Ángel Páez, Time Is of the Essence in Extradition of War Criminal; for the motive, see Kimberly Theidon, Intimate Enemies: Violence and Reconciliation in Peru, page 342.
  365. Caso El Frontón: Acusación fiscal incluye a 33 marinos.
  366. The Trial of Aberto Fujimori
  367. 10 of the Most Lethal CIA Interventions in Latin America.
  368. The Trial of Aberto Fujimori.
  369. 10 of the Most Lethal CIA Interventions in Latin America.
  370. Samantha Stainburn, Former Chad President Hissene Habre detained, may face war crimes charges.
  371. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  372. Richard A. Gabriel, Operation Peace for Galilee: The Israeli-PLO War In Lebanon.
  373. Israel’s Lebanon War, page 282 & https://web.archive.org/web/20141006133649/http:english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/2/8/53050/World/Region/Remembering-Sabra--Shatila-The-death-of-their-worl.aspx
  374. W. Blum, Killing Hope.
  375. MOVE Bombing at 30: “Barbaric” 1985 Philadelphia Police Attack Killed 11 & Burned a Neighborhood
  376. 八年參謀總長日記.
  377. Ludovica Iaccino, Thomas Sankara: Body of Africa’s Che Guevara riddled with bullets, autopsy reveals three decades after death.
  378. The Tiananmen Papers. Contrary to popular belief, the protesters were not passive citizens killed for making benign demands, nor were the remaining protesters dissident socialists. See here for elaboration.
  379. Don A. Schanche, Los Angeles Times; Dozens of Venezuelans Killed in Riots over Price Increases; & Price Riots Erupt in Venezuela. President Carlos Andrés Pérez blamed ‘remnants of extreme left revolutionaries’ for some of the disorder.
  380. Ibid., page 544.
  381. The sleep of reason produces monsters — human costs of economic sanctions. (See also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1747-7093.1999.tb00330.x, https://muse.jhu.edu/article/20345/pdf, https://www.medicc.org/resources/documents/embargo/The%20impact%20of%20the%20U.S.%20Embargo%20on%20Health%20&%20Nutrition%20in%20Cuba.pdf & https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Cuban_Revolution.html?id=r0GHscf95qQC&redir_esc=y)
  382. Economic Sanctions Against a Nuclear North Korea, U.S. Media Ignores Humanitarian Aspects of Famine in Korea. Of note is that the White House prohibited the DPRK’s entry into either the IMF or the World Bank, allegedly on grounds of the DPRK’s ‘unwillingness to met the minimum necessary transparency standards, its placement on the U.S. list of states supporting terrorism, and Japanese opposition stemming from unresolved political issues’ (all perfectly valid reasons to isolate a land with climactic issues, flooding, and letting its thousands of largely apolitical civilians starve of course). See also: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1we5OEdteZFfAh11v0s_RVh3LWAkVICGrFnvksVynGxw#heading=h.83dkxsa1oapj
  383. Oxford University, Death surge linked with mass privatisation; David Zaridze, Paolo Boffetta, Paul Brennan, & Tamara Men, Russian mortality trends for 1991-2001: analysis by cause and region; David Stuckler, Lawrence King, & Martin McKee, Mass privatisation and the post-communist mortality crisis: a cross-national analysis; and David Satter.
  384. Post-Soviet Russia, Made in the U.S.A., 9:06, & Dirty Truths, pages 137–139. The corporate media sanctioned these killings, with the Anglo press in particular calling the legislators ‘communists and ultranationalists,’ ‘communist holdovers,’ ‘unrepentant communists,’ ‘armed fascist‐communist rebels,’ ‘die‐hard communists’, and ‘very hardline communists’ when in fact only some of them were socialists. The New York Times also justified the demolition of the soviets by referring to them as ‘creatures of the early Bolshevik era’ (even though they had been recently democratically elected and that the president was neither supposed to abolish them nor restructure them). The same tabloid also claimed that ‘the parliamentary plot jumped right out of the communist textbook on revolution.’
  385. According to American‐Russian journalist Mark Ames (20:52), many Russian writers believed that ‘weakening’ Yeltsin in any way might have lead to socialists returning to power. Consequently, many opponents of Yeltsin consciously suppressed their own criticisms of him, though another reason was likely in order to avoid provoking homicides. Over thirty of these deaths can be linked to their journalism with certainty. The dozens more are unclear.
  386. Погибшие журналисты & Journalists-in-russia.org
  387. Ibid., next section; and PARTIAL JUSTICE.
  388. Ibid., next section.
  389. Ibid., next section; Огонек; Журналисты, погибшие в Чечне; Убита обозреватель "Общей газеты"; and В Чечне убит журналист.
  390. Погибшие журналисты & Journalists-in-russia.org
  391. Ibid., next section.
  392. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  393. War for Slovenia.
  394. Throughout the Yugoslav Wars, antisocialists frequently demonized Serbs, considering them as ‘guardians of the Communist régime.’ For example, one of the Slovene government’s first acts after declaring independence in 1991 was to create a well equipped media centre that would distribute propaganda about alleged Yugoslav army (Serbian) atrocities. Slovenian antisocialists portrayed theirselves as democrats struggling against ‘Yugoslav Communist aggressors’, in order to obtain international support for Slovenian action. Not long afterwards, the Croatian antisocialists and Islamists did the same by conjuring up images of a dehumanized Communist Serbian menacing Europe. Tudjman’s office in particular promulgated a series of edicts prohibiting propagandists from using certain political terms, and requiring them to refer to Serbs exclusively as ‘Serb terrorists’ and the Yugoslav People’s Army as the ‘Serbo‐Communist occupation army.’ See To Kill a Nation (or specifically chapter 9) for further information.
  395. Genocide After Emotion: The Postemotional Balkan War, page 77 & http://www.veritas.org.rs/srpske-zrtve-rata-i-poraca-na-podrucju-hrvatske-i-bivse-rsk-1990-1998-godine/
  396. Throughout the Yugoslav Wars, antisocialists frequently demonized Serbs, considering them as ‘guardians of the Communist régime.’ For example, one of the Slovene government’s first acts after declaring independence in 1991 was to create a well equipped media centre that would distribute propaganda about alleged Yugoslav army (Serbian) atrocities. Slovenian antisocialists portrayed theirselves as democrats struggling against ‘Yugoslav Communist aggressors’, in order to obtain international support for Slovenian action. Not long afterwards, the Croatian antisocialists and Islamists did the same by conjuring up images of a dehumanized Communist Serbian menacing Europe. Tudjman’s office in particular promulgated a series of edicts prohibiting propagandists from using certain political terms, and requiring them to refer to Serbs exclusively as ‘Serb terrorists’ and the Yugoslav People’s Army as the ‘Serbo‐Communist occupation army.’ See To Kill a Nation (or specifically chapter 9) for further information.
  397. DEAD WARRIORS MISLAID IN POLITICAL HAZE.
  398. Throughout the Yugoslav Wars, antisocialists frequently demonized Serbs, considering them as ‘guardians of the Communist régime.’ For example, one of the Slovene government’s first acts after declaring independence in 1991 was to create a well equipped media centre that would distribute propaganda about alleged Yugoslav army (Serbian) atrocities. Slovenian antisocialists portrayed theirselves as democrats struggling against ‘Yugoslav Communist aggressors’, in order to obtain international support for Slovenian action. Not long afterwards, the Croatian antisocialists and Islamists did the same by conjuring up images of a dehumanized Communist Serbian menacing Europe. Tudjman’s office in particular promulgated a series of edicts prohibiting propagandists from using certain political terms, and requiring them to refer to Serbs exclusively as ‘Serb terrorists’ and the Yugoslav People’s Army as the ‘Serbo‐Communist occupation army.’ See To Kill a Nation (or specifically chapter 9) for further information.
  399. Although the Kosovo conflict may have never been portrayed as a ‘struggle against communism’, the ideology of the perpetrators and the factions of the targets (as well as the non‐targets) strongly suggest antisocialist motivations. For example, anticommunists struck the Ušće business centre with several missiles, almost precisely hitting the headquarters of Milošević’s Socialist Party, along with the headquarters of the JUL (Yugoslav United Left), a coalition consisting of twenty‐three leftist parties. The anticommunists likewise bombed especially heavily the socialist strongholds in southern Serbia, killing many civilians. Leaders from several cities in Serbia’s ‘Red Belt’ were convinced that they were devastated so mercilessly primarily because they were socialist, a suspicion only reinforced by the fact that the region contained almost no heavy industry. See To Kill a Nation (or specifically chapter 16) for further information.
  400. Serb army ‘unscathed by Nato’ KLA ‘killed more Serbs than Nato did’, https://www.kosovskaknjigapamcenja.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Transcript_KMB_Data_Evaluation_Press_Conference_February_2_and_6_2015.pdf, http://www.rts.rs/page/stories/sr/story/9/Politika/1264384/Stradalo+1.008+vojnika+i+policajaca.html, http://mondo.rs/a278816/Info/Srbija/NATO-nam-ubio-1.008-vojnika-i-policajaca.html
  401. http://www.kosovskaknjigapamcenja.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Transcript_KMB_Data_Evaluation_Press_Conference_February_2_and_6_2015.pdf; Demistifikacija „NATO agresije i borbe protiv šiptarskih terorista“; Serbia marks anniversary of NATO bombing; Michael Mann, The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing, page 357; & List of Kosovo War Victims Published.
  402. Between 1997 and early 2000, somebody murdered at least a dozen Yugoslav officials—mostly members of the Yugoslav United Left or the Serbian Socialist Party—in what resembled a concerted covert action to subvert the Yugoslav government.’ — M. Parenti, To Kill a Nation
  403. Iraq’s inclusion here shall no doubt strike many readers as a bizarre choice, but the details matter. Although economic and strategic factors were very important, another important but overlooked motive was probably making sure that Iraq followed Western policy rather than communism: a significant and growing movement in Iraq for decades and the very reason why the White House initially backed the Ba'ath Party. The White House encouraged everybody to rebel against the régime, but with no other goals in common the struggle amounted to little more than a kamikaze mission. Also notable is that in 1991 Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Paul Wolfowitz told General Wesley Clark that ‘one thing we did learn [from the Persian Gulf War] is that we can use our military in the region — in the Middle East — and the Soviets won’t stop us. And we’ve got about 5 or 10 years to clean up those old Soviet client regimes — Syria, Iran, Iraq — before the next great superpower comes on to challenge us.’ Lastly, it is perhaps of only minor relevance, but it may also be worth noting that before the Gulf War, the Commander‐in‐Chief of the Armed Forces justified the continued military spending on grounds that we had to take a ‘cautious attitude’ towards reform in the U.S.S.R. See Killing Hope, chapter 52, for more.
  404. M. Parenti, Blackshirts and Reds, page 25.
  405. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  406. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  407. Over One Million Iraqi Deaths Caused by US Occupation.
  408. R. G. Hovannisian, Remembrance and denial: the case of the Armenian genocide, page 195. (The claim that the protesters were ‘peaceful’ is highly dubious; many were armed and filled with anti‐Armenian sentiments.)
  409. Ibid., page 544.
  410. Incursions.
  411. Fatalities in Terrorist Violence in India’s Northeast
  412. BLOODY INDIAN REVOLT CONTINUES IN MEXICO & Paramilitaries Are Still Murdering Zapatistas in Mexico.
  413. Richard Stahler-Sholk, Massacre in Chiapas.
  414. Ibid., page 640.
  415. Incursions.
  416. North Korea apologizes for submarine intrusion.
  417. James A. Lucas, US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II.
  418. Fatalities in Left-wing Extremism & Armed Conflicts Report.
  419. India Maoist Assessment: 2013
  420. More than twenty GDR soldiers were shot to death from the Western side in various incidents that went unreported in the Western press’: Klaus Fiske, Witchhunt Trials of East German Leaders Continue, People’s Weekly World, 19/October/1996.
  421. The minimum: Andreas Baader, Elisabeth von Dyck, Gudrun Ensslin, Katharina Hammerschmidt, Michael Knoll, Ulrike Meinhof, Jan-Carl Raspe, Petra Schelm, Ingrid Schubert, and Willy Peter Stoll. The maximum includes Ingeborg Barz, who has been MIA since the 1970s; Holger Meins and Sigurd Debus, who both died as a result of a hunger strike; and Siegfried Hausner and Ulrich Wessel, who both died as a result of a demolition accident.
  422. Ibid., page 544.
  423. La Revolución Bolivariana y la lucha campesina: los retos de hoy.
  424. The Venezuelan Coup Revisited: Silencing the Evidence.
  425. Venezuela: Who Are They and How Did They Die?
  426. https://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/news/peace_publications/election_reports/venezuela-pre-election-rpt-2013.pdf & Where is Venezuela’s Political Violence Coming From? A Complete List of Fatalities from the Disturbances.
  427. In Detail: The Deaths So Far; Maternity Hospital Attacked in Venezuela, Death Toll Rises to 53; Guarimba Victims Denounce OAS Secretary General; & Venezuela Violence: Alleged Chavista Set on Fire as Death Toll Hits 55.
  428. Report: US Sanctions Have Cost 40,000 Venezuelan Lives.
  429. Venezuela: Several Casualties as Violence Erupts.
  430. Jonathan Watts, Japan defiant over boat sinking.
  431. Carlos H. Conde, Leftist Activist Is Slain in Philippines.
  432. North and South had battle 7 years absence & https://web.archive.org/web/20160303165723/http://bemil.chosun.com/nbrd/bbs/view.html?b_bbs_id=10080&pn=1&num=6013
  433. Libya: Civil War Casualties Could Reach 100,000
  434. Aside from ranting about ‘cultural Marxism’ in his manifesto, the shooter also repeatedly shouted ‘Dere skal dø i dag, marxister!’ (‘You are going to die today, Marxists!’)
  435. Thousands Flee Syria as Fighting Continues, YPG release balance sheet of war for 2013, YPG releases balance-sheet of 2014, More than 5500 ISIS militants killed in clashes with Syrian Kurds in 2015; Balance of the War Against Hostile Groups in Rojava, Northern Syria; & Results of battles and resistance of YPG throughout 2018.
  436. Hardliners in Washington had considered Hafez al-Assad an Arab communist, and US officials considered his son, Bashar, an ideologue who couldn’t bring himself to abandon the third pillar of the Ba’ath Arab Socialist Party’s program: socialism. [… The Yankee State Department also expressed dissatisfaction that “ideological reasons” had prevented Assad from neoliberalizing Syria’s economy, that “privatization of government enterprises was still not widespread,” and that the economy “remains highly controlled by the government.”]’
  437. Tweet from the account of Charlottesville rally organizer insults slain protester Heather Heyer.
  438. Philippines kills 15 communist guerrillas.
  439. Monopolizing Death: How the Nicaraguan Death Toll Was Manipulated.