Difference between revisions of "Somali Democratic Republic"

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(Created page with "{{Stub}} Somalia made adequate developments in the former half of the 1970s when Barre carried out progressive reforms and took in assistance from the USSR. However, was one...")
 
(Expanded on who Siad Barre was, grammar, Ethiopia link, expanded on the socialist character of the state and its dissolution, added categories)
 
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Somalia made adequate developments in the former half of the 1970s when Barre carried out progressive reforms and took in assistance from the USSR. However, was one of those “nationalist” “socialists”, and went to war against a fellow socialist state, [[Ethiopia]], to claim the Somalians living within its borders, taking advantage of the weakness of the new Ethiopian government. Castro tried to convince Barre to form a federation of Ethiopia, Somalia, and South Yemen as a solution to the conflict, however Barre refused, indicating that his interests lay primarily within nationalism. The invasion was denounced by the Organization of African Unity and endangered the very existence of a socialist Ethiopia, and as such, the USSR and Cuba backed the Ethiopians in repelling the aggressors. In reaction, Barre swung to the right and called on the US to help it thwart Soviet “expansionism” into the Horn of Africa, from which point onward Somalia became a US ally<ref>Oliver Ramsbotham, Tom Woodhouse, ''Encyclopedia of international peacekeeping operations'', (ABC-CLIO: 1999), p.222.</ref> and put an end to any progressive domestic policies. As corruption and opposition to Barre grew during the 80s, he relied more on pitting Somali clans against one-another as a way of staying in power.
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The '''Somali Democratic Republic''' (1969-1991) made adequate developments around the former half of the 1970s when Siad Barre, who president throughout the duration of the SDR, carried out progressive reforms and took in assistance from the USSR. His government held scientific socialism as the basis for its operation and adapted such to local circumstances, seeking to incorporate Islamic tenets into a Marxism-Leninist development of the country. Emphasis was placed on the Islamic principles of social progress, equality, and justice, which the government argued formed the core of scientific socialism. Alongside this, there was an individual character to the regime which also pursued self-sufficiency, public participation and public control, as well as direct ownership of the [[means of production]], although private investment was also encouraged on a limited scale.<ref>Peter John de la Fosse Wiles, ''The New Communist Third World: an essay in political economy'', (Taylor & Francis: 1982), p.279.</ref> However, Barre was one of those “nationalist” “socialists”, and went to war against a fellow socialist state, [[Derg|Ethiopia]], in the Ogaden War in order to claim the Somalians living within its borders, taking advantage of the weakness of the new Ethiopian government. Castro tried to convince Barre to form a federation of Ethiopia, Somalia, and South Yemen as a solution to the conflict, however Barre refused, indicating that his interests lay primarily within nationalism. The invasion was denounced by the Organization of African Unity and endangered the very existence of a socialist Ethiopia, and as such, the USSR and Cuba backed the Ethiopians in repelling the aggressors. In reaction, Barre swung to the right and called on the US to help it thwart Soviet “expansionism” into the Horn of Africa, from which point onward Somalia became a US ally<ref>Oliver Ramsbotham, Tom Woodhouse, ''Encyclopedia of international peacekeeping operations'', (ABC-CLIO: 1999), p.222.</ref> and put an end to any progressive domestic policies. As corruption and opposition to Barre grew during the 80s, he relied more on pitting Somali clans against one-another as a way of staying in power. His government grew increasingly totalitarian, culminating in the Isaaq genocide of 1987-1988 against the Isaaq clan, largely destroying several major cities. Estimates of civilian deaths typically range from 50,000-100,000,<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=tOgOwSXB164C&pg=PA23&lpg=PA23&dq=50,000&source=bl&ots=gDxdHZNEgV&sig=tQB8KBkmIN2qBGzghefetUE7ITo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwig3YSDnsjRAhVI1BoKHbKaBUEQ6AEIIjAB#v=onepage&q=50,000%20isaaq%20deaths&f=false|title=Stopping Mass Killings in Africa: Genocide, Airpower, and Intervention|last=Peifer|first=Douglas C.|date=2009-05-01|publisher=DIANE Publishing|isbn=9781437912814|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=mKWiBwAAQBAJ&pg=PT149&dq=&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi17-PMzMzRAhXLVhoKHZERA3w4ChDoAQg-MAc#v=onepage&q=%22large%20systematic%20scale%22&f=false|title=Making and Unmaking Nations: The Origins and Dynamics of Genocide in Contemporary Africa|last=Straus|first=Scott|date=2015-03-24|publisher=Cornell University Press|isbn=9780801455674|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ZybbAAAAMAAJ&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=By+then,+any+surviving+urban+Isaaks+-|title=Genocide, war crimes and the West: history and complicity|last=Jones|first=Adam|date=2017-01-22|publisher=Zed Books|isbn=9781842771914|language=en}}</ref> and are up to 200,000.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2014/02/investigating-genocide-somaliland-20142310820367509.html|title=Investigating genocide in Somaliland|last=|first=|date=|website=|publisher=|access-date=}}</ref> This gave rise to various resistance movements, supported by Ethiopia, which led to the Somali Civil War. Barre was removed from power on January 26, 1991, and the country collapsed into anarchy.
  
The actions of Barre were more than mere “mistakes” — he wholesale went from directing Somalia towards a socialist orientation to an anticommunist one, in that way being similar to Jaafar Nimeiry of Sudan, Anwar Sadat of Egypt, and other US-backed "socialists" in the region.
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The actions of Barre were more than mere “mistakes” — he wholesale went from directing Somalia towards a socialist orientation to an anti-communist one, in that way being similar to Jaafar Nimeiry of Sudan, Anwar Sadat of Egypt, and other US-backed "socialists" in the region.
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
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[[Category:Former socialist countries]]
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[[Category:Countries]]
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[[Category:Africa]]
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[[Category:East Africa]]

Latest revision as of 18:04, 1 August 2020

This article is a stub. You can help Leftypedia by expanding it.

The Somali Democratic Republic (1969-1991) made adequate developments around the former half of the 1970s when Siad Barre, who president throughout the duration of the SDR, carried out progressive reforms and took in assistance from the USSR. His government held scientific socialism as the basis for its operation and adapted such to local circumstances, seeking to incorporate Islamic tenets into a Marxism-Leninist development of the country. Emphasis was placed on the Islamic principles of social progress, equality, and justice, which the government argued formed the core of scientific socialism. Alongside this, there was an individual character to the regime which also pursued self-sufficiency, public participation and public control, as well as direct ownership of the means of production, although private investment was also encouraged on a limited scale.[1] However, Barre was one of those “nationalist” “socialists”, and went to war against a fellow socialist state, Ethiopia, in the Ogaden War in order to claim the Somalians living within its borders, taking advantage of the weakness of the new Ethiopian government. Castro tried to convince Barre to form a federation of Ethiopia, Somalia, and South Yemen as a solution to the conflict, however Barre refused, indicating that his interests lay primarily within nationalism. The invasion was denounced by the Organization of African Unity and endangered the very existence of a socialist Ethiopia, and as such, the USSR and Cuba backed the Ethiopians in repelling the aggressors. In reaction, Barre swung to the right and called on the US to help it thwart Soviet “expansionism” into the Horn of Africa, from which point onward Somalia became a US ally[2] and put an end to any progressive domestic policies. As corruption and opposition to Barre grew during the 80s, he relied more on pitting Somali clans against one-another as a way of staying in power. His government grew increasingly totalitarian, culminating in the Isaaq genocide of 1987-1988 against the Isaaq clan, largely destroying several major cities. Estimates of civilian deaths typically range from 50,000-100,000,[3][4][5] and are up to 200,000.[6] This gave rise to various resistance movements, supported by Ethiopia, which led to the Somali Civil War. Barre was removed from power on January 26, 1991, and the country collapsed into anarchy.

The actions of Barre were more than mere “mistakes” — he wholesale went from directing Somalia towards a socialist orientation to an anti-communist one, in that way being similar to Jaafar Nimeiry of Sudan, Anwar Sadat of Egypt, and other US-backed "socialists" in the region.

References[edit]