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This is a compendium of resources copied from the wiki at r/ShitLiberalsSay. They are intended to be incorporated into Leftypedia articles in the near future. Certain links however will have to be replaced with something more appropriate for an encyclopaedia.
 
 
 
A compendium serving to provide quick access to resources and responses that refute typical liberal bullshit.
 
A compendium serving to provide quick access to resources and responses that refute typical liberal bullshit.
  
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A very common variation of this claim is that Stalin or Máo killed more people than Adolf Shitler. Independent investigation indicates otherwise.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/85ib6v/_/dvydyz8</ref> For example, an Attorney General’s 1954 report to the Stalin critic Nikita Khrushchev indicated that the Soviets had by that time imprisoned only 2.5 million people, and sentenced only about 600,000 to death.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20180918193732/http://school.rusarchives.ru/bolshoj-terror/dokladnaya-zapiska-generalnogo-prokurora-sssr-ra-rudenko-ministra-vnutrennikh-del-sssr-sn-kruglo</ref> Similarly, Dr. Victor Zemskov had studied activities of the state security bodies from 1921 to 1954, and discovered that during this period only about 650,000 people had received death sentences (not all of which were enacted) and only 2.3 million suffered prison terms.<ref>https://www.northstarcompass.org/nsc0901/gulag.htm</ref> Worrisome numbers indeed, but clearly not anywhere nearly as high as antisocialists would like (and only 12–33% suffered imprisonment for unambiguously political reasons).<ref>http://sovietinfo.tripod.com/GTY-Penal_System.pdf</ref> The University of Melbourne analysed the excess mortality under the U.S.S.R. and the Reich, finding that only about three million ‘repression deaths’ (either executions or deaths in prison) occurred in the Soviet Union from 1930–1945 (far lower than the common claims of 20–50 million). They concluded that these ‘''are clearly much lower figures than those for [which the Reich] was responsible.''’<ref>http://sovietinfo.tripod.com/WCR-German_Soviet.pdf</ref> (The author of this paper, Professor Stephen Wheatcroft, also wrote two other<ref>http://sovietinfo.tripod.com/WCR-Scale_Repression.pdf</ref> excellent articles<ref>http://sovietinfo.tripod.com/WCR-Clarification_Famine.pdf</ref> describing the exaggeration of the Soviet death toll.) In comparison, the Mouvement contre le Racisme, l’Antisemitisme, et pour la Paix attributed at least fifty million deaths to German Fascism alone<ref>https://www.marxists.org/subject/jewish/bordiga/auschwitz.htm#a1</ref> (Morgan Visser argued that it’s much higher). As for the infamous Khmer Rouge,<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/erol/ncm-7/mlp-kamp.htm</ref> there has been debate over whether they were communist at all,<ref>https://wp.me/P1fDRx-1zD</ref> and few socialists of any type have any praise for them, but regardless the loss of life that they inflicted was probably closer to 90,000–300,000 than anything over one million; most of the other deaths in the region were far more due to the U.S.’s incessant bombings and other imperialist activity than anything that the Khmer Rouge committed.<ref>https://www.mekong.net/cambodia/deaths.htm</ref>
 
A very common variation of this claim is that Stalin or Máo killed more people than Adolf Shitler. Independent investigation indicates otherwise.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/85ib6v/_/dvydyz8</ref> For example, an Attorney General’s 1954 report to the Stalin critic Nikita Khrushchev indicated that the Soviets had by that time imprisoned only 2.5 million people, and sentenced only about 600,000 to death.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20180918193732/http://school.rusarchives.ru/bolshoj-terror/dokladnaya-zapiska-generalnogo-prokurora-sssr-ra-rudenko-ministra-vnutrennikh-del-sssr-sn-kruglo</ref> Similarly, Dr. Victor Zemskov had studied activities of the state security bodies from 1921 to 1954, and discovered that during this period only about 650,000 people had received death sentences (not all of which were enacted) and only 2.3 million suffered prison terms.<ref>https://www.northstarcompass.org/nsc0901/gulag.htm</ref> Worrisome numbers indeed, but clearly not anywhere nearly as high as antisocialists would like (and only 12–33% suffered imprisonment for unambiguously political reasons).<ref>http://sovietinfo.tripod.com/GTY-Penal_System.pdf</ref> The University of Melbourne analysed the excess mortality under the U.S.S.R. and the Reich, finding that only about three million ‘repression deaths’ (either executions or deaths in prison) occurred in the Soviet Union from 1930–1945 (far lower than the common claims of 20–50 million). They concluded that these ‘''are clearly much lower figures than those for [which the Reich] was responsible.''’<ref>http://sovietinfo.tripod.com/WCR-German_Soviet.pdf</ref> (The author of this paper, Professor Stephen Wheatcroft, also wrote two other<ref>http://sovietinfo.tripod.com/WCR-Scale_Repression.pdf</ref> excellent articles<ref>http://sovietinfo.tripod.com/WCR-Clarification_Famine.pdf</ref> describing the exaggeration of the Soviet death toll.) In comparison, the Mouvement contre le Racisme, l’Antisemitisme, et pour la Paix attributed at least fifty million deaths to German Fascism alone<ref>https://www.marxists.org/subject/jewish/bordiga/auschwitz.htm#a1</ref> (Morgan Visser argued that it’s much higher). As for the infamous Khmer Rouge,<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/erol/ncm-7/mlp-kamp.htm</ref> there has been debate over whether they were communist at all,<ref>https://wp.me/P1fDRx-1zD</ref> and few socialists of any type have any praise for them, but regardless the loss of life that they inflicted was probably closer to 90,000–300,000 than anything over one million; most of the other deaths in the region were far more due to the U.S.’s incessant bombings and other imperialist activity than anything that the Khmer Rouge committed.<ref>https://www.mekong.net/cambodia/deaths.htm</ref>
  
A more accurate number is difficult to ascertain, in no small part due to the subjectivity of what constitutes a ‘victim of communism’. Nevertheless, using updated statistics on many of the tragedies discussed, the actual number is probably far closer to something under '''''forty million'''''<ref>https://i.reddit.com/comments/7n6ql2/_/dsb6cv6</ref> than anything over ninety million. If that is an accurate estimate then obviously it’s still nothing to boast about, but neither would the death toll of anticommunism, which is in the range of '''66–111 million''' lives.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/r/shitliberalssay/wiki/anticommunismkills</ref>
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A more accurate number is difficult to ascertain, in no small part due to the subjectivity of what constitutes a ‘victim of communism’. Nevertheless, using updated statistics on many of the tragedies discussed, the actual number is probably far closer to something under '''''forty million'''''<ref>https://i.reddit.com/comments/7n6ql2/_/dsb6cv6</ref> than anything over ninety million. If that is an accurate estimate then obviously it’s still nothing to boast about, but [[essay:Anticommunism_Kills|neither would the death toll of anticommunism, which is in the range of '''66–111 million''' lives.]]
  
 
== The Nazis were socialists, communists or leftists==
 
== The Nazis were socialists, communists or leftists==
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<blockquote>‘Socialism is the science of dealing with the common weal. Communism is not Socialism. Marxism is not Socialism. The Marxians have stolen the term and confused its meaning. I shall take Socialism away from the Socialists. Socialism is an ancient Aryan, Germanic institution. Our German ancestors held certain lands in common. They cultivated the idea of the common weal. Marxism has no right to disguise itself as socialism. Socialism, unlike Marxism, does not repudiate private property. Unlike Marxism, it involves no negation of personality, and unlike Marxism, it is patriotic.’<ref>https://amp.theguardian.com/theguardian/2007/sep/17/greatinterviews1</ref></blockquote>
 
<blockquote>‘Socialism is the science of dealing with the common weal. Communism is not Socialism. Marxism is not Socialism. The Marxians have stolen the term and confused its meaning. I shall take Socialism away from the Socialists. Socialism is an ancient Aryan, Germanic institution. Our German ancestors held certain lands in common. They cultivated the idea of the common weal. Marxism has no right to disguise itself as socialism. Socialism, unlike Marxism, does not repudiate private property. Unlike Marxism, it involves no negation of personality, and unlike Marxism, it is patriotic.’<ref>https://amp.theguardian.com/theguardian/2007/sep/17/greatinterviews1</ref></blockquote>
  
(And note how '''none''' of these mentions anything about ‘big government’, ‘redistribution of wealth’,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=3j-Aq1hAgJEC&pg=PT556</ref> ‘state interference’, or some such thing, likewise ahistorical redefinitions that antisocialists give. The somewhat relevant ‘certain lands in common’ bit may imply redistribution, but when they reimplemented this we have no idea; it seems totally arbitrary given the promotion of privatisation anyway. These redefinitions however '''are''' consistent with the anticommunist, antianarchist, and class‐collaborationist reconceptions of socialism that the European right invented,<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/ITBJ0K-9aas</ref> one of which called scientific socialism ‘the capitalism of the working class’ and accused Marx of wishing to merely substitute capital’s right to private profit with ‘the worker’s right to private profit.’)
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(And note how '''none''' of these mentions anything about ‘big government’, ‘redistribution of wealth’,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=3j-Aq1hAgJEC&pg=PT556</ref> ‘state interference’, or some such thing, likewise ahistorical redefinitions that antisocialists give. The somewhat relevant ‘certain lands in common’ bit may imply redistribution, but when they reimplemented this we have no idea; it seems totally arbitrary given the promotion of privatisation anyway. These redefinitions however '''are''' consistent with the anticommunist, antianarchist, and class‐collaborationist reconceptions of socialism that the European right invented,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/ITBJ0K-9aas</ref> one of which called scientific socialism ‘the capitalism of the working class’ and accused Marx of wishing to merely substitute capital’s right to private profit with ‘the worker’s right to private profit.’)
  
The Chancellor is commonly misquoted as saying<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/D9MaXO9VpJw</ref> ‘''We are socialists, we are enemies of today’s capitalistic economic system for the exploitation of the economically weak, with its unfair salaries, with its unseemly evaluation of a human being according to wealth and property instead of responsibility and performance, and we are all determined to destroy this system under all conditions,''’ which is in fact a quote by Strasser.<ref>https://en.m.wikiquote.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler#Misattributed</ref>
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The Chancellor is commonly misquoted as saying<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/D9MaXO9VpJw</ref> ‘''We are socialists, we are enemies of today’s capitalistic economic system for the exploitation of the economically weak, with its unfair salaries, with its unseemly evaluation of a human being according to wealth and property instead of responsibility and performance, and we are all determined to destroy this system under all conditions,''’ which is in fact a quote by Strasser.<ref>https://en.m.wikiquote.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler#Misattributed</ref>
  
 
Likewise, Hermann Rauschning has claimed in ''Hitler Speaks'' that the German anticommunists adopted methods such as ‘''the workers’ sports clubs, the industrial cells, the mass demonstrations, the propaganda leaflets written specially for the comprehension of the masses''’<ref>https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.505385#page/n185</ref> and others from the scientific socialists. Scholars Ian Kershaw,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=nV-N10gyoFwC&pg=PR14</ref> Eckhard Jesse, Fritz Tobias, and Richard Steigmann‐Gall,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=XTxdAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA29</ref> however, have reason to believe that Rauschning is an unreliable source. There are likewise no extra sources to support these presumed quotations.
 
Likewise, Hermann Rauschning has claimed in ''Hitler Speaks'' that the German anticommunists adopted methods such as ‘''the workers’ sports clubs, the industrial cells, the mass demonstrations, the propaganda leaflets written specially for the comprehension of the masses''’<ref>https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.505385#page/n185</ref> and others from the scientific socialists. Scholars Ian Kershaw,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=nV-N10gyoFwC&pg=PR14</ref> Eckhard Jesse, Fritz Tobias, and Richard Steigmann‐Gall,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=XTxdAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA29</ref> however, have reason to believe that Rauschning is an unreliable source. There are likewise no extra sources to support these presumed quotations.
  
As Leon Trotsky correctly observed,<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/works/1944/1944-fas.htm</ref> the N.S.D.A.P. was directed and financed by big capitalist powers.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/WhoFinancedHitler</ref> While the party itself '''initially''' had limited support directly from corporations,<ref>https://voxeu.org/node/1658</ref> they did not have to wait too long for Anglo businessmen to support them.<ref>http://www.rationalrevolution.net/war/american_supporters_of_the_europ.htm</ref> Ford,<ref>https://www.ranker.com/list/relationship-between-henry-ford-and-nazis/melissa-sartore</ref> IBM,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=6vYeqVT7K-sC</ref> the Carnegie Institution, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Harriman railroad fortune,<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=3421</ref> Wall Street financiers,<ref>https://archive.org/stream/WallStreetAndTheRiseOfHitler_20190321</ref> and others were happy to do business with them,<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=13962</ref> even if it meant exterminating entire ethnicities. Indeed, much of the Reich’s rearmament was only thanks to the Anglo‐American capitalists.<ref>https://therealnews.com/?p=183689</ref> Sweden’s upper classes built some of their wealth<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20160207112422/https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/murky-truth-of-how-a-neutral-sweden-covered-up-its-collaboration-with-nazis-5372299.html</ref> on supplying the anticommunists’ war effort with scarce essential resources (such as iron ore) for weapons, arguably prolonging the conflict by one year<ref>https://www.historyisnowmagazine.com/blog/2017/12/18/was-sweden-really-neutral-in-world-war-two</ref> ^[1],<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=sx3JAH0LiMEC&pg=PA167</ref> ^[2]<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20170301014054/http://www.thelocal.se/20120605/41252</ref> (and since 2009 they still haven’t learned their lesson).<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=5633</ref> Likewise, social capital was crucial to the anticommunists’ success.<ref>https://voxeu.org/node/9604</ref> One particularly influential capitalist, Gustav Krupp, strongly supported these anticommunists throughout his life.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/9PoU4RYn_oQ</ref>
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As Leon Trotsky correctly observed,<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/works/1944/1944-fas.htm</ref> the N.S.D.A.P. was directed and financed by big capitalist powers.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/WhoFinancedHitler</ref> While the party itself '''initially''' had limited support directly from corporations,<ref>https://voxeu.org/node/1658</ref> they did not have to wait too long for Anglo businessmen to support them.<ref>http://www.rationalrevolution.net/war/american_supporters_of_the_europ.htm</ref> Ford,<ref>https://www.ranker.com/list/relationship-between-henry-ford-and-nazis/melissa-sartore</ref> IBM,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=6vYeqVT7K-sC</ref> the Carnegie Institution, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Harriman railroad fortune,<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=3421</ref> Wall Street financiers,<ref>https://archive.org/stream/WallStreetAndTheRiseOfHitler_20190321</ref> and others were happy to do business with them,<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=13962</ref> even if it meant exterminating entire ethnicities. Indeed, much of the Reich’s rearmament was only thanks to the Anglo‐American capitalists.<ref>https://therealnews.com/?p=183689</ref> Sweden’s upper classes built some of their wealth<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20160207112422/https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/murky-truth-of-how-a-neutral-sweden-covered-up-its-collaboration-with-nazis-5372299.html</ref> on supplying the anticommunists’ war effort with scarce essential resources (such as iron ore) for weapons, arguably prolonging the conflict by one year<ref>https://www.historyisnowmagazine.com/blog/2017/12/18/was-sweden-really-neutral-in-world-war-two</ref> <ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=sx3JAH0LiMEC&pg=PA167</ref> <ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20170301014054/http://www.thelocal.se/20120605/41252</ref> (and since 2009 they still haven’t learned their lesson).<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=5633</ref> Likewise, social capital was crucial to the anticommunists’ success.<ref>https://voxeu.org/node/9604</ref> One particularly influential capitalist, Gustav Krupp, strongly supported these anticommunists throughout his life.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/9PoU4RYn_oQ</ref>
  
 
Some have asserted that, even though private property wasn’t abolished, their economic regulations alone suffice as proof of their socialism. The fact of the matter however is that the regulations were never intended to appease or empower the lower classes; rather, the upper classes instituted them for the sake of their militarily driven economy,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/8u00xd/_/e1d0xrx</ref> '''much like the U.K. and the U.S.A. did''' during wartime: they had to maximize efficiency with a central authority. The argument furthermore overlooks the fact that while regulatory activity was extensive, firms still preserved a good deal of their autonomy even under the Third Reich; they valued freedom of contract and opposed any bureaucratic management of the economy.<ref>https://economics.yale.edu/sites/default/files/files/Workshops-Seminars/Economic-History/buchheim-041020.pdf</ref> Historian Carrol Quigley, in ''Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time'',<ref>https://ia902802.us.archive.org/34/items/CarrollQuigleyTragedyAndHope_201805/Carroll%20Quigley%20-%20Tragedy%20and%20Hope%20-%201974.pdf</ref> chapter IX, goes to great lengths to demonstrate how Fascism always assumed the form of what he calls ‘dictatorial capitalism’, in which ‘''society is organized so that everything was subject to the benefit of capitalism.''’ This is done through ‘''removing all dangers to the profit system''’ (that is, organized labor, foreign competition, business losses and alternative forms of economic production). Specifically though, the reason why Fascists meddled in the state and the economy is something that Quigley explains at length:
 
Some have asserted that, even though private property wasn’t abolished, their economic regulations alone suffice as proof of their socialism. The fact of the matter however is that the regulations were never intended to appease or empower the lower classes; rather, the upper classes instituted them for the sake of their militarily driven economy,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/8u00xd/_/e1d0xrx</ref> '''much like the U.K. and the U.S.A. did''' during wartime: they had to maximize efficiency with a central authority. The argument furthermore overlooks the fact that while regulatory activity was extensive, firms still preserved a good deal of their autonomy even under the Third Reich; they valued freedom of contract and opposed any bureaucratic management of the economy.<ref>https://economics.yale.edu/sites/default/files/files/Workshops-Seminars/Economic-History/buchheim-041020.pdf</ref> Historian Carrol Quigley, in ''Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time'',<ref>https://ia902802.us.archive.org/34/items/CarrollQuigleyTragedyAndHope_201805/Carroll%20Quigley%20-%20Tragedy%20and%20Hope%20-%201974.pdf</ref> chapter IX, goes to great lengths to demonstrate how Fascism always assumed the form of what he calls ‘dictatorial capitalism’, in which ‘''society is organized so that everything was subject to the benefit of capitalism.''’ This is done through ‘''removing all dangers to the profit system''’ (that is, organized labor, foreign competition, business losses and alternative forms of economic production). Specifically though, the reason why Fascists meddled in the state and the economy is something that Quigley explains at length:
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<blockquote>‘'''Fascism is therefore opposed to socialism''', to which unity within the State (which amalgamates classes into a single economic and ethical reality) is unknown, and which sees in history nothing but the class struggle. Fascism is likewise opposed to trade unionism as a class weapon.’<ref>https://archive.org/stream/TheDoctrineOfFascismByBenitoMussolini#page/n2/mode/1up</ref> (He then goes on to talk about how Fascism is going to supposedly make socialism and trade unions obsolete, since the Fascist state will presumably unify the classes and alleviate the need for struggle.)</blockquote>
 
<blockquote>‘'''Fascism is therefore opposed to socialism''', to which unity within the State (which amalgamates classes into a single economic and ethical reality) is unknown, and which sees in history nothing but the class struggle. Fascism is likewise opposed to trade unionism as a class weapon.’<ref>https://archive.org/stream/TheDoctrineOfFascismByBenitoMussolini#page/n2/mode/1up</ref> (He then goes on to talk about how Fascism is going to supposedly make socialism and trade unions obsolete, since the Fascist state will presumably unify the classes and alleviate the need for struggle.)</blockquote>
  
The Fascists hated the Soviets<ref>https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007454</ref> and the Spanish Republicans.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=W_6CAgAAQBAJ</ref> Far from having a leftist support base, most of Fascism’s supporters were ultranationalists, conservatives, industrialists, and other influential antisocialists,<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/d6Nb3wbpljo</ref> including Winston Churchill, the United Kingdom’s future Prime Minister;<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/80sxhj/_/duy08zm</ref> Franz von Papen, a wealthy antisocialist politician;<ref>https://doi.org/10.1163/156916105775563670</ref> Ludvig von Mises,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=Nxl7tR4CzQ4C&pg=PA13</ref> cofounder of the so‐called Austrian school of economics (though he did denounce the Reich’s anti‐Semitism<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secC1.html#secc16</ref> and claimed Fascism as merely an ‘emergency makeshift’);<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=lCtbIPZbUTwC&pg=PA32</ref> Harry S. Truman, U.S. senator (though he disliked the Chancellor regardless);<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=8fp1A2s6aQwC&pg=PA308</ref> Alfred Hugenberg,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=CmjBW3lsA84C&pg=PT266</ref> cofounder of the ultranationalist General German League and its successor the Pan‐German League;<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=Ua6pwtEseMgC&pg=PA223</ref> the Italian Liberal Party,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=gJQP0WUt5Z0C&pg=PA27</ref> a group of capitalists headed by former Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti;<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=qrT7uyexGUAC&pg=PA187</ref> and the Whites, a horde of anticommunists<ref>https://archive.org/stream/WhoFinancedHitler#page/n30/mode/1up</ref> who fought ferociously<ref>https://imgur.com/KUoIvz3</ref> against socialists and Jews during the Russian Civil War. Antebellum data indicate that 65% of N.S.D.A.P. members joined because of their anticommunism (whereas only 12% did so citing their anti‐Semitism);<ref>https://www.cambridge.org/se/education/subject/humanities/history/history-ib-diploma-paper-3-2nd-edition/european-states-interwar-years-19181939-2nd-edition-cambridge-elevate-edition-2-years</ref> Oxford scholar Neil Gregor likewise noted the party’s antisocialist support base.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=inhPAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA5</ref> Before the assault on Pearl Harbor most Yankees were opposed to having another conflict with the Reich, in part no doubt because of their diuturnal fatigue from World War I, but capitalist propaganda<ref>https://time.com/5414055</ref> had a widespread effect as well.<ref>https://news.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/232949/american-public-opinion-holocaust.aspx</ref> While it is true that the White House finally tried persecuting some Fascists during the war years, generally these misleaders and sympathizers fared reasonably well (especially in comparison to Japanese‐Americans then and the socialists shortly thereafter)<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n95/mode/1up</ref> regardless, and even after 1945 anticommunist states would consciously and willingly hire thousands of Fascists<ref>https://ratical.org/ratville/JFK/JohnJudge/GoodAmericans.html</ref> anyway, such as Adolf Heusinger and Hans Speidel, who soon became important NATO officials.<ref>https://www.voltairenet.org/article174656.html</ref> A private bulletin by the Union of German Industry (an organization for the Reich’s big industrialists) in 1932 explained very honestly their reasons for supporting Fascism:
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The Fascists hated the Soviets<ref>https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007454</ref> and the Spanish Republicans.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=W_6CAgAAQBAJ</ref> Far from having a leftist support base, most of Fascism’s supporters were ultranationalists, conservatives, industrialists, and other influential antisocialists,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/d6Nb3wbpljo</ref> including Winston Churchill, the United Kingdom’s future Prime Minister;<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/80sxhj/_/duy08zm</ref> Franz von Papen, a wealthy antisocialist politician;<ref>https://doi.org/10.1163/156916105775563670</ref> Ludvig von Mises,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=Nxl7tR4CzQ4C&pg=PA13</ref> cofounder of the so‐called Austrian school of economics (though he did denounce the Reich’s anti‐Semitism<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secC1.html#secc16</ref> and claimed Fascism as merely an ‘emergency makeshift’);<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=lCtbIPZbUTwC&pg=PA32</ref> Harry S. Truman, U.S. senator (though he disliked the Chancellor regardless);<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=8fp1A2s6aQwC&pg=PA308</ref> Alfred Hugenberg,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=CmjBW3lsA84C&pg=PT266</ref> cofounder of the ultranationalist General German League and its successor the Pan‐German League;<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=Ua6pwtEseMgC&pg=PA223</ref> the Italian Liberal Party,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=gJQP0WUt5Z0C&pg=PA27</ref> a group of capitalists headed by former Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti;<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=qrT7uyexGUAC&pg=PA187</ref> and the Whites, a horde of anticommunists<ref>https://archive.org/stream/WhoFinancedHitler#page/n30/mode/1up</ref> who fought ferociously<ref>https://imgur.com/KUoIvz3</ref> against socialists and Jews during the Russian Civil War. Antebellum data indicate that 65% of N.S.D.A.P. members joined because of their anticommunism (whereas only 12% did so citing their anti‐Semitism);<ref>https://www.cambridge.org/se/education/subject/humanities/history/history-ib-diploma-paper-3-2nd-edition/european-states-interwar-years-19181939-2nd-edition-cambridge-elevate-edition-2-years</ref> Oxford scholar Neil Gregor likewise noted the party’s antisocialist support base.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=inhPAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA5</ref> Before the assault on Pearl Harbor most Yankees were opposed to having another conflict with the Reich, in part no doubt because of their diuturnal fatigue from World War I, but capitalist propaganda<ref>https://time.com/5414055</ref> had a widespread effect as well.<ref>https://news.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/232949/american-public-opinion-holocaust.aspx</ref> While it is true that the White House finally tried persecuting some Fascists during the war years, generally these misleaders and sympathizers fared reasonably well (especially in comparison to Japanese‐Americans then and the socialists shortly thereafter)<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n95/mode/1up</ref> regardless, and even after 1945 anticommunist states would consciously and willingly hire thousands of Fascists<ref>https://ratical.org/ratville/JFK/JohnJudge/GoodAmericans.html</ref> anyway, such as Adolf Heusinger and Hans Speidel, who soon became important NATO officials.<ref>https://www.voltairenet.org/article174656.html</ref> A private bulletin by the Union of German Industry (an organization for the Reich’s big industrialists) in 1932 explained very honestly their reasons for supporting Fascism:
  
 
<blockquote>‘The problem of consolidating the capitalist régime in post‐war Germany is governed by the fact that the leading section, that is, the capitalists controlling industry, has become too small to maintain its rule alone. '''Unless recourse is to be had to the extremely dangerous weapon of purely military force, it is necessary for it to link itself with sections which do not belong to it from a social standpoint, but which can render it the essential service of anchoring its rule among the people, and thereby becoming its special or last defender.''' This last or ‘outermost’ defender of bourgeois rule, in the first period after the war, was Social Democracy.<ref>http://www.bolshevik.org/Pamphlets/Burnham_PopFront/BPF%203.html</ref>
 
<blockquote>‘The problem of consolidating the capitalist régime in post‐war Germany is governed by the fact that the leading section, that is, the capitalists controlling industry, has become too small to maintain its rule alone. '''Unless recourse is to be had to the extremely dangerous weapon of purely military force, it is necessary for it to link itself with sections which do not belong to it from a social standpoint, but which can render it the essential service of anchoring its rule among the people, and thereby becoming its special or last defender.''' This last or ‘outermost’ defender of bourgeois rule, in the first period after the war, was Social Democracy.<ref>http://www.bolshevik.org/Pamphlets/Burnham_PopFront/BPF%203.html</ref>
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<blockquote>‘The details about the murder of priests and rape of nuns that we received are totally incredible and indescribable. It is the Führer’s historical merit that is acknowledged to him by the whole world, to have erected a wall against the onrush of Bolshevism on German’s eastern borders, and thus clearly to have risen as a terminator of this craze in Europe in its conflict with the subversive forces of destruction, of anarchy.’</blockquote>
 
<blockquote>‘The details about the murder of priests and rape of nuns that we received are totally incredible and indescribable. It is the Führer’s historical merit that is acknowledged to him by the whole world, to have erected a wall against the onrush of Bolshevism on German’s eastern borders, and thus clearly to have risen as a terminator of this craze in Europe in its conflict with the subversive forces of destruction, of anarchy.’</blockquote>
  
Source (at the 5:29 mark).<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/k4Ge8zPcUhE</ref> Further proof is this transcription,<ref>https://research.calvin.edu/german-propaganda-archive/goeb36.htm</ref> where Goebbels said that he was actually ‘defending’ the West from Bolshevism. In addition:
+
Source (at the 5:29 mark).<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/k4Ge8zPcUhE</ref> Further proof is this transcription,<ref>https://research.calvin.edu/german-propaganda-archive/goeb36.htm</ref> where Goebbels said that he was actually ‘defending’ the West from Bolshevism. In addition:
  
 
<blockquote>‘That is a direct threat to the existence of every European power. No one should believe that Bolshevism would stop at the borders of the Reich, were it to be victorious. The goal of its aggressive policies and wars is the Bolshevization of every land and people in the world. In the face of such undeniable intentions, we are not impressed by paper declarations from the Kremlin or guarantees from London or Washington. We know that we are dealing in the East with an infernal political devilishness that does not recognize the norms governing relations between people and nations. When for example the English Lord Beaverbrook says that Europe must be given over to the Soviets or when the leading American Jewish journalist Brown cynically adds that a Bolshevization of Europe might solve all of the continent’s problems, we know what they have in mind. The European powers are facing the most critical question. The West is in danger. It makes no difference whether or not their governments and intellectuals realize it or not.’<ref>http://www.emersonkent.com/speeches/do_you_want_total_war.htm</ref></blockquote>
 
<blockquote>‘That is a direct threat to the existence of every European power. No one should believe that Bolshevism would stop at the borders of the Reich, were it to be victorious. The goal of its aggressive policies and wars is the Bolshevization of every land and people in the world. In the face of such undeniable intentions, we are not impressed by paper declarations from the Kremlin or guarantees from London or Washington. We know that we are dealing in the East with an infernal political devilishness that does not recognize the norms governing relations between people and nations. When for example the English Lord Beaverbrook says that Europe must be given over to the Soviets or when the leading American Jewish journalist Brown cynically adds that a Bolshevization of Europe might solve all of the continent’s problems, we know what they have in mind. The European powers are facing the most critical question. The West is in danger. It makes no difference whether or not their governments and intellectuals realize it or not.’<ref>http://www.emersonkent.com/speeches/do_you_want_total_war.htm</ref></blockquote>
  
Goebbels is also recorded as having released a wealthy capitalist by the name of Günther Quandt<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/FpQpgd_EeWY</ref> after he was imprisoned for tax evasion (like the Chancellor should have been).<ref>https://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4105683.stm</ref> The anticommunists were reluctant to increase taxes on individual German citizens to pay for the conflict, so the top personal income tax rate in 1941 was 13.7% in the Reich (as opposed to 23.7% in Great Britain). These anticommunists primarily funded their bellicism by means of neoslavery and by plundering assets from ethnic minorities.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=2Z5iEwhDmfkC&pg=PA73</ref> Indeed, the Fascists in general practised policies of terrific wealth accumulation:<ref>https://twitter.com/LeMisandre/status/987196909227008000</ref>
+
Goebbels is also recorded as having released a wealthy capitalist by the name of Günther Quandt<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/FpQpgd_EeWY</ref> after he was imprisoned for tax evasion (like the Chancellor should have been).<ref>https://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4105683.stm</ref> The anticommunists were reluctant to increase taxes on individual German citizens to pay for the conflict, so the top personal income tax rate in 1941 was 13.7% in the Reich (as opposed to 23.7% in Great Britain). These anticommunists primarily funded their bellicism by means of neoslavery and by plundering assets from ethnic minorities.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=2Z5iEwhDmfkC&pg=PA73</ref> Indeed, the Fascists in general practised policies of terrific wealth accumulation:<ref>https://twitter.com/LeMisandre/status/987196909227008000</ref>
  
 
<blockquote>‘SS commanders and other anticommunist officials amassed personal fortunes by plundering conquered territories and stealing from concentration camp inmates and other political victims. Huge amounts were made from secretly owned, well connected businesses, and from contracting out camp slave labour to industrial firms like I.G. Farben and Krupp. […] [The Führer] expropriated art works from the public domain, stole enormous sums from Fascist party coffers, and invented a new concept, the ‘personality right,’ that enabled him to charge a small fee for every postage stamp with his picture on it, a venture that made him hundreds of millions of marks. […] During his entire tenure in office he got special rulings from the German tax office that allowed him to avoid paying income or property taxes. He had a motor pool of limousines, private apartments, country homes, a vast staff of servants, and a majestic estate in the Alps.’<ref>https://cartiparenti.files.wordpress.com/2016/08/blackshirts-and-reds-by-michael-parenti.pdf</ref></blockquote>
 
<blockquote>‘SS commanders and other anticommunist officials amassed personal fortunes by plundering conquered territories and stealing from concentration camp inmates and other political victims. Huge amounts were made from secretly owned, well connected businesses, and from contracting out camp slave labour to industrial firms like I.G. Farben and Krupp. […] [The Führer] expropriated art works from the public domain, stole enormous sums from Fascist party coffers, and invented a new concept, the ‘personality right,’ that enabled him to charge a small fee for every postage stamp with his picture on it, a venture that made him hundreds of millions of marks. […] During his entire tenure in office he got special rulings from the German tax office that allowed him to avoid paying income or property taxes. He had a motor pool of limousines, private apartments, country homes, a vast staff of servants, and a majestic estate in the Alps.’<ref>https://cartiparenti.files.wordpress.com/2016/08/blackshirts-and-reds-by-michael-parenti.pdf</ref></blockquote>
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With the overwhelming evidence in the way, it is reasonable to conclude that any anticapitalism was just empty popularism.<ref>https://twitter.com/billosophizing/status/898248950263709697</ref><ref>https://www.indy100.com/node/7900001</ref> In other words, the word ‘Socialist’ was nothing more than a marketing tactic.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=JU3th4LnKvsC&pg=PA16</ref> To quote Engels, ‘''these reactionary socialists show their true colors by immediately making common cause with the bourgeoisie against the proletarians.''’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1847/11/prin-com.htm</ref> The antisocialists who continue to promote this myth today do so almost certainly not in the interest of historical accuracy, but to destigmatize ultranationalism and strong conservative values: phenomena that they both preach and crave.
 
With the overwhelming evidence in the way, it is reasonable to conclude that any anticapitalism was just empty popularism.<ref>https://twitter.com/billosophizing/status/898248950263709697</ref><ref>https://www.indy100.com/node/7900001</ref> In other words, the word ‘Socialist’ was nothing more than a marketing tactic.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=JU3th4LnKvsC&pg=PA16</ref> To quote Engels, ‘''these reactionary socialists show their true colors by immediately making common cause with the bourgeoisie against the proletarians.''’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1847/11/prin-com.htm</ref> The antisocialists who continue to promote this myth today do so almost certainly not in the interest of historical accuracy, but to destigmatize ultranationalism and strong conservative values: phenomena that they both preach and crave.
  
See also: this German’s video response to Steven Crowder and other capitalists concerning this subject<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/hUFvG4RpwJI</ref> (which shares about half of the content here, almost sufficing as an audiobook). ‘''Everyone who says this nonsense that the Nazis were socialist or that fascism is somehow socialist because big government, needs to read this book.''’<ref>https://cartiparenti.files.wordpress.com/2016/08/blackshirts-and-reds-by-michael-parenti.pdf</ref>
+
See also: this German’s video response to Steven Crowder and other capitalists concerning this subject<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/hUFvG4RpwJI</ref> (which shares about half of the content here, almost sufficing as an audiobook). ‘''Everyone who says this nonsense that the Nazis were socialist or that fascism is somehow socialist because big government, needs to read this book.''’<ref>https://cartiparenti.files.wordpress.com/2016/08/blackshirts-and-reds-by-michael-parenti.pdf</ref>
  
 
== All humans are naturally lazy, greedy, violent, blah blah blah==
 
== All humans are naturally lazy, greedy, violent, blah blah blah==
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<blockquote>‘A cumulation of scientific evidence shows that their societies were not characterized by competition, inequality and oppression. These things are, rather, the product of history, and of rather recent history. The evidence comes from archaeological findings about patterns of human behaviour worldwide until only about five millennia ago, and from anthropological studies of societies in different parts of the world which remained organized along similar lines until the 19th and earlier part of the 20th century. […] Lee echoes the phrase used by Friedrich Engels in the 1880s to describe this state of affairs, ‘primitive communism’. The point is of enormous importance. Our species (modern humans, or ''Homo sapiens sapiens'') is over one hundred millennia old. For 95% of this time it has not been characterized at all by many of the forms of behaviour ascribed to ‘human nature’ today. We have nothing built into our biology that makes present‐day societies the way that they are and our predicament as we face a new millennium cannot be blamed on it.’<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=eDo0y5KSIhEC&pg=PA3</ref></blockquote>
 
<blockquote>‘A cumulation of scientific evidence shows that their societies were not characterized by competition, inequality and oppression. These things are, rather, the product of history, and of rather recent history. The evidence comes from archaeological findings about patterns of human behaviour worldwide until only about five millennia ago, and from anthropological studies of societies in different parts of the world which remained organized along similar lines until the 19th and earlier part of the 20th century. […] Lee echoes the phrase used by Friedrich Engels in the 1880s to describe this state of affairs, ‘primitive communism’. The point is of enormous importance. Our species (modern humans, or ''Homo sapiens sapiens'') is over one hundred millennia old. For 95% of this time it has not been characterized at all by many of the forms of behaviour ascribed to ‘human nature’ today. We have nothing built into our biology that makes present‐day societies the way that they are and our predicament as we face a new millennium cannot be blamed on it.’<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=eDo0y5KSIhEC&pg=PA3</ref></blockquote>
  
The tendency to hoard is a reaction to insufficiency. The tendency towards laziness is a reaction to too much work, too plightful work, and generally people lacking control over their work. Capitalist apologists typically claim that without money or at least some other form of material reward, few if any would labour. This is false, and contrary to modern research.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/EQnUFxoFqNY</ref> For instance, one of their most overused examples is janitorial labour; cleaning up disgusting messes,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20180518000203/http://www.worldsocialism.org/english/its-nice-idea-could-it-work</ref> and sewer work specifically.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20060703090514/http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/blackchip/dirtywork.htm</ref> Nonetheless, the reward, while not an object, should be obvious: the environment becomes cleaner and easier to use. The task is sometimes neglected under capitalism because some guests assume that they are disallowed from doing so, or they lack the instruments to solve it. Under world socialism, even if cleanup tasks could somehow not be automated, they could still be the responsibility of any or all folks rather than a few specialists.
+
The tendency to hoard is a reaction to insufficiency. The tendency towards laziness is a reaction to too much work, too plightful work, and generally people lacking control over their work. Capitalist apologists typically claim that without money or at least some other form of material reward, few if any would labour. This is false, and contrary to modern research.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/EQnUFxoFqNY</ref> For instance, one of their most overused examples is janitorial labour; cleaning up disgusting messes,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20180518000203/http://www.worldsocialism.org/english/its-nice-idea-could-it-work</ref> and sewer work specifically.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20060703090514/http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/blackchip/dirtywork.htm</ref> Nonetheless, the reward, while not an object, should be obvious: the environment becomes cleaner and easier to use. The task is sometimes neglected under capitalism because some guests assume that they are disallowed from doing so, or they lack the instruments to solve it. Under world socialism, even if cleanup tasks could somehow not be automated, they could still be the responsibility of any or all folks rather than a few specialists.
  
 
Besides, with all of the troubles that capitalism causes, are a few dirty jobs truly good enough reasons to keep it?<ref>https://redd.it/7fea6y</ref>
 
Besides, with all of the troubles that capitalism causes, are a few dirty jobs truly good enough reasons to keep it?<ref>https://redd.it/7fea6y</ref>
Line 168: Line 166:
 
'' https://github.com/dessalines/essays/blob/master/crash_course_socialism.md
 
'' https://github.com/dessalines/essays/blob/master/crash_course_socialism.md
 
'' https://www.reddit.com/r/communism101/wiki/faq/marxism/human-nature
 
'' https://www.reddit.com/r/communism101/wiki/faq/marxism/human-nature
'' https://www.youtube.com/embed/jytf-5St8WU
+
'' https://invidio.us/embed/jytf-5St8WU
  
 
== Socialists want to force everybody to be the same==
 
== Socialists want to force everybody to be the same==
Line 188: Line 186:
 
Long‐time Jewish antifascist Efraim Zuroff stated that “''There are two major components of Holocaust distortion. One is to hide or minimize the role of local collaborators. The other one is to claim that Communism is just as bad as [Fascism], and that Communism should be categorized as genocide.''” He argues that this is anti‐Semitic “''because if Communism is categorized as genocide, it means that Jews committed genocide. Jewish communists were among those who committed the crimes of the [people’s republic]. If Jews committed genocide, how can we complain about their committing genocide,''<ref>https://www.timesofisrael.com/?p=1785196</ref>” he said. Holocaust scholar Dovid Katz likewise condemned the comparison, and stated that the ‘''Holocaust cannot, must not, be subsumed — but that is precisely what the Double Genocide theory seeks to do. It is the primary new mainstream form of Holocaust Denial, and should be treated with at least as much outrage as [King] Trump’s invocation of supposed moral equivalence between people who came to Charlottesville, Virginia in [neofascist] torch-lit processions […] and those who came to protest them.''’<ref>https://JewishCurrents.org/?p=64731</ref> Associate Professor Daniel Ben‐Moshe likewise agreed: ‘''Jewish organizations have for the most part failed to act in response to the emergence of double genocide in Lithuania. If they don’t want Hungary to be part of a spreading of this form of Holocaust denial they must act now. It is now time for all individuals and organizations to add their names to the declaration, which they can do at www.seventyyearsdeclation.org.''’<ref>https://www.jpost.com/printarticle.aspx?id=346173</ref> With two exceptions, ‘''most Ukrainian Jewish leaders do not support recognizing the Holodomor as genocide. Jewish leaders say [that] it is unfair to link the Holodomor and the Holocaust[.] “We regret the tragedy of the Ukrainian people, but [Ukraine’s President] can’t equate the Holocaust and the tragedy […] in Ukraine,” said Rabbi Yaakov Dov Bleich, one of Ukraine’s chief rabbis.''’<ref>https://www.jta.org/?p=420158</ref> President of the World Zionist Organization, Nahum Goldmann, acknowledged that to ‘''compare in any way the policy of the Soviet government with the [Fascists] is not only a hideous distortion, but highly unfair to Soviet Russia, which has saved hundred of thousands of Jews when they escaped from the [Fascists] at the beginning of the Second World War.''’<ref>https://lorenzoae.wordpress.com/2017/10/11/on-russia-todays-liberals/amp/#four</ref> Recently the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum issued an advisory against Holocaust analogies in general.<ref>https://www.ushmm.org/information/press/press-releases/why-holocaust-analogies-are-dangerous</ref>
 
Long‐time Jewish antifascist Efraim Zuroff stated that “''There are two major components of Holocaust distortion. One is to hide or minimize the role of local collaborators. The other one is to claim that Communism is just as bad as [Fascism], and that Communism should be categorized as genocide.''” He argues that this is anti‐Semitic “''because if Communism is categorized as genocide, it means that Jews committed genocide. Jewish communists were among those who committed the crimes of the [people’s republic]. If Jews committed genocide, how can we complain about their committing genocide,''<ref>https://www.timesofisrael.com/?p=1785196</ref>” he said. Holocaust scholar Dovid Katz likewise condemned the comparison, and stated that the ‘''Holocaust cannot, must not, be subsumed — but that is precisely what the Double Genocide theory seeks to do. It is the primary new mainstream form of Holocaust Denial, and should be treated with at least as much outrage as [King] Trump’s invocation of supposed moral equivalence between people who came to Charlottesville, Virginia in [neofascist] torch-lit processions […] and those who came to protest them.''’<ref>https://JewishCurrents.org/?p=64731</ref> Associate Professor Daniel Ben‐Moshe likewise agreed: ‘''Jewish organizations have for the most part failed to act in response to the emergence of double genocide in Lithuania. If they don’t want Hungary to be part of a spreading of this form of Holocaust denial they must act now. It is now time for all individuals and organizations to add their names to the declaration, which they can do at www.seventyyearsdeclation.org.''’<ref>https://www.jpost.com/printarticle.aspx?id=346173</ref> With two exceptions, ‘''most Ukrainian Jewish leaders do not support recognizing the Holodomor as genocide. Jewish leaders say [that] it is unfair to link the Holodomor and the Holocaust[.] “We regret the tragedy of the Ukrainian people, but [Ukraine’s President] can’t equate the Holocaust and the tragedy […] in Ukraine,” said Rabbi Yaakov Dov Bleich, one of Ukraine’s chief rabbis.''’<ref>https://www.jta.org/?p=420158</ref> President of the World Zionist Organization, Nahum Goldmann, acknowledged that to ‘''compare in any way the policy of the Soviet government with the [Fascists] is not only a hideous distortion, but highly unfair to Soviet Russia, which has saved hundred of thousands of Jews when they escaped from the [Fascists] at the beginning of the Second World War.''’<ref>https://lorenzoae.wordpress.com/2017/10/11/on-russia-todays-liberals/amp/#four</ref> Recently the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum issued an advisory against Holocaust analogies in general.<ref>https://www.ushmm.org/information/press/press-releases/why-holocaust-analogies-are-dangerous</ref>
  
But briefly put: neither white supremacy,<ref>https://i.redd.it/vyd9kx43hzyx.jpg</ref> nor misogyny,<ref>http://www.international-communist-party.org/English/REPORTS/79_Women.htm</ref> nor heterosexism,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/9rwlvr/_/e8kfddy</ref><ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/6gy78v/_/div44jv</ref> nor cissexism,<ref>https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/cuba-lgbt-revolution-gay-lesbian-transgender-rights-havana-raul-castro-a8122591.html</ref> nor any other form of discrimination is central to the establishment of socialism. Most socialists (but not all—more on that later) '''reject''' such discriminations, in fact recognising them as obstacles to world revolution.<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secB1.html#secb14</ref> Certainly there are few socialists, especially today, who make such nuisances primary components of their politics. Nonetheless, many socialists<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secA3.html#seca34</ref>—it is true—have argued that it can be acceptable to use violence or even lethal force against their small but powerful minority of oppressors:<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/bg98j9/_/eljxmqq</ref> the upper classes and their loyalest henchmen, but it is also possible (if improbable) to have a bloodless revolution:<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/8gvbsq/_/dywmyll</ref> the upper classes could surrender or allow their wealth to be seized, since class is merely a societal trait into which one is born, rather than a trait that is biologically inherited.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7vac9p/_/dtr2jpj</ref> Indeed, this reflects the October Revolution, which had surprisingly little violence,<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/mAK9G8f87fw</ref> and so did the February events in Czechoslovakia.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/beu88h/_/el8lir1</ref>
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But briefly put: neither white supremacy,<ref>https://i.redd.it/vyd9kx43hzyx.jpg</ref> nor misogyny,<ref>http://www.international-communist-party.org/English/REPORTS/79_Women.htm</ref> nor heterosexism,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/9rwlvr/_/e8kfddy</ref><ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/6gy78v/_/div44jv</ref> nor cissexism,<ref>https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/cuba-lgbt-revolution-gay-lesbian-transgender-rights-havana-raul-castro-a8122591.html</ref> nor any other form of discrimination is central to the establishment of socialism. Most socialists (but not all—more on that later) '''reject''' such discriminations, in fact recognising them as obstacles to world revolution.<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secB1.html#secb14</ref> Certainly there are few socialists, especially today, who make such nuisances primary components of their politics. Nonetheless, many socialists<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secA3.html#seca34</ref>—it is true—have argued that it can be acceptable to use violence or even lethal force against their small but powerful minority of oppressors:<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/bg98j9/_/eljxmqq</ref> the upper classes and their loyalest henchmen, but it is also possible (if improbable) to have a bloodless revolution:<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/8gvbsq/_/dywmyll</ref> the upper classes could surrender or allow their wealth to be seized, since class is merely a societal trait into which one is born, rather than a trait that is biologically inherited.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7vac9p/_/dtr2jpj</ref> Indeed, this reflects the October Revolution, which had surprisingly little violence,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/mAK9G8f87fw</ref> and so did the February events in Czechoslovakia.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/beu88h/_/el8lir1</ref>
  
Many notable socialists were women, humans of colour, or both,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7anlc9/_/dpbet83</ref> and they frequently spoke out against both white supremacy and misogyny. Similarly, many socialists both historically and presently<ref>https://redd.it/8n8r7k</ref> have been nonheterosexual;<ref>https://i.redd.it/x8yuh5zco2b11.png</ref> as, Emma Goldman, Oscar Wilde, Magnus Hirschfeld, Harry Whyte,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7s2ebb/_/dt1otm1</ref> Bayard Rustin, James Baldwin, Harry Hay,<ref>https://jacobinmag.com/2017/04/harry-hay-communist-mattachine-society-lgbtq</ref> Judith Butler, TQILA,<ref>https://wp.me/p6AZaG-3KW</ref> and others. Indeed, the connexion between minorities and socialism is an old one.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7h1sal/_/dqniddg</ref> Engels explicitly opposed anti‐Semitism,<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1890/04/19.htm</ref> Lenin openly spoke out against anti‐Semitism,<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/XZzOgFY45s8</ref> and perhaps to the surprise of some, Joseph Stalin did as well and acted accordingly!<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7d0y5c/_/dpua7kl</ref> The Soviets helped evacuate over one million Jews from Axis territory.<ref>https://www.jta.org/?p=576802</ref> There have also been many Ukrainian anarchists<ref>https://www.nestormakhno.info/english/makfaq/h_6_9.htm</ref> (not all<ref>https://redd.it/64wkgf</ref> of course but still many) who fought aggressively against anti‐Semitism, as likewise have Spanish Republicans.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20070707081354/http://www.eui.eu/Personal/Researchers/Zaagsma/thesis.pdf</ref><ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/KgqoXU83v4g</ref> (Concerning Marx’s own relation with other Jews, see here.<ref>https://www.Marxists.org/subject/jewish/#marx</ref> For their relations with Slavs, see here.)<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/c8lq66/_/esoiaxz</ref> The Soviets created a national intelligentsia in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, and in the mid‐1930s Leningrad directed the K.S.S.R. and trained thousands of cadres for the republic’s economy.<ref>https://www.idcommunism.com/2019/03/was-the-famine-of-1932-33-in-kazakhstan-a-genocide.html</ref> The Soviet Union critic Amadeo Bordiga helped push for the establishment of a trade union front with the unions and other various proletarian groups associated to the Communist Party of Italy, standing against the Fascist police, military and of course the Blackshirts.<ref>http://www.left-dis.nl/uk/bordigist.pdf</ref>
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Many notable socialists were women, humans of colour, or both,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7anlc9/_/dpbet83</ref> and they frequently spoke out against both white supremacy and misogyny. Similarly, many socialists both historically and presently<ref>https://redd.it/8n8r7k</ref> have been nonheterosexual;<ref>https://i.redd.it/x8yuh5zco2b11.png</ref> as, Emma Goldman, Oscar Wilde, Magnus Hirschfeld, Harry Whyte,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7s2ebb/_/dt1otm1</ref> Bayard Rustin, James Baldwin, Harry Hay,<ref>https://jacobinmag.com/2017/04/harry-hay-communist-mattachine-society-lgbtq</ref> Judith Butler, TQILA,<ref>https://wp.me/p6AZaG-3KW</ref> and others. Indeed, the connexion between minorities and socialism is an old one.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7h1sal/_/dqniddg</ref> Engels explicitly opposed anti‐Semitism,<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1890/04/19.htm</ref> Lenin openly spoke out against anti‐Semitism,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/XZzOgFY45s8</ref> and perhaps to the surprise of some, Joseph Stalin did as well and acted accordingly!<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7d0y5c/_/dpua7kl</ref> The Soviets helped evacuate over one million Jews from Axis territory.<ref>https://www.jta.org/?p=576802</ref> There have also been many Ukrainian anarchists<ref>https://www.nestormakhno.info/english/makfaq/h_6_9.htm</ref> (not all<ref>https://redd.it/64wkgf</ref> of course but still many) who fought aggressively against anti‐Semitism, as likewise have Spanish Republicans.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20070707081354/http://www.eui.eu/Personal/Researchers/Zaagsma/thesis.pdf</ref><ref>https://invidio.us/embed/KgqoXU83v4g</ref> (Concerning Marx’s own relation with other Jews, see here.<ref>https://www.Marxists.org/subject/jewish/#marx</ref> For their relations with Slavs, see here.)<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/c8lq66/_/esoiaxz</ref> The Soviets created a national intelligentsia in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, and in the mid‐1930s Leningrad directed the K.S.S.R. and trained thousands of cadres for the republic’s economy.<ref>https://www.idcommunism.com/2019/03/was-the-famine-of-1932-33-in-kazakhstan-a-genocide.html</ref> The Soviet Union critic Amadeo Bordiga helped push for the establishment of a trade union front with the unions and other various proletarian groups associated to the Communist Party of Italy, standing against the Fascist police, military and of course the Blackshirts.<ref>http://www.left-dis.nl/uk/bordigist.pdf</ref>
  
Karl Marx strongly opposed both slavery and the Southern Confederacy<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/internationalist/pamphlets/MARX-on-Slavery-OptV5.pdf</ref> just like Peter Kropotkin did,<ref>https://libcom.org/files/petr-kropotkin-are-we-good-enough.pdf</ref> and he told us that labor ‘''cannot emancipate itself in the white skin where in the black it is branded.''’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1867-c1/ch10.htm#160a</ref> (Marx hisself may have used a racial slur several times, but the correspondence was in German.)<ref>https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/a-fight-in-germany-over-racist-language</ref> Leon Trotsky opposed white supremacy and stated that we ‘''do not compel [black humans] to separate from the [United] States, but they have the full right to self‐determination when they so desire and we will support and defend them with all the means at our disposal in the [conquest] of this right, the same as we defend all oppressed peoples.''’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/works/1940/negro1.htm</ref> On June 15, 1940, he observed that the ‘''white slaveholders accustom [black humans] not to speak first. But on the picket line they show more courage. That is true of all oppressed nationalities''’, and boldly suggested that we ‘''must approach them everywhere by advocating that for every lynching they should lynch ten or twenty lynchers.''’ He also wisely recommended that we ‘''should pay more attention to the Latin American workers in relation to [Yankee] imperialism. We should turn in the direction of Latin America.''’<ref>https://archive.org/stream/LeonTrotskyCollectedWritings19391940#page/n284/mode/1up</ref> He was likewise fiercely opposed to violence against the lower‐class Cossacks.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/bjug5d/_/emd5i2z</ref> Similarly, Bordiga recognised racism as ‘''the petit bourgeois reaction to the pressures of big capital''’<ref>https://www.Marxists.org/subject/jewish/bordiga/auschwitz.htm#a2</ref> and was an advocate ‘''not only for the mobilisation of the world proletariat for the defence of soviet power and to direct the assault on the western, bourgeois powers, but for the extension of the revolutionary struggle to continents inhabited by [humans of colour], in short the mobilisation of all forces able to carry on an armed fight against white capitalist metropoles.''’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/bordiga/works/1951/charthes.htm</ref> The democialist Salvador Allende condemned anti‐Semitism and the Third Reich in particular.<ref>https://redd.it/acvzur</ref> In 1989, Kim Jong‐Il correctly stated that we ‘''do not assert that the Koreans’ biological constitution is more developed than those of other races. Defining the superiority of a nation according to biological or ethnic characteristics is the practice of reactionary, bourgeois ethnology.''’<ref>https://twitter.com/korcounterprop/status/1021960285454708737</ref> (In many cases, the accusations of racial chauvinism in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea are based on mistranslations.)<ref>https://korcounterprop.tumblr.com/post/176252087082</ref> The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia valued diversity and unity, and attempted to suppress its unauthorized paramilitary forces, arresting the irregular, self‐appointed leaders (some of whom were tried and sentenced to two decades in prison).<ref>http://www.emperors-clothes.com/articles/jared/milosaid.html</ref> Despite the repetitive accusations, the little evidence used against them does not support the conclusion that they were ethnonationalists (quite the contrary).<ref>https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=2404</ref> Similar to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n39/mode/1up</ref> the People’s Republic of China is accepting towards most Muslims. (The Muslims that they are persecuting are a minority of violent antisocialists.)<ref>https://twitter.com/isgoodrum/status/1004884261051092993</ref> Likewise, the United Nations did not report any ‘internment camps’ for Muslims.<ref>https://wp.me/p9MxL0-dW</ref> The minority of them are simply undergoing rehabilitation.<ref>https://chinarising.puntopress.com/?p=8587</ref> ^[1],<ref>https://21stcenturywire.com/?p=122568</ref> ^[2]<ref>https://www.thenews.com.pk/latest/422970</ref>
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Karl Marx strongly opposed both slavery and the Southern Confederacy<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/internationalist/pamphlets/MARX-on-Slavery-OptV5.pdf</ref> just like Peter Kropotkin did,<ref>https://libcom.org/files/petr-kropotkin-are-we-good-enough.pdf</ref> and he told us that labor ‘''cannot emancipate itself in the white skin where in the black it is branded.''’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1867-c1/ch10.htm#160a</ref> (Marx hisself may have used a racial slur several times, but the correspondence was in German.)<ref>https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/a-fight-in-germany-over-racist-language</ref> Leon Trotsky opposed white supremacy and stated that we ‘''do not compel [black humans] to separate from the [United] States, but they have the full right to self‐determination when they so desire and we will support and defend them with all the means at our disposal in the [conquest] of this right, the same as we defend all oppressed peoples.''’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/works/1940/negro1.htm</ref> On June 15, 1940, he observed that the ‘''white slaveholders accustom [black humans] not to speak first. But on the picket line they show more courage. That is true of all oppressed nationalities''’, and boldly suggested that we ‘''must approach them everywhere by advocating that for every lynching they should lynch ten or twenty lynchers.''’ He also wisely recommended that we ‘''should pay more attention to the Latin American workers in relation to [Yankee] imperialism. We should turn in the direction of Latin America.''’<ref>https://archive.org/stream/LeonTrotskyCollectedWritings19391940#page/n284/mode/1up</ref> He was likewise fiercely opposed to violence against the lower‐class Cossacks.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/bjug5d/_/emd5i2z</ref> Similarly, Bordiga recognised racism as ‘''the petit bourgeois reaction to the pressures of big capital''’<ref>https://www.Marxists.org/subject/jewish/bordiga/auschwitz.htm#a2</ref> and was an advocate ‘''not only for the mobilisation of the world proletariat for the defence of soviet power and to direct the assault on the western, bourgeois powers, but for the extension of the revolutionary struggle to continents inhabited by [humans of colour], in short the mobilisation of all forces able to carry on an armed fight against white capitalist metropoles.''’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/bordiga/works/1951/charthes.htm</ref> The democialist Salvador Allende condemned anti‐Semitism and the Third Reich in particular.<ref>https://redd.it/acvzur</ref> In 1989, Kim Jong‐Il correctly stated that we ‘''do not assert that the Koreans’ biological constitution is more developed than those of other races. Defining the superiority of a nation according to biological or ethnic characteristics is the practice of reactionary, bourgeois ethnology.''’<ref>https://twitter.com/korcounterprop/status/1021960285454708737</ref> (In many cases, the accusations of racial chauvinism in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea are based on mistranslations.)<ref>https://korcounterprop.tumblr.com/post/176252087082</ref> The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia valued diversity and unity, and attempted to suppress its unauthorized paramilitary forces, arresting the irregular, self‐appointed leaders (some of whom were tried and sentenced to two decades in prison).<ref>http://www.emperors-clothes.com/articles/jared/milosaid.html</ref> Despite the repetitive accusations, the little evidence used against them does not support the conclusion that they were ethnonationalists (quite the contrary).<ref>https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=2404</ref> Similar to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n39/mode/1up</ref> the People’s Republic of China is accepting towards most Muslims. (The Muslims that they are persecuting are a minority of violent antisocialists.)<ref>https://twitter.com/isgoodrum/status/1004884261051092993</ref> Likewise, the United Nations did not report any ‘internment camps’ for Muslims.<ref>https://wp.me/p9MxL0-dW</ref> The minority of them are simply undergoing rehabilitation.<ref>https://chinarising.puntopress.com/?p=8587</ref> <ref>https://21stcenturywire.com/?p=122568</ref> <ref>https://www.thenews.com.pk/latest/422970</ref>
  
The Eastern Bloc and its allies were the forerunners in opposing African colonisation and specifically the South African Apartheid.<ref>https://www.rbth.com/international/2013/12/06/mandela_and_the_soviet_union_the_struggle_against_apartheid_32329.html</ref> The Soviets were outspoken against child abuse<ref>https://redd.it/b8hxuo</ref> and sexual harassment.<ref>https://imgur.com/XPmkZ5c</ref> Largely as planned,<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/international/comintern/3rd-congress/women-theses.htm</ref> the status of women improved greatly<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/oYFA2wCDw7A</ref> (even if imperfectly);<ref>https://www.marxists.org/subject/women/authors/pichugina/women.html</ref> the proportion of Soviet women engineers in 1980 was 58%,<ref>https://www.asee.org/public/conferences/20/papers/6985/view</ref> they achieved suffrage before the U.S. did,<ref>https://web.mit.edu/Russia1917/papers/0319-EqualityBegetsEquality.pdf</ref> they could retire five years earlier than men,<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n67/mode/1up</ref> they were more present in STEM than their U.S. equivalents,<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n65/mode/1up</ref> and they could serve in the frontlines as well,<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-mxDH</ref> for instance. The People’s Republic of China made similar progress.<ref>https://mronline.org/?p=81130</ref> In 2011 they liberated twenty‐four thousand abducted women and children.<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=3815</ref>
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The Eastern Bloc and its allies were the forerunners in opposing African colonisation and specifically the South African Apartheid.<ref>https://www.rbth.com/international/2013/12/06/mandela_and_the_soviet_union_the_struggle_against_apartheid_32329.html</ref> The Soviets were outspoken against child abuse<ref>https://redd.it/b8hxuo</ref> and sexual harassment.<ref>https://imgur.com/XPmkZ5c</ref> Largely as planned,<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/international/comintern/3rd-congress/women-theses.htm</ref> the status of women improved greatly<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/oYFA2wCDw7A</ref> (even if imperfectly);<ref>https://www.marxists.org/subject/women/authors/pichugina/women.html</ref> the proportion of Soviet women engineers in 1980 was 58%,<ref>https://www.asee.org/public/conferences/20/papers/6985/view</ref> they achieved suffrage before the U.S. did,<ref>https://web.mit.edu/Russia1917/papers/0319-EqualityBegetsEquality.pdf</ref> they could retire five years earlier than men,<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n67/mode/1up</ref> they were more present in STEM than their U.S. equivalents,<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n65/mode/1up</ref> and they could serve in the frontlines as well,<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-mxDH</ref> for instance. The People’s Republic of China made similar progress.<ref>https://mronline.org/?p=81130</ref> In 2011 they liberated twenty‐four thousand abducted women and children.<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=3815</ref>
  
 
Unfortunately, not all socialists have spotless records.<ref>https://libcom.org/history/gay-gulag</ref> For example, after anticommunists incited ethnic tensions in the East and manipulated the nations into collaboration,<ref>https://imgur.com/o3vVwLi</ref> the Kremlin was unfortunately forced to relocate<ref>https://wp.me/P1fDRx-3Yv</ref> most of them (except for the veterans) elsewhere, and at least a thousand of them (unintentionally) perished<ref>https://msuweb.montclair.edu/~furrg/deportations_GT1110_eng.pdf</ref> (it was either this or leaving them at the hands of the Reich), but even so these actions would not fit the official criteria for genocide; documented evidence shows that Soviet authorities themselves allowed these people to return home<ref>https://espressostalinist.com/2011/07/20/bill-bland-on-the-enforced-resettlements-in-the-soviet-union/amp</ref> in the mid‐1950s.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n137/mode/1up</ref> Likewise, the Red Army’s men carnally abused thousands of people, but the other Soviets shot many of the abusers.<ref>https://akarlin.com/?p=941</ref> Sometimes the Allies expelled the (upper‐class) German families from Eastern Europe, but it was either this or leaving them with the thousands of disgruntled civilians,<ref>https://imgur.com/GFbyVL5</ref> who were theirselves responsible for many of the expulsions such as those in Sudetenland. Guevara<ref>https://jrnl.ie/3637170</ref> in his youth was a white supremacist,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/1lt4rb/_/cc2l72k</ref> but he became more antiracist in the later decades of his life.<ref>https://theredphoenixapl.org/2010/04/03/review-glenn-becks-revolutionary-holocaust-live-free-or-die-5/amp</ref><ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/8eot4j/_/dxy5f3l</ref> Castro’s administration also discriminated against gay men and incarcerated them for a couple decades, but he later felt deep regret over his misdeeds<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20180211175433/https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/americas/fidel-castro-takes-blame-for-1960s-gay-persecution/article1691613/</ref> and tried to make reparations for them in later decades. Gay rights in the P.R.C. have always been lacklustre, but they are steadily making progress now.<ref>https://www.sixthtone.com/news/1004416</ref> Some, such as Stalin<ref>https://www.leftvoice.org/?p=3303</ref> and Durruti,<ref>https://libcom.org/forums/history/was-durruti-homophobe-02092011</ref> unfortunately never had such awakenings, and certain early socialist theorists in particular exhibited at least a few indisputable prejudices: Bakunin’s anti‐Semitism and Engels’s heterosexism for example. But many serious socialists still feel that they erred tremendously there and would not force anybody to forgive them for those injustices.<ref>https://redd.it/chqolq</ref> When antisocialists stress this point though, they commit the exact same mistake that evolution‐deniers do when they stress Darwin’s (supposed)<ref>http://www.rationalrevolution.net/articles/darwin_nazism.htm</ref> white supremacy: even if their prejudices were relevant to their findings, somebody would simply have arrived at the nondiscriminatory conclusions, as most socialists now already do; if a nondiscriminatory tendency somehow did not exist, then it would have been necessary to invent it, and people would have supported socialism even if they knew (or thought) that some other socialist theorists were prejudiced against them. Most tellingly however is how little influence that their prejudices had: many Ukrainian anarchists and Spanish Republicans fought aggressively against antisemitism '''in spite of''' Bakunin’s and Proudhon’s own prejudices; gay communists<ref>https://voices.revealdigital.com/?a=cl&cl=CL1&sp=BCIFJJJA&ai=1&e=-------en-20--1--txt-txIN---------------1</ref> fought aggressively against heterosexism '''in spite of''' Engels’s prejudices; communist Africans, Mexicans, and Yugoslavians<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/revhist/backiss/vol3/no2/rosdolsk.html</ref> fought aggressively against white supremacy and colonialism '''in spite of''' Marx’s or Engels’s (disputed) prejudices against them, ''& cetera''. Were we to take the ‘theory, not practice’ cliché to its logical conclusion, then these criticisms would be utterly meaningless, by antisocialists’ own argumentation.
 
Unfortunately, not all socialists have spotless records.<ref>https://libcom.org/history/gay-gulag</ref> For example, after anticommunists incited ethnic tensions in the East and manipulated the nations into collaboration,<ref>https://imgur.com/o3vVwLi</ref> the Kremlin was unfortunately forced to relocate<ref>https://wp.me/P1fDRx-3Yv</ref> most of them (except for the veterans) elsewhere, and at least a thousand of them (unintentionally) perished<ref>https://msuweb.montclair.edu/~furrg/deportations_GT1110_eng.pdf</ref> (it was either this or leaving them at the hands of the Reich), but even so these actions would not fit the official criteria for genocide; documented evidence shows that Soviet authorities themselves allowed these people to return home<ref>https://espressostalinist.com/2011/07/20/bill-bland-on-the-enforced-resettlements-in-the-soviet-union/amp</ref> in the mid‐1950s.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n137/mode/1up</ref> Likewise, the Red Army’s men carnally abused thousands of people, but the other Soviets shot many of the abusers.<ref>https://akarlin.com/?p=941</ref> Sometimes the Allies expelled the (upper‐class) German families from Eastern Europe, but it was either this or leaving them with the thousands of disgruntled civilians,<ref>https://imgur.com/GFbyVL5</ref> who were theirselves responsible for many of the expulsions such as those in Sudetenland. Guevara<ref>https://jrnl.ie/3637170</ref> in his youth was a white supremacist,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/1lt4rb/_/cc2l72k</ref> but he became more antiracist in the later decades of his life.<ref>https://theredphoenixapl.org/2010/04/03/review-glenn-becks-revolutionary-holocaust-live-free-or-die-5/amp</ref><ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/8eot4j/_/dxy5f3l</ref> Castro’s administration also discriminated against gay men and incarcerated them for a couple decades, but he later felt deep regret over his misdeeds<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20180211175433/https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/americas/fidel-castro-takes-blame-for-1960s-gay-persecution/article1691613/</ref> and tried to make reparations for them in later decades. Gay rights in the P.R.C. have always been lacklustre, but they are steadily making progress now.<ref>https://www.sixthtone.com/news/1004416</ref> Some, such as Stalin<ref>https://www.leftvoice.org/?p=3303</ref> and Durruti,<ref>https://libcom.org/forums/history/was-durruti-homophobe-02092011</ref> unfortunately never had such awakenings, and certain early socialist theorists in particular exhibited at least a few indisputable prejudices: Bakunin’s anti‐Semitism and Engels’s heterosexism for example. But many serious socialists still feel that they erred tremendously there and would not force anybody to forgive them for those injustices.<ref>https://redd.it/chqolq</ref> When antisocialists stress this point though, they commit the exact same mistake that evolution‐deniers do when they stress Darwin’s (supposed)<ref>http://www.rationalrevolution.net/articles/darwin_nazism.htm</ref> white supremacy: even if their prejudices were relevant to their findings, somebody would simply have arrived at the nondiscriminatory conclusions, as most socialists now already do; if a nondiscriminatory tendency somehow did not exist, then it would have been necessary to invent it, and people would have supported socialism even if they knew (or thought) that some other socialist theorists were prejudiced against them. Most tellingly however is how little influence that their prejudices had: many Ukrainian anarchists and Spanish Republicans fought aggressively against antisemitism '''in spite of''' Bakunin’s and Proudhon’s own prejudices; gay communists<ref>https://voices.revealdigital.com/?a=cl&cl=CL1&sp=BCIFJJJA&ai=1&e=-------en-20--1--txt-txIN---------------1</ref> fought aggressively against heterosexism '''in spite of''' Engels’s prejudices; communist Africans, Mexicans, and Yugoslavians<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/revhist/backiss/vol3/no2/rosdolsk.html</ref> fought aggressively against white supremacy and colonialism '''in spite of''' Marx’s or Engels’s (disputed) prejudices against them, ''& cetera''. Were we to take the ‘theory, not practice’ cliché to its logical conclusion, then these criticisms would be utterly meaningless, by antisocialists’ own argumentation.
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Nonetheless, there is still a minority of socialists who play down the importance of inherited traits and characteristics, and tend to shrug off accusations of discrimination. Such individuals are formally called ‘class reductionists’ due to their frequent emphasis on class in defence of their misbehaviour. Less politely, they’re also called ‘brocialists’ or specifically ‘manarchists’. The extreme end of the spectrum contains so‐called third‐positionists, who explicitly attempt to connect their anticapitalism to their disgusting prejudices. Another camp is the trans‐exclusionists or so‐called ‘gender critics’ who sometimes appeal to anticapitalism in favour of their cissexism. These groups are normally despised by intersectionalists (that’s us!) and sometimes considered little better than the alt‐right.
 
Nonetheless, there is still a minority of socialists who play down the importance of inherited traits and characteristics, and tend to shrug off accusations of discrimination. Such individuals are formally called ‘class reductionists’ due to their frequent emphasis on class in defence of their misbehaviour. Less politely, they’re also called ‘brocialists’ or specifically ‘manarchists’. The extreme end of the spectrum contains so‐called third‐positionists, who explicitly attempt to connect their anticapitalism to their disgusting prejudices. Another camp is the trans‐exclusionists or so‐called ‘gender critics’ who sometimes appeal to anticapitalism in favour of their cissexism. These groups are normally despised by intersectionalists (that’s us!) and sometimes considered little better than the alt‐right.
  
Notable socialists include but are not limited to: Albert Einstein, H.G. Wells,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20190730142205/https://socialism-simplified.com/2018/12/28/einstein-h-g-wells-and-other-leading-figures-who-you-didnt-know-were-pro-stalin/?fbclid=IwAR1K3cFQub_uzDLE4wqcb0DL79i4AlvczmL44fDzx98S2Thp3HpZiTfzSc8</ref> Alexandra Kollontai, Angela Davis, Bill Haywood, Charlie Chaplin, David Rovics, Eugene V. Debs, Frida Kahlo, He Zhen,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=koNgDuzz3nIC&q=Zhen</ref> Helen Keller, Howard Zinn, Hélder Câmara, Jean‐Paul Sartre, Leila Kahled, Malala Yousafzai, Martin Luther King,<ref>https://www.rawstory.com/?p=756020</ref> Nelson Mandela, Pablo Picasso, Paul Robeson, Pete Seeger, Rosa Luxemburg, Stephen William Bragg, Thomas Sankara,<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/G7Vlt41HPUE</ref> Víctor Jara, Woody Guthrie, CNT<ref>https://libcom.org/library/what-cnt</ref>‐FAI,<ref>https://libcom.org/history/birth-fai</ref> the IWW,<ref>https://www.marxists.org/glossary/orgs/i/n.htm#iww</ref> and the other socialists mentioned in this section. In addition, the labour & civil rights activist César Chávez, whilst he did deny being communist,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=UDewyOYTpI8C&pg=PA107</ref> still advocated a movement that resembles perhaps most closely (libertarian) communism:<ref>https://libcom.org/library/libertarian-communism</ref>
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Notable socialists include but are not limited to: Albert Einstein, H.G. Wells,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20190730142205/https://socialism-simplified.com/2018/12/28/einstein-h-g-wells-and-other-leading-figures-who-you-didnt-know-were-pro-stalin/?fbclid=IwAR1K3cFQub_uzDLE4wqcb0DL79i4AlvczmL44fDzx98S2Thp3HpZiTfzSc8</ref> Alexandra Kollontai, Angela Davis, Bill Haywood, Charlie Chaplin, David Rovics, Eugene V. Debs, Frida Kahlo, He Zhen,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=koNgDuzz3nIC&q=Zhen</ref> Helen Keller, Howard Zinn, Hélder Câmara, Jean‐Paul Sartre, Leila Kahled, Malala Yousafzai, Martin Luther King,<ref>https://www.rawstory.com/?p=756020</ref> Nelson Mandela, Pablo Picasso, Paul Robeson, Pete Seeger, Rosa Luxemburg, Stephen William Bragg, Thomas Sankara,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/G7Vlt41HPUE</ref> Víctor Jara, Woody Guthrie, CNT<ref>https://libcom.org/library/what-cnt</ref>‐FAI,<ref>https://libcom.org/history/birth-fai</ref> the IWW,<ref>https://www.marxists.org/glossary/orgs/i/n.htm#iww</ref> and the other socialists mentioned in this section. In addition, the labour & civil rights activist César Chávez, whilst he did deny being communist,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=UDewyOYTpI8C&pg=PA107</ref> still advocated a movement that resembles perhaps most closely (libertarian) communism:<ref>https://libcom.org/library/libertarian-communism</ref>
  
 
<blockquote>‘I guess that I have an ideology, but it probably cannot be described in terms of any political or economic system. But '''I think that some power has to come to farm workers and the poor so that they can manage their lives. I don’t care what system that it be; it is not going to work if they don’t have power'''.’<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=yaTf7RQg0XoC&pg=PA110</ref> (Paraphrased; emphasis added. It may also be worth mentioning that Chávez was influenced by the socialist Eugene V. Debs.)<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=UDewyOYTpI8C&pg=PA108</ref></blockquote>
 
<blockquote>‘I guess that I have an ideology, but it probably cannot be described in terms of any political or economic system. But '''I think that some power has to come to farm workers and the poor so that they can manage their lives. I don’t care what system that it be; it is not going to work if they don’t have power'''.’<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=yaTf7RQg0XoC&pg=PA110</ref> (Paraphrased; emphasis added. It may also be worth mentioning that Chávez was influenced by the socialist Eugene V. Debs.)<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=UDewyOYTpI8C&pg=PA108</ref></blockquote>
  
Aside from our interest in equity, some of us (such as Mandela) have also campaigned for prison reform, and some of us have been fixing up streets,<ref>https://itsgoingdown.org/?p=109408</ref> giving away food<ref>https://itsgoingdown.org/?p=139208</ref> and medicine<ref>https://imgur.com/a/t4NNt</ref> to people,<ref>https://doi.org/10.1080/00045600802683767</ref> making the streets safer for the homeless,<ref>https://theaccidentalacnarchist.wordpress.com/tag/antihomeless-spikes</ref> healing people gratis,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=4WDIAAAAQBAJ</ref> providing<ref>https://solidarity-us.org/atc/184/p4766</ref> abortions gratis,<ref>https://icl-fi.org/english/wv/1138/ed_keemer.html</ref><ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/atc/864.html</ref> establishing housing cooperatives,<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/xoe08ar2uUM</ref> organizing thousands of landless peasants,<ref>http://www.redflag.org.uk/frontline/seven/07che.html</ref> empowering agriculturalists,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20180314064415/http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/kisan-sabha-protest-march-mumbai/article23039856.ece</ref> supporting miners,<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/l9l377ZTG6E</ref> creating entertainment and luxuries for others, constructing shelters for others,<ref>http://www.left-dis.nl/uk/bordigaunknowm.htm</ref> and more. There is an Argentinian factory called FaSinPat<ref>http://upsidedownworld.org/?p=2052</ref> which is managed and operated by the proletariat, subsequently improving conditions there. They have provided a tile floor for a café in Hotel Bauen,<ref>https://soundcloud.com/snapjudgment/a-stitch-in-time-snap-judgment</ref> likewise proletarian‐controlled. In the 1980s, 784 Cubans travelled to Grenada, some being construction workers, medical personnel, diplomatic personnel, teachers, and a little military personnel. They constructed a new, all‐weather, 24‐hour aeroport with a 10,000 foot runway for jumbo jets carrying tourists; they constructed new port facilities for banana boats; and they opened many free health clinics. Fidel Castro said this in ''Monthly Review''’s June 1995 issue:
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Aside from our interest in equity, some of us (such as Mandela) have also campaigned for prison reform, and some of us have been fixing up streets,<ref>https://itsgoingdown.org/?p=109408</ref> giving away food<ref>https://itsgoingdown.org/?p=139208</ref> and medicine<ref>https://imgur.com/a/t4NNt</ref> to people,<ref>https://doi.org/10.1080/00045600802683767</ref> making the streets safer for the homeless,<ref>https://theaccidentalacnarchist.wordpress.com/tag/antihomeless-spikes</ref> healing people gratis,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=4WDIAAAAQBAJ</ref> providing<ref>https://solidarity-us.org/atc/184/p4766</ref> abortions gratis,<ref>https://icl-fi.org/english/wv/1138/ed_keemer.html</ref><ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/atc/864.html</ref> establishing housing cooperatives,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/xoe08ar2uUM</ref> organizing thousands of landless peasants,<ref>http://www.redflag.org.uk/frontline/seven/07che.html</ref> empowering agriculturalists,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20180314064415/http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/kisan-sabha-protest-march-mumbai/article23039856.ece</ref> supporting miners,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/l9l377ZTG6E</ref> creating entertainment and luxuries for others, constructing shelters for others,<ref>http://www.left-dis.nl/uk/bordigaunknowm.htm</ref> and more. There is an Argentinian factory called FaSinPat<ref>http://upsidedownworld.org/?p=2052</ref> which is managed and operated by the proletariat, subsequently improving conditions there. They have provided a tile floor for a café in Hotel Bauen,<ref>https://soundcloud.com/snapjudgment/a-stitch-in-time-snap-judgment</ref> likewise proletarian‐controlled. In the 1980s, 784 Cubans travelled to Grenada, some being construction workers, medical personnel, diplomatic personnel, teachers, and a little military personnel. They constructed a new, all‐weather, 24‐hour aeroport with a 10,000 foot runway for jumbo jets carrying tourists; they constructed new port facilities for banana boats; and they opened many free health clinics. Fidel Castro said this in ''Monthly Review''’s June 1995 issue:
  
<blockquote>‘The [Cuban] revolution<ref>https://redd.it/cgkg8s</ref> has sent teachers, doctors, and workers to dozens of Third World countries without charging a penny. It shed its own blood fighting colonialism, fighting apartheid, and fascism. […] At one point we had 25,000 Third World students studying on scholarships. We still have many scholarship students from Africa and other countries. In addition, our [republic] has treated<ref>https://www.dawn.com/news/146507/chernobyl-victims-heal-in-cuba</ref> more children [13,000] who were victims<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/H10xE1CcKxQ</ref> of the Chernobyl tragedy<ref>https://jacobinmag.com/2019/07/chernobyl-tv-show-russiagate</ref> than all other countries put together. […] [We are] the country with the most teachers per capita of all countries in the world, including developed countries. The country with the most doctors per capita of all countries [one for every 214 inhabitants]. The country with the most art instructors per capita of all countries in the world. The country with the most sports instructors in the world. That gives you an idea of the effort involved. A country where life expectancy is more than 75 years.’</blockquote>
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<blockquote>‘The [Cuban] revolution<ref>https://redd.it/cgkg8s</ref> has sent teachers, doctors, and workers to dozens of Third World countries without charging a penny. It shed its own blood fighting colonialism, fighting apartheid, and fascism. […] At one point we had 25,000 Third World students studying on scholarships. We still have many scholarship students from Africa and other countries. In addition, our [republic] has treated<ref>https://www.dawn.com/news/146507/chernobyl-victims-heal-in-cuba</ref> more children [13,000] who were victims<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/H10xE1CcKxQ</ref> of the Chernobyl tragedy<ref>https://jacobinmag.com/2019/07/chernobyl-tv-show-russiagate</ref> than all other countries put together. […] [We are] the country with the most teachers per capita of all countries in the world, including developed countries. The country with the most doctors per capita of all countries [one for every 214 inhabitants]. The country with the most art instructors per capita of all countries in the world. The country with the most sports instructors in the world. That gives you an idea of the effort involved. A country where life expectancy is more than 75 years.’</blockquote>
  
 
Similarly over a decade later, they would become the most important supporter to the Haitians after the 2010 earthquake,<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=1468</ref> assisted Mozambicans after they suffered a hurricane,<ref>http://www.ahora.cu/en/health/4733</ref> and provided the most important medical support to western Africa during the Ebola outbreak.<ref>https://amp.theguardian.com/world/2014/dec/05/cuba-ebola-response-united-states-embargo-shame</ref>
 
Similarly over a decade later, they would become the most important supporter to the Haitians after the 2010 earthquake,<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=1468</ref> assisted Mozambicans after they suffered a hurricane,<ref>http://www.ahora.cu/en/health/4733</ref> and provided the most important medical support to western Africa during the Ebola outbreak.<ref>https://amp.theguardian.com/world/2014/dec/05/cuba-ebola-response-united-states-embargo-shame</ref>
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Each of the planned economies endeavoured to establish a system of social insurance benefits on a very broad base (far beyond what would ordinarily be considered corresponding to its level of economic development generally). They provided a closely integrated and complete single system for the provision of succour for all disabilities (''Transitional Economic Systems'',<ref>https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7iUwYR74MlbcFBxbWxsdHNLMHM</ref> page 237). The cost of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic’s system in particular were to be high, nearly 18% of payroll, contribution rates being 10% for old age and disability, 1% for accidents and 6.8% for illness (Ibid., page 241). The Soviet Union acknowledged deaf‐blind humans and provided them with education.<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/meshcheryakov/awakening/index.htm</ref> While some market economies equalled or even exceeded the Soviet Union in certain social security rights, as medical care and disability and retirement benefits, none matched them overall.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n72/mode/1up</ref> In fact, the Soviet retirement and disability system (especially for disabilities unrelated to employment) was generous by U.S. standards, especially taking taking into consideration the heavily subsidised basics of life.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n156/mode/1up</ref> Similarly today, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea accommodates people with mobility impairments.<ref>https://twitter.com/korcounterprop/status/1043310274852220928</ref>
 
Each of the planned economies endeavoured to establish a system of social insurance benefits on a very broad base (far beyond what would ordinarily be considered corresponding to its level of economic development generally). They provided a closely integrated and complete single system for the provision of succour for all disabilities (''Transitional Economic Systems'',<ref>https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7iUwYR74MlbcFBxbWxsdHNLMHM</ref> page 237). The cost of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic’s system in particular were to be high, nearly 18% of payroll, contribution rates being 10% for old age and disability, 1% for accidents and 6.8% for illness (Ibid., page 241). The Soviet Union acknowledged deaf‐blind humans and provided them with education.<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/meshcheryakov/awakening/index.htm</ref> While some market economies equalled or even exceeded the Soviet Union in certain social security rights, as medical care and disability and retirement benefits, none matched them overall.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n72/mode/1up</ref> In fact, the Soviet retirement and disability system (especially for disabilities unrelated to employment) was generous by U.S. standards, especially taking taking into consideration the heavily subsidised basics of life.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n156/mode/1up</ref> Similarly today, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea accommodates people with mobility impairments.<ref>https://twitter.com/korcounterprop/status/1043310274852220928</ref>
  
See also §12<ref>https://www.reddit.com/r/shitliberalssay/wiki/index#wiki_socialism_has_not_and_never_will_work</ref> for our further contributions in people’s republics and territories. For an exhaustive response to accusations of Soviet ‘self‐colonization’, ‘neocolonialism’, ‘Russification’, and so forth… read ''Human Rights in the Soviet Union.''<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion</ref> All of this may seem a trivial point, but remember that this is a response to the antisocialists who repetitively equate us with the Fascists.
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See also [[§12|user:Anarcho-Bolshevik/compendium#Socialism_has_not_and_never_will_work]] for our further contributions in people’s republics and territories. For an exhaustive response to accusations of Soviet ‘self‐colonization’, ‘neocolonialism’, ‘Russification’, and so forth… read ''Human Rights in the Soviet Union.''<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion</ref> All of this may seem a trivial point, but remember that this is a response to the antisocialists who repetitively equate us with the Fascists.
  
 
== Capitalism has brought hundreds of millions out of poverty==
 
== Capitalism has brought hundreds of millions out of poverty==
  
The claim is supported only thanks to repeatedly redefining ‘poverty’<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/A6VqV1T4uYs</ref> and diminishing the methods for reducing it.<ref>https://www.al.com/news/index.ssf/2017/12/un_poverty_official_touring_al.html</ref> Not only has global poverty not been shrinking,<ref>https://wp.me/p3S7dT-7qF</ref> but by some measures, poverty has actually become '''worse'''.<ref>https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/08/exposing-great-poverty-reductio-201481211590729809.html</ref> (Further data.)<ref>https://i.redd.it/h5zz7wdjwi6y.png</ref> Oxfam for example has discovered that in many nations wage inequality has '''increased''' and that the share of labour compensation in GDP has declined because profits have increased more rapidly than wages.<ref>https://www.oxfamamerica.org/static/media/files/bp-reward-work-not-wealth-220118-en.pdf</ref> Anarchists in particular have likewise responded thoroughly to the claim that neoliberalism has been decreasing poverty.<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secC10.html#secc101</ref> An academic at the University of London has done likewise.<ref>https://amp.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/jan/29/bill-gates-davos-global-poverty-infographic-neoliberal</ref> Only by using a variety of rhetorical tricks, strange economic logic (adding a millionaire to a homeless family would mean that their ‘average income’ increased), and outright distortions, can capitalist intellectuals claim that their economy has reduced poverty. '''It has not.'''<ref>https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01436597.2015.1109439</ref> Some of the capitalists’ citations are just pseudoscientific: this entire source,<ref>https://ourworldindata.org/no-matter-what-global-poverty-line</ref> for example, is based in the World Bank’s flawed methodology (the flaws explained already in the video link earlier in this paragraph). Their first source is simply an unfinished working paper that was '''not''' peer reviewed and was '''not''' published in any scientific journal (it was instead released by the Peterson Institute for International Economics, which is a capitalist think tank), and their second source is just another working paper from the same source. (Curiously, this one source takes 40% of its funding from corporations, as they theirselves admitted in the report;<ref>https://piie.com/sites/default/files/supporters.pdf</ref> it seems that they are not only ideologically invested in claiming that capitalism is saving everyone, but are financially invested as well.) Unsurprisingly, several other sources contradict their conclusion.<ref>https://revisesociology.com/2017/01/06/global-wealth-inequality-trends/amp</ref>
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The claim is supported only thanks to repeatedly redefining ‘poverty’<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/A6VqV1T4uYs</ref> and diminishing the methods for reducing it.<ref>https://www.al.com/news/index.ssf/2017/12/un_poverty_official_touring_al.html</ref> Not only has global poverty not been shrinking,<ref>https://wp.me/p3S7dT-7qF</ref> but by some measures, poverty has actually become '''worse'''.<ref>https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/08/exposing-great-poverty-reductio-201481211590729809.html</ref> (Further data.)<ref>https://i.redd.it/h5zz7wdjwi6y.png</ref> Oxfam for example has discovered that in many nations wage inequality has '''increased''' and that the share of labour compensation in GDP has declined because profits have increased more rapidly than wages.<ref>https://www.oxfamamerica.org/static/media/files/bp-reward-work-not-wealth-220118-en.pdf</ref> Anarchists in particular have likewise responded thoroughly to the claim that neoliberalism has been decreasing poverty.<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secC10.html#secc101</ref> An academic at the University of London has done likewise.<ref>https://amp.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/jan/29/bill-gates-davos-global-poverty-infographic-neoliberal</ref> Only by using a variety of rhetorical tricks, strange economic logic (adding a millionaire to a homeless family would mean that their ‘average income’ increased), and outright distortions, can capitalist intellectuals claim that their economy has reduced poverty. '''It has not.'''<ref>https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01436597.2015.1109439</ref> Some of the capitalists’ citations are just pseudoscientific: this entire source,<ref>https://ourworldindata.org/no-matter-what-global-poverty-line</ref> for example, is based in the World Bank’s flawed methodology (the flaws explained already in the video link earlier in this paragraph). Their first source is simply an unfinished working paper that was '''not''' peer reviewed and was '''not''' published in any scientific journal (it was instead released by the Peterson Institute for International Economics, which is a capitalist think tank), and their second source is just another working paper from the same source. (Curiously, this one source takes 40% of its funding from corporations, as they theirselves admitted in the report;<ref>https://piie.com/sites/default/files/supporters.pdf</ref> it seems that they are not only ideologically invested in claiming that capitalism is saving everyone, but are financially invested as well.) Unsurprisingly, several other sources contradict their conclusion.<ref>https://revisesociology.com/2017/01/06/global-wealth-inequality-trends/amp</ref>
  
Closely related to this myth is that capitalism or specifically neoliberalism has lifted hundreds of millions of Chinese out of poverty: credible only if merely adding more millionaires counts as ‘poverty reduction’; as the anarchist FAQ previously linked stated: Chinese (and Indian) inequality actually increased during the 1990s. As of 2015, Hong Kong in particular has a rather interesting way of showing their prosperity: massive income disparity, low wages, hundreds of thousands of citizens living on rooftop slums and subdivided flats, and Oxfam has estimated that the poverty rate amongst those 65 years and older is at 40%.<ref>https://www.hongkongfp.com/?p=24972</ref> Contrary to popular misbelief, Hong Kong does not have an ungoverned economy, but it certainly doesn’t have a socialist one either.<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secC12.html</ref> Their business sector has always been highly influential, and the local government has collaborated with them frequently. The profit‐cutting concessions to the masses there, such as public healthcare, were granted only on behalf of the lower classes; they were not the demands of ‘generous’ or ‘ingenious’ entrepreneurs. Likewise, when the bourgeoisie imposed neoliberalism on Easterners we saw only increases in poverty. For example, in the former Yugoslavia’s ‘''two regions that were the main supposed beneficiaries of [so‐called] humanitarian intervention, the result in one — Bosnia — has been a failed ministate and NATO‐power neocolony, administered by a “High Representative” appointed by the European Union, with official unemployment around 45% and ¼ of the population living in poverty, [which the bourgeoisie] splintered ethnically into two statelets that are held in place by coercion only, and with much corruption and crime.''’<ref>https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=8412</ref> Since the 2010s, almost 60% of the Ukrainian population lives '''below''' the poverty line (according to data of the M.V. Ptukha Institute of Demography and Social Surveys, the National Academy of Science of Ukraine). While Ukrainian wages did increase, so did the prices, and the population became poorer by over a third.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/CmH9oNtXzF8</ref>
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Closely related to this myth is that capitalism or specifically neoliberalism has lifted hundreds of millions of Chinese out of poverty: credible only if merely adding more millionaires counts as ‘poverty reduction’; as the anarchist FAQ previously linked stated: Chinese (and Indian) inequality actually increased during the 1990s. As of 2015, Hong Kong in particular has a rather interesting way of showing their prosperity: massive income disparity, low wages, hundreds of thousands of citizens living on rooftop slums and subdivided flats, and Oxfam has estimated that the poverty rate amongst those 65 years and older is at 40%.<ref>https://www.hongkongfp.com/?p=24972</ref> Contrary to popular misbelief, Hong Kong does not have an ungoverned economy, but it certainly doesn’t have a socialist one either.<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secC12.html</ref> Their business sector has always been highly influential, and the local government has collaborated with them frequently. The profit‐cutting concessions to the masses there, such as public healthcare, were granted only on behalf of the lower classes; they were not the demands of ‘generous’ or ‘ingenious’ entrepreneurs. Likewise, when the bourgeoisie imposed neoliberalism on Easterners we saw only increases in poverty. For example, in the former Yugoslavia’s ‘''two regions that were the main supposed beneficiaries of [so‐called] humanitarian intervention, the result in one — Bosnia — has been a failed ministate and NATO‐power neocolony, administered by a “High Representative” appointed by the European Union, with official unemployment around 45% and ¼ of the population living in poverty, [which the bourgeoisie] splintered ethnically into two statelets that are held in place by coercion only, and with much corruption and crime.''’<ref>https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=8412</ref> Since the 2010s, almost 60% of the Ukrainian population lives '''below''' the poverty line (according to data of the M.V. Ptukha Institute of Demography and Social Surveys, the National Academy of Science of Ukraine). While Ukrainian wages did increase, so did the prices, and the population became poorer by over a third.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/CmH9oNtXzF8</ref>
  
 
See also:  
 
See also:  
Line 234: Line 232:
 
== Liberal, capitalist governments do not (intentionally) harm their own citizens==
 
== Liberal, capitalist governments do not (intentionally) harm their own citizens==
  
Even ignoring the most obvious exception of the death penalty, this is incorrect. There are many examples of the U.S. government in particular intentionally killing<ref>http://links.org.au/node/1668</ref> folks at home.<ref>https://thenib.com/the-assassination-of-fred-hampton</ref> Decades ago they tested stimulants (biological weapons) on citizens who were unwittingly exposed.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20160304052222/http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/Military-Germs-US-Cities.htm</ref> They also tested them on military applicants (such as Rollins Edwards) based on their ethnicity.<ref>https://n.pr/1dKmhgd</ref> (Aside from being unrequested, drafts were the law back then, making any evasion almost impossible.) The practice is actually quite old and is almost certainly occurring to this day.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/TRMT1eozxPg</ref> Further examples.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20170927042801/https://fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/cbw/bw.htm</ref> More.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20130615191227/http://www.duotone.com:80/coldwar/biowarfare/</ref> (Courtesy of this NSFW(!)<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20170606162746/http://www.rationalrevolution.net/war/american_testing_of_biological_a.htm</ref> resource.)
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Even ignoring the most obvious exception of the death penalty, this is incorrect. There are many examples of the U.S. government in particular intentionally killing<ref>http://links.org.au/node/1668</ref> folks at home.<ref>https://thenib.com/the-assassination-of-fred-hampton</ref> Decades ago they tested stimulants (biological weapons) on citizens who were unwittingly exposed.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20160304052222/http://www.mindfully.org/Reform/Military-Germs-US-Cities.htm</ref> They also tested them on military applicants (such as Rollins Edwards) based on their ethnicity.<ref>https://n.pr/1dKmhgd</ref> (Aside from being unrequested, drafts were the law back then, making any evasion almost impossible.) The practice is actually quite old and is almost certainly occurring to this day.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/TRMT1eozxPg</ref> Further examples.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20170927042801/https://fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/cbw/bw.htm</ref> More.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20130615191227/http://www.duotone.com:80/coldwar/biowarfare/</ref> (Courtesy of this NSFW(!)<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20170606162746/http://www.rationalrevolution.net/war/american_testing_of_biological_a.htm</ref> resource.)
  
 
In addition, there is evidence of the feds consciously targeting racial, sexual, and gender minorities.<ref>http://www.latina.com/node/43853</ref> Oft‐times, while officials may not have explicitly ordered abuse, they are aware that it is happening yet do nothing about it. (If they somehow haven’t learnt about them already, they could certainly look at reports about the poisoning in Flint, Michigan, or the abuses under the prison system.)<ref>https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/01/30/the-caging-of-america</ref> But why would they ignore the abuses occurring? The answer is that addressing them would be unprofitable in both the short term and the long term: that is how it is relevant to capitalism.
 
In addition, there is evidence of the feds consciously targeting racial, sexual, and gender minorities.<ref>http://www.latina.com/node/43853</ref> Oft‐times, while officials may not have explicitly ordered abuse, they are aware that it is happening yet do nothing about it. (If they somehow haven’t learnt about them already, they could certainly look at reports about the poisoning in Flint, Michigan, or the abuses under the prison system.)<ref>https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/01/30/the-caging-of-america</ref> But why would they ignore the abuses occurring? The answer is that addressing them would be unprofitable in both the short term and the long term: that is how it is relevant to capitalism.
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Another common target for state‐sanctioned abuse is the homeless.<ref>https://duckduckgo.com/?q=police+shot+homeless</ref> For example, the city of Manteca has enforced laws that prevent the poor from sitting or lying on the sidewalk, having any possessions with them, sleeping in public, and having encampments.<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=15366</ref> In Fort Lauderdale it is illegal to even feed the homeless.<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=12351</ref> The police have even been abusing and threatening poor children.<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=14876</ref>
 
Another common target for state‐sanctioned abuse is the homeless.<ref>https://duckduckgo.com/?q=police+shot+homeless</ref> For example, the city of Manteca has enforced laws that prevent the poor from sitting or lying on the sidewalk, having any possessions with them, sleeping in public, and having encampments.<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=15366</ref> In Fort Lauderdale it is illegal to even feed the homeless.<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=12351</ref> The police have even been abusing and threatening poor children.<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=14876</ref>
  
Finally, there is the issue of political liberty, which was historically<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/8k73bd/_/dz68hdl</ref> denied to socialists<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/Hznlp-DwgSw</ref> (as during the 1970s in Illinois),<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=XGBrLo4WbJ8C&pg=PA235</ref><ref>https://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/m/a.htm#maccarthyism</ref> and continues to this<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/-YoZRPTPly0</ref> day.<ref>https://duckduckgo.com/?q=protesters+arrested+America</ref> Arrests are not simply limited to damaging (cheap) property, but other ‘offences’ such as obstructing a shitty pipeline,<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/KqanmctAoLs</ref> protesting police brutality,<ref>http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/4/30/thousands-march-nationwide-to-protest-police-violence.html</ref> being a vocal Cuban communist,<ref>https://williamblum.org/essays/read/cuban-political-prisoners-...-in-the-united-states</ref><ref>https://twitter.com/phillysocialist/status/1009097612438462464</ref> being a prominent, effective charity organizer for Palestine,<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/HdDYcPWxyks</ref> protesting the President at the wrong place at the wrong time<ref>https://duckduckgo.com/?q=“arrested+at+anti-Trump”</ref> in the wrong way,<ref>https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/briannasacks/a-texas-woman-is-in-jail-after-a-sheriff-called-out-her</ref> and more!<ref>https://github.com/dessalines/essays/blob/master/us_atrocities.md#pervasive</ref> Even the antisocialist ''Human Rights Watch'' has documented numerous domestic offences for which the White House is responsible.<ref>https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2018/country-chapters/united-states</ref> For a comprehensive timeline of the civil rights violations that American officials have committed, see ''Human Rights in the Soviet Union'', chapter 6.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n84/mode/1up</ref>
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Finally, there is the issue of political liberty, which was historically<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/8k73bd/_/dz68hdl</ref> denied to socialists<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/Hznlp-DwgSw</ref> (as during the 1970s in Illinois),<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=XGBrLo4WbJ8C&pg=PA235</ref><ref>https://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/m/a.htm#maccarthyism</ref> and continues to this<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/-YoZRPTPly0</ref> day.<ref>https://duckduckgo.com/?q=protesters+arrested+America</ref> Arrests are not simply limited to damaging (cheap) property, but other ‘offences’ such as obstructing a shitty pipeline,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/KqanmctAoLs</ref> protesting police brutality,<ref>http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/4/30/thousands-march-nationwide-to-protest-police-violence.html</ref> being a vocal Cuban communist,<ref>https://williamblum.org/essays/read/cuban-political-prisoners-...-in-the-united-states</ref><ref>https://twitter.com/phillysocialist/status/1009097612438462464</ref> being a prominent, effective charity organizer for Palestine,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/HdDYcPWxyks</ref> protesting the President at the wrong place at the wrong time<ref>https://duckduckgo.com/?q=“arrested+at+anti-Trump”</ref> in the wrong way,<ref>https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/briannasacks/a-texas-woman-is-in-jail-after-a-sheriff-called-out-her</ref> and more!<ref>https://github.com/dessalines/essays/blob/master/us_atrocities.md#pervasive</ref> Even the antisocialist ''Human Rights Watch'' has documented numerous domestic offences for which the White House is responsible.<ref>https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2018/country-chapters/united-states</ref> For a comprehensive timeline of the civil rights violations that American officials have committed, see ''Human Rights in the Soviet Union'', chapter 6.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n84/mode/1up</ref>
  
The U.K. government in particular has a history of abusing segments of its own population;<ref>https://LeoInEngland.tumblr.com/post/139967529867/amp</ref> as, abusing the protesters of an unpopular tax reform, abusing miners who went on strike, and in 1985 abusing hundreds of attendants (including pregnant ones and ones holding infants) at a harmless festival that violated a high court order. The liberal state of Great Britain deliberately massacred dozens of Irelanders (NSFL),<ref>https://wp.me/p708bA-jP</ref> including two eleven‐year‐olds<ref>https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1121773207072247809</ref> and an adolescent;<ref>https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1117791364010450946</ref> during the short twentieth century in particular they invoked emergency laws to quash unionist, socialist, and other anticolonialist movements in Northern Ireland.<ref>https://www.jstor.org/stable/3020863</ref> Until the late 1970s, the bourgeois state also coerced gay men (most famously Alan Turing) into suffering emetics, electric shocks,<ref>https://www.bmj.com/content/328/7437/427</ref> and chemical castrations (and they did not offer any apology until the 2010s). In 2015, they admitted that nearly 10,000 people have died after they denied them their full sickness benefits (with almost one in four of them dead within two weeks of ordering them to get a job).<ref>https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/disabled-man-starved-death-four-6334256</ref> ^[1]<ref>https://amp.theguardian.com/society/2015/aug/27/thousands-died-after-fit-for-work-assessment-dwp-figures</ref> Their Department for Work and Pensions drew up plans to charge disabled humans for appeals against benefit decisions.<ref>https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/dwp-drew-up-plans-to-charge-disabled-people-for-fit-to-work-appeals-internal-documents-reveal-a6993996.html</ref> The bourgeois state even prevented disabled conservatives from obtaining their welfare.<ref>https://amp.theguardian.com/politics/2016/mar/21/huge-injustice-conservative-disability-graeme-ellis-labour</ref>
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The U.K. government in particular has a history of abusing segments of its own population;<ref>https://LeoInEngland.tumblr.com/post/139967529867/amp</ref> as, abusing the protesters of an unpopular tax reform, abusing miners who went on strike, and in 1985 abusing hundreds of attendants (including pregnant ones and ones holding infants) at a harmless festival that violated a high court order. The liberal state of Great Britain deliberately massacred dozens of Irelanders (NSFL),<ref>https://wp.me/p708bA-jP</ref> including two eleven‐year‐olds<ref>https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1121773207072247809</ref> and an adolescent;<ref>https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1117791364010450946</ref> during the short twentieth century in particular they invoked emergency laws to quash unionist, socialist, and other anticolonialist movements in Northern Ireland.<ref>https://www.jstor.org/stable/3020863</ref> Until the late 1970s, the bourgeois state also coerced gay men (most famously Alan Turing) into suffering emetics, electric shocks,<ref>https://www.bmj.com/content/328/7437/427</ref> and chemical castrations (and they did not offer any apology until the 2010s). In 2015, they admitted that nearly 10,000 people have died after they denied them their full sickness benefits (with almost one in four of them dead within two weeks of ordering them to get a job).<ref>https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/disabled-man-starved-death-four-6334256</ref> <ref>https://amp.theguardian.com/society/2015/aug/27/thousands-died-after-fit-for-work-assessment-dwp-figures</ref> Their Department for Work and Pensions drew up plans to charge disabled humans for appeals against benefit decisions.<ref>https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/dwp-drew-up-plans-to-charge-disabled-people-for-fit-to-work-appeals-internal-documents-reveal-a6993996.html</ref> The bourgeois state even prevented disabled conservatives from obtaining their welfare.<ref>https://amp.theguardian.com/politics/2016/mar/21/huge-injustice-conservative-disability-graeme-ellis-labour</ref>
  
 
In 1916, the Commonwealth of Australia suspended socialists Siebenhaar and H. M. Leighton (a clerk in the Registrar‐General’s Department who was president of the Anti‐Conscription League),<ref>http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/siebenhaar-willem-13193</ref> and in the late 1970s the bourgeois state also used the Prevention of Terrorism Act to raid eighty anarchist homes and arrest several anarchist ‘conspirators’ (Persons Unknown) on the unsupported grounds that they were going to commit crimes.<ref>https://freedomarchives.org/Documents/Finder/DOC511_scans/Black_Flag/511.BlackFlag.vol.5.No.10.1979.pdf</ref> In 1940, the Commonwealth of Australia forcibly dissolved the Communist Party and prohibited nine leftist publications. Government officers raided Party
 
In 1916, the Commonwealth of Australia suspended socialists Siebenhaar and H. M. Leighton (a clerk in the Registrar‐General’s Department who was president of the Anti‐Conscription League),<ref>http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/siebenhaar-willem-13193</ref> and in the late 1970s the bourgeois state also used the Prevention of Terrorism Act to raid eighty anarchist homes and arrest several anarchist ‘conspirators’ (Persons Unknown) on the unsupported grounds that they were going to commit crimes.<ref>https://freedomarchives.org/Documents/Finder/DOC511_scans/Black_Flag/511.BlackFlag.vol.5.No.10.1979.pdf</ref> In 1940, the Commonwealth of Australia forcibly dissolved the Communist Party and prohibited nine leftist publications. Government officers raided Party
 
premises, seized papers and documents, and subjected socialists to surveillance. In 1950 the state reprohibited and subsequently raided the Party again<ref>https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/MelbULawRw/1992/6.pdf</ref> (though they did undo the act in March of 1951). In 2006 forty people peacefully protested the state‐sanctioned funeral of a tax cheat, and the police arrested six of the nonviolent protesters.<ref>https://www.greenleft.org.au/content/fitting-send-kerry-packer</ref> These unambiguously political examples aside, the bourgeois state has also been abducting aboriginal children even as late as the 2010s.<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=11118</ref>
 
premises, seized papers and documents, and subjected socialists to surveillance. In 1950 the state reprohibited and subsequently raided the Party again<ref>https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/MelbULawRw/1992/6.pdf</ref> (though they did undo the act in March of 1951). In 2006 forty people peacefully protested the state‐sanctioned funeral of a tax cheat, and the police arrested six of the nonviolent protesters.<ref>https://www.greenleft.org.au/content/fitting-send-kerry-packer</ref> These unambiguously political examples aside, the bourgeois state has also been abducting aboriginal children even as late as the 2010s.<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=11118</ref>
  
In 1918, the Dominion of Canada outlawed labour organizations<ref>https://historyofrights.ca/?p=6067</ref> (most notably the IWW)<ref>https://canadianlabour.ca/?p=3914</ref> and imprisoned their members, often in internment camps. From 1937 to 1957, the Québécois state criminalized promotion of communism and anything perceived as such.<ref>https://canlii.ca/t/1nlkf</ref> In late 1945, the Prime Minister referred to a supposed Soviet spy ring as an excuse to suspend citizens’ civil liberties, and the oppression lasted for the rest of the 1940s.<ref>https://historyofrights.ca/?p=145</ref> Outside of the outright political repression, Canadian officials have been coercing indigenous humans into undergoing sterilisations even as late as the 2010s.<ref>https://globalnews.ca/?p=5733717</ref> ^[1],<ref>https://twitter.com/tashaNOTtosha/status/1064168601933021186</ref> ^[2]<ref>https://wp.me/pa7b25-1s</ref>
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In 1918, the Dominion of Canada outlawed labour organizations<ref>https://historyofrights.ca/?p=6067</ref> (most notably the IWW)<ref>https://canadianlabour.ca/?p=3914</ref> and imprisoned their members, often in internment camps. From 1937 to 1957, the Québécois state criminalized promotion of communism and anything perceived as such.<ref>https://canlii.ca/t/1nlkf</ref> In late 1945, the Prime Minister referred to a supposed Soviet spy ring as an excuse to suspend citizens’ civil liberties, and the oppression lasted for the rest of the 1940s.<ref>https://historyofrights.ca/?p=145</ref> Outside of the outright political repression, Canadian officials have been coercing indigenous humans into undergoing sterilisations even as late as the 2010s.<ref>https://globalnews.ca/?p=5733717</ref> <ref>https://twitter.com/tashaNOTtosha/status/1064168601933021186</ref> <ref>https://wp.me/pa7b25-1s</ref>
  
 
Since about 1906, the Swedish state forcibly sterilized dozens of thousands of people—most of them women and girls,<ref>https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/1999/03/euge-19m.html</ref> sometimes on grounds that they were ‘loose’, too poor, had ‘mental defects’, or simply because they were multiracial. The practice declined in the 1970s, but it was not fully abolished until the 2010s; they pressured scores of transpeople into undergoing the process as well.<ref>https://wp.me/p6HB8a-a3Y</ref> The government has expressed regret for their programme and has tried to compensate the surviving victims, but with limited success,<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=5855</ref> and in any case Sweden remained a ‘model democracy’ for that entire period. Likewise, from the 1940s to the 1960s, the Swedish social democracy committed thousands of lobotomies<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=YqYFBbp0u2wC&pg=PA161</ref> (all without the victims’ permission of course). In the 1920s (when the famous social democrat, Hjalmar Branting, was still in power) the social democracy established the SIFR, the first ‘racial science’ institute of that decade, which up until WWII published propaganda claiming that the Finns and Sámi were inferior to Swedes. Until the 1950s the social democracy also prohibited Roma from coming to Sweden, and refused them schooling until the late 1960s. In both Norway and Sweden, the Sámi populations have suffered state‐sanctioned theft of their resources,<ref>https://amp.theguardian.com/world/2016/feb/03/sweden-indigenous-sami-people-win-rights-battle-against-state</ref> forced assimilations, sterilizations, segregations, evictions, denial of advanced education, and other nuisances.<ref>https://prospectjournal.org/2016/10/31/the-sami-a-disappearing-indigenous-minority-in-scandinavia/amp</ref> In recent decades the governments have likewise tried to compensate them somewhat, but these compensations have been inadequately enforced.<ref>https://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/indigenous/ExpertMechanism/3rd/docs/contributions/SwedishEqualityOmbudsman_2.pdf</ref> During the 1940s, Prime Minister Per Albin Hansson and other Swedish social democrats forcibly imprisoned thousands of communists, other antifascists, and certain foreigners in internment camps.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=lq7XDgAAQBAJ&pg=PT15</ref> (Unsurprisingly, Hansson spewed ‘Sweden for Swedes! Swedes for Sweden!’ back in 1924.)<ref>https://petterssonorg.files.wordpress.com/2017/03/per_albin_hansson_19241.png</ref> In 1941, Prime Minister Erik Scavenius and other Danish social liberals agreed to cooperate with the Fascist bourgeoisie. They prohibited communist parties, imprisoned hundreds of socialists and suspected communists,<ref>https://folkedrab.dk/node/703</ref> and signed the Anti‐Comintern Pact.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=y0in2wOY-W0C&pg=PA160</ref> Today, Danish police injure and occasionally kill anarchists in Copenhagen.<ref>https://www.researchgate.net/publication/47746868_Police_Crackdown_on_Christiania_in_Copenhagen</ref> The bourgeois state also persecutes people for being homeless.<ref>https://insp.ngo/?p=44675</ref> In 2009, the Swedish state undid many of their concessions to the lower classes,<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=5634</ref> and today they overlook companies (like H&M) who still employ child labour in Eurasia.<ref>https://amp.theguardian.com/business/2016/aug/21/hm-factories-myanmar-employed-14-year-old-workers</ref> Since the 2010s Swedish officials have been oppressing people infected with HIV.<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=8144</ref> Similarly, Norwegian officials have been fining, evicting, and forcibly deporting sex workers, often without warning,<ref>https://www.thenation.com/?p=213546</ref> just like Swedish officials have.<ref>https://www.nswp.org/sites/nswp.org/files/4.%20Impacts%20of%20Other%20Legislation%20and%20Policy%20-%20The%20Danger%20of%20Seeing%20the%20Swedish%20Model%20in%20a%20Vacuum%2C%20Swedish%20Model%20Advocacy%20Toolkit%2C%20NSWP%20-%20December%202014.pdf</ref>
 
Since about 1906, the Swedish state forcibly sterilized dozens of thousands of people—most of them women and girls,<ref>https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/1999/03/euge-19m.html</ref> sometimes on grounds that they were ‘loose’, too poor, had ‘mental defects’, or simply because they were multiracial. The practice declined in the 1970s, but it was not fully abolished until the 2010s; they pressured scores of transpeople into undergoing the process as well.<ref>https://wp.me/p6HB8a-a3Y</ref> The government has expressed regret for their programme and has tried to compensate the surviving victims, but with limited success,<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=5855</ref> and in any case Sweden remained a ‘model democracy’ for that entire period. Likewise, from the 1940s to the 1960s, the Swedish social democracy committed thousands of lobotomies<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=YqYFBbp0u2wC&pg=PA161</ref> (all without the victims’ permission of course). In the 1920s (when the famous social democrat, Hjalmar Branting, was still in power) the social democracy established the SIFR, the first ‘racial science’ institute of that decade, which up until WWII published propaganda claiming that the Finns and Sámi were inferior to Swedes. Until the 1950s the social democracy also prohibited Roma from coming to Sweden, and refused them schooling until the late 1960s. In both Norway and Sweden, the Sámi populations have suffered state‐sanctioned theft of their resources,<ref>https://amp.theguardian.com/world/2016/feb/03/sweden-indigenous-sami-people-win-rights-battle-against-state</ref> forced assimilations, sterilizations, segregations, evictions, denial of advanced education, and other nuisances.<ref>https://prospectjournal.org/2016/10/31/the-sami-a-disappearing-indigenous-minority-in-scandinavia/amp</ref> In recent decades the governments have likewise tried to compensate them somewhat, but these compensations have been inadequately enforced.<ref>https://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/indigenous/ExpertMechanism/3rd/docs/contributions/SwedishEqualityOmbudsman_2.pdf</ref> During the 1940s, Prime Minister Per Albin Hansson and other Swedish social democrats forcibly imprisoned thousands of communists, other antifascists, and certain foreigners in internment camps.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=lq7XDgAAQBAJ&pg=PT15</ref> (Unsurprisingly, Hansson spewed ‘Sweden for Swedes! Swedes for Sweden!’ back in 1924.)<ref>https://petterssonorg.files.wordpress.com/2017/03/per_albin_hansson_19241.png</ref> In 1941, Prime Minister Erik Scavenius and other Danish social liberals agreed to cooperate with the Fascist bourgeoisie. They prohibited communist parties, imprisoned hundreds of socialists and suspected communists,<ref>https://folkedrab.dk/node/703</ref> and signed the Anti‐Comintern Pact.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=y0in2wOY-W0C&pg=PA160</ref> Today, Danish police injure and occasionally kill anarchists in Copenhagen.<ref>https://www.researchgate.net/publication/47746868_Police_Crackdown_on_Christiania_in_Copenhagen</ref> The bourgeois state also persecutes people for being homeless.<ref>https://insp.ngo/?p=44675</ref> In 2009, the Swedish state undid many of their concessions to the lower classes,<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=5634</ref> and today they overlook companies (like H&M) who still employ child labour in Eurasia.<ref>https://amp.theguardian.com/business/2016/aug/21/hm-factories-myanmar-employed-14-year-old-workers</ref> Since the 2010s Swedish officials have been oppressing people infected with HIV.<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=8144</ref> Similarly, Norwegian officials have been fining, evicting, and forcibly deporting sex workers, often without warning,<ref>https://www.thenation.com/?p=213546</ref> just like Swedish officials have.<ref>https://www.nswp.org/sites/nswp.org/files/4.%20Impacts%20of%20Other%20Legislation%20and%20Policy%20-%20The%20Danger%20of%20Seeing%20the%20Swedish%20Model%20in%20a%20Vacuum%2C%20Swedish%20Model%20Advocacy%20Toolkit%2C%20NSWP%20-%20December%202014.pdf</ref>
  
According to ''Blackshirts and Reds'', the Yeltsin régime—which helped impose neoliberalism on Russia<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20161015035028/http://blogs.ft.com/ftdata/2016/05/27/eastern-europe-has-the-largest-population-loss-in-modern-history/</ref>—forcibly dissolved the Russian parliament along with the Federation’s every other elected representative body, including both municipal and regional councils. They discontinued Russia’s Constitutional Court and launched an armed assault upon the parliament, executing hundreds resisters and demonstrators.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/bjBmtkW3Tl8</ref> (Thousands more were jailed sans charges or trials, and hundreds of elected officials were placed under investigation.) The neoliberal bourgeoisie’s Omon troops repeatedly assaulted leftist demonstrators and pickets in Moscow as well as other Russian cities.<ref>https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/OMON#Post-Soviet_OMON_Activities</ref> Parliamentary deputy Andrei Aidzerdzis (an Independent) and deputy Valentin Martemyanov (a Communist), who both vigorously opposed the neoliberal state, became victims of political homicides, as did the journalist Dmitri Kholodov,<ref>https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dmitry_Kholodov</ref> whom somebody killed in 1994 for probing corruption in ‘high places’. Further information.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/e7HwvFyMg7A</ref>
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According to ''Blackshirts and Reds'', the Yeltsin régime—which helped impose neoliberalism on Russia<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20161015035028/http://blogs.ft.com/ftdata/2016/05/27/eastern-europe-has-the-largest-population-loss-in-modern-history/</ref>—forcibly dissolved the Russian parliament along with the Federation’s every other elected representative body, including both municipal and regional councils. They discontinued Russia’s Constitutional Court and launched an armed assault upon the parliament, executing hundreds resisters and demonstrators.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/bjBmtkW3Tl8</ref> (Thousands more were jailed sans charges or trials, and hundreds of elected officials were placed under investigation.) The neoliberal bourgeoisie’s Omon troops repeatedly assaulted leftist demonstrators and pickets in Moscow as well as other Russian cities.<ref>https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/OMON#Post-Soviet_OMON_Activities</ref> Parliamentary deputy Andrei Aidzerdzis (an Independent) and deputy Valentin Martemyanov (a Communist), who both vigorously opposed the neoliberal state, became victims of political homicides, as did the journalist Dmitri Kholodov,<ref>https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dmitry_Kholodov</ref> whom somebody killed in 1994 for probing corruption in ‘high places’. Further information.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/e7HwvFyMg7A</ref>
  
The State of Israel has willingly abused Ethiopian Jews in numerous ways; as, subjecting them to disproportionately more police abuse (including lethal force), coercing hundreds of women into undergoing sterilisation, concentrating Ethiopians into ghetti, segregating entire schools, treating natives as immigrants (i.e. poorly), and more.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/n10pSFUJ4RA</ref> In 2011, the neocolony’s Ministry of Transportation instructed its security guards to assault anti‐Zionist Judaists who were peacefully protesting the desecration of graves by a highway construction project. Several rabbis and even children required hospital care.<ref>https://wp.me/p16sn9-91H</ref>
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The State of Israel has willingly abused Ethiopian Jews in numerous ways; as, subjecting them to disproportionately more police abuse (including lethal force), coercing hundreds of women into undergoing sterilisation, concentrating Ethiopians into ghetti, segregating entire schools, treating natives as immigrants (i.e. poorly), and more.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/n10pSFUJ4RA</ref> In 2011, the neocolony’s Ministry of Transportation instructed its security guards to assault anti‐Zionist Judaists who were peacefully protesting the desecration of graves by a highway construction project. Several rabbis and even children required hospital care.<ref>https://wp.me/p16sn9-91H</ref>
  
 
== Socialism has no popular support==
 
== Socialism has no popular support==
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There was very little anti‐Soviet sentiment in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, with the exception of an unpopular minority of ultranationalists.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n50/mode/1up</ref> (The Ukrainians who greeted the anticommunist invaders as ‘liberators’ were likely ultranationalists themselves rather than ordinary citizens, many of whom retreated into the R.S.F.S.R. around this time. Therefore, we would advise against referring to these greeters as representative.) Since at least the Cold War, Soviet dissidents constituted only a small minority (less than 1%) of the population, and they '''knew''' that they were unpopular! The dissidents were so unpopular, in fact, that reaching out for recruits would sometimes only provoke their fellow citizens into contacting the authorities.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n145/mode/1up</ref> Likewise, a summary of attitude surveys by Polish sociologists, reported in ''The Scientific American'' in 1981, concluded that ‘''[o]ur surveys in the late 1950s and early 1960s showed that “the experiment in social learning on a national scale” conducted by the [republic] had succeeded to a certain degree. The great changes in the social and economic organization of the society—the nationalization of industry, land reform, economic planning, the abolition of the antebellum class structure—were accepted by the people.''’<ref>https://archive.org/stream/ClassStruggleInSocialistPoland#page/n87/mode/1up</ref>
 
There was very little anti‐Soviet sentiment in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, with the exception of an unpopular minority of ultranationalists.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n50/mode/1up</ref> (The Ukrainians who greeted the anticommunist invaders as ‘liberators’ were likely ultranationalists themselves rather than ordinary citizens, many of whom retreated into the R.S.F.S.R. around this time. Therefore, we would advise against referring to these greeters as representative.) Since at least the Cold War, Soviet dissidents constituted only a small minority (less than 1%) of the population, and they '''knew''' that they were unpopular! The dissidents were so unpopular, in fact, that reaching out for recruits would sometimes only provoke their fellow citizens into contacting the authorities.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n145/mode/1up</ref> Likewise, a summary of attitude surveys by Polish sociologists, reported in ''The Scientific American'' in 1981, concluded that ‘''[o]ur surveys in the late 1950s and early 1960s showed that “the experiment in social learning on a national scale” conducted by the [republic] had succeeded to a certain degree. The great changes in the social and economic organization of the society—the nationalization of industry, land reform, economic planning, the abolition of the antebellum class structure—were accepted by the people.''’<ref>https://archive.org/stream/ClassStruggleInSocialistPoland#page/n87/mode/1up</ref>
  
Philip Farr noted that during the 1910s, the Bolsheviki were popular among the lower classes in Estonia, Latvia, and probably Lithuania as well (Lithuania is less clear given that it was under severe imperialist reoccupation at that time). For example, Baron Wrangel (the official historian of the Estonian German‐Balt unit) recorded that during the Russian Civil War, 60–70% of Tallinn’s population supported the Bolsheviki. Their popularity decreased almost entirely due to the decades of antisocialist indoctrination (in rural Lithuania’s case it was partially the ill‐conceived land reforms),<ref>https://www.revolutionarydemocracy.org/archive/BalticRepublics.pdf</ref> but the Soviets steadily won back their support:<ref>https://archive.org/stream/TheBalticRiddle</ref> During the short twentieth century, Jerome Davis visited the Baltics and found that most, if not all of the workers and peasants there preferred being part of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=YD8-kLoofw4C&q="all+in+favor"</ref> (whereas the middle and upper classes freely voiced their objections to him), and everybody that he met (even the upper classes) still preferred the Soviet Republics over the anticommunist reoccupation.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=YD8-kLoofw4C&q=preferred</ref> (It should also be mentioned that all three of the Baltic folks had briefly formed pro‐Bolshevist governments during the Russian Civil War until they were overrun by antisocialists;<ref>http://www.shunpiking.org/books/GC/GC-AK-MS-chapter06.htm</ref> one could reasonably argue that the Soviets were simply restoring what had existed before the anticommunists’ coups.) It is true that the two Soviet Republics with the most anti‐Russian sentiment were Estonia and (to a greater extent) Lithuania, but even then Westerners noted that antisocialism itself was still rare.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n47/mode/1up</ref>
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Philip Farr noted that during the 1910s, the Bolsheviki were popular among the lower classes in Estonia, Latvia, and probably Lithuania as well (Lithuania is less clear given that it was under severe imperialist reoccupation at that time). For example, Baron Wrangel (the official historian of the Estonian German‐Balt unit) recorded that during the Russian Civil War, 60–70% of Tallinn’s population supported the Bolsheviki. Their popularity decreased almost entirely due to the decades of antisocialist indoctrination (in rural Lithuania’s case it was partially the ill‐conceived land reforms),<ref>https://www.revolutionarydemocracy.org/archive/BalticRepublics.pdf</ref> but the Soviets steadily won back their support:<ref>https://archive.org/stream/TheBalticRiddle</ref> During the short twentieth century, Jerome Davis visited the Baltics and found that most, if not all of the workers and peasants there preferred being part of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=YD8-kLoofw4C&q=all+in+favor</ref> (whereas the middle and upper classes freely voiced their objections to him), and everybody that he met (even the upper classes) still preferred the Soviet Republics over the anticommunist reoccupation.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=YD8-kLoofw4C&q=preferred</ref> (It should also be mentioned that all three of the Baltic folks had briefly formed pro‐Bolshevist governments during the Russian Civil War until they were overrun by antisocialists;<ref>http://www.shunpiking.org/books/GC/GC-AK-MS-chapter06.htm</ref> one could reasonably argue that the Soviets were simply restoring what had existed before the anticommunists’ coups.) It is true that the two Soviet Republics with the most anti‐Russian sentiment were Estonia and (to a greater extent) Lithuania, but even then Westerners noted that antisocialism itself was still rare.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n47/mode/1up</ref>
  
 
Concerning the Red Army’s presence in Poland during the mid‐1940s:
 
Concerning the Red Army’s presence in Poland during the mid‐1940s:
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It is true to state that all socialists without exception oppose a phenomenon<ref>https://b.thumbs.redditmedia.com/uTj40lLYk1p36h65NtA879gUYroqgwJPUBSJZOnIEWg.png</ref> that we variably call ‘bourgeois democracy’,<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1919/nov/06.htm</ref> ‘capitalist democracy’, or ‘(neo)liberal democracy’: where the handful of parties with any chance of winning elections are both almost identical functionally and are invariably dominated by the upper classes. However, with the exceptions of Amadeo Bordiga<ref>https://libcom.org/files/Amadeo%20Bordiga-%20The%20Democratic%20Principle.pdf</ref> and similar left communists, most socialists never say that they are opposed to democracy ''as such''. For example, many socialists argue that the state democratically reflecting the people’s will is in fact intrinsic to the proletarian state as proposed by Engels.<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1877/anti-duhring/ch24.htm</ref> Similarly, most anarchists, such as Errico Malatesta, support directly democratic collectives, based on ‘one person; one vote’.<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secA2.html#seca29</ref> We, in fact, would argue that it is ‘capitalist democracy’ that is oxymoronic, and that no liberal state was any more democratic than the people’s republics and other socialist organizations.
 
It is true to state that all socialists without exception oppose a phenomenon<ref>https://b.thumbs.redditmedia.com/uTj40lLYk1p36h65NtA879gUYroqgwJPUBSJZOnIEWg.png</ref> that we variably call ‘bourgeois democracy’,<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1919/nov/06.htm</ref> ‘capitalist democracy’, or ‘(neo)liberal democracy’: where the handful of parties with any chance of winning elections are both almost identical functionally and are invariably dominated by the upper classes. However, with the exceptions of Amadeo Bordiga<ref>https://libcom.org/files/Amadeo%20Bordiga-%20The%20Democratic%20Principle.pdf</ref> and similar left communists, most socialists never say that they are opposed to democracy ''as such''. For example, many socialists argue that the state democratically reflecting the people’s will is in fact intrinsic to the proletarian state as proposed by Engels.<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1877/anti-duhring/ch24.htm</ref> Similarly, most anarchists, such as Errico Malatesta, support directly democratic collectives, based on ‘one person; one vote’.<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secA2.html#seca29</ref> We, in fact, would argue that it is ‘capitalist democracy’ that is oxymoronic, and that no liberal state was any more democratic than the people’s republics and other socialist organizations.
  
Some people may think that most of the people’s republics (with a few exceptions like the German Dem. Rep.) being unipartisan states proves conclusively that there was no democracy, but a people are not powerless simply because only one party is legal. In the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics<ref>https://docs.google.com/document/d/1qeYeYeLN7uKxfMdoe7TAmOMD2fmgyZdU_urvW6eAsRg#bookmark=id.pp2tckgjj2rp</ref> for example, the electoral process that decided the representatives of the Central Committee (the Soviets’ largest governing and legislative body, later named the Supreme Soviet) was chosen via participatory democracy; worker groups and other mass organizations elected candidates before the 1950s and elsewhen; both historians<ref>https://www.docdroid.net/25FEQ8G/the-cpsu-in-a-soviet-election-campaign.pdf</ref> and laborers<ref>https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.261348</ref> noted as much. The same applies in the Republic of Cuba,<ref>https://www.counterpunch.org/?p=96454</ref> where the party does not select candidates, nor does it decide elections, nor does it track voters, nor does it participate in the elections at all; individuals directly nominate '''any''' adults whom they think should be candidates.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/2aMsi-A56ds</ref> In fact the Republic of Cuba has demonstrated that it is possible to abolish corruption through the semidirect democracy of electing people to the National Assembly of Peoples Power<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=tFQ7bVuGkBsC&pg=PA103</ref> ^[1],<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-50a</ref> ineluctably indicating that corruption is not ‘intrinsic’ to socialism.
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Some people may think that most of the people’s republics (with a few exceptions like the German Dem. Rep.) being unipartisan states proves conclusively that there was no democracy, but a people are not powerless simply because only one party is legal. In the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics<ref>https://docs.google.com/document/d/1qeYeYeLN7uKxfMdoe7TAmOMD2fmgyZdU_urvW6eAsRg#bookmark=id.pp2tckgjj2rp</ref> for example, the electoral process that decided the representatives of the Central Committee (the Soviets’ largest governing and legislative body, later named the Supreme Soviet) was chosen via participatory democracy; worker groups and other mass organizations elected candidates before the 1950s and elsewhen; both historians<ref>https://www.docdroid.net/25FEQ8G/the-cpsu-in-a-soviet-election-campaign.pdf</ref> and laborers<ref>https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.261348</ref> noted as much. The same applies in the Republic of Cuba,<ref>https://www.counterpunch.org/?p=96454</ref> where the party does not select candidates, nor does it decide elections, nor does it track voters, nor does it participate in the elections at all; individuals directly nominate '''any''' adults whom they think should be candidates.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/2aMsi-A56ds</ref> In fact the Republic of Cuba has demonstrated that it is possible to abolish corruption through the semidirect democracy of electing people to the National Assembly of Peoples Power<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=tFQ7bVuGkBsC&pg=PA103</ref> <ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-50a</ref> ineluctably indicating that corruption is not ‘intrinsic’ to socialism.
  
Of course almost all antisocialists shall rationalize these elections, from the DPRK<ref>https://docs.google.com/document/d/1we5OEdteZFfAh11v0s_RVh3LWAkVICGrFnvksVynGxw#heading=h.91mxkbo7190y</ref> to elsewhere, as being transparent ceremonies and that there is clearly an unpopular autocracy beneath the surface. Why then do we have records of ‘omnipotent’ politicians like Joseph Stalin trying unsuccessfully to resign '''four''' times?<ref>https://socialistmlmusings.wordpress.com/2017/02/23/stalins-four-attempts-at-resignation/amp</ref> Why do Western scholars like Daniel Pinkston report that the DPRK elected 443 new members (including 107 active military members)?<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20170302164721/https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/1998/north-korea</ref> Why did the Association of Secretaries General of Parliaments determine that the DPRK’s voters cast ballots personally to a deputy in candidacy and in a place where a secret ballot is thoroughly maintained?<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20131016023953/http://www.asgp.info/Resources/Data/Documents/CJOZSZTEPVVOCWJVUPPZVWPAPUOFGF.pdf</ref> Why did dozens of international observers<ref>https://journalcontent.mediatheoryjournal.org/index.php/mt/article/view/65/56</ref> judge the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela’s elections to be fair?<ref>https://www.reddit.com/r/shitliberalssay/wiki/venezuela#wiki_most_or_all_venezuelans_hate_socialism</ref> The standard explanation is simply that all of these otherwise competent and reputable reporters gullibly fell for ‘state propaganda’, allowing antisocialists to relax, confident that their ideology infalsifiable. But the narrative of ‘a totalitarian dictatorship forcing political hegemony through terror’ is simply ahistorical. The Soviets themselves said it best:
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Of course almost all antisocialists shall rationalize these elections, from the DPRK<ref>https://docs.google.com/document/d/1we5OEdteZFfAh11v0s_RVh3LWAkVICGrFnvksVynGxw#heading=h.91mxkbo7190y</ref> to elsewhere, as being transparent ceremonies and that there is clearly an unpopular autocracy beneath the surface. Why then do we have records of ‘omnipotent’ politicians like Joseph Stalin trying unsuccessfully to resign '''four''' times?<ref>https://socialistmlmusings.wordpress.com/2017/02/23/stalins-four-attempts-at-resignation/amp</ref> Why do Western scholars like Daniel Pinkston report that the DPRK elected 443 new members (including 107 active military members)?<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20170302164721/https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/1998/north-korea</ref> Why did the Association of Secretaries General of Parliaments determine that the DPRK’s voters cast ballots personally to a deputy in candidacy and in a place where a secret ballot is thoroughly maintained?<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20131016023953/http://www.asgp.info/Resources/Data/Documents/CJOZSZTEPVVOCWJVUPPZVWPAPUOFGF.pdf</ref> Why did dozens of international observers<ref>https://journalcontent.mediatheoryjournal.org/index.php/mt/article/view/65/56</ref> [[Bolivarian_Republic_of_Venezuela#Politics|judge the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela’s elections to be fair?]] The standard explanation is simply that all of these otherwise competent and reputable reporters gullibly fell for ‘state propaganda’, allowing antisocialists to relax, confident that their ideology infalsifiable. But the narrative of ‘a totalitarian dictatorship forcing political hegemony through terror’ is simply ahistorical. The Soviets themselves said it best:
  
 
<blockquote>‘Do you really believe that we could have retained power and have had the backing of the vast masses for 14 years by methods of intimidation and terrorization? No, that is impossible. The tsarist government excelled all others in knowing how to intimidate. It had long and vast experience in that sphere. The European bourgeoisie, particularly the French, gave tsarism every assistance in this matter and taught it to terrorize the people. Yet, in spite of that experience and in spite of the help of the European bourgeoisie, the policy of intimidation led to the downfall of Tsarism.’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1931/dec/13.htm</ref></blockquote>
 
<blockquote>‘Do you really believe that we could have retained power and have had the backing of the vast masses for 14 years by methods of intimidation and terrorization? No, that is impossible. The tsarist government excelled all others in knowing how to intimidate. It had long and vast experience in that sphere. The European bourgeoisie, particularly the French, gave tsarism every assistance in this matter and taught it to terrorize the people. Yet, in spite of that experience and in spite of the help of the European bourgeoisie, the policy of intimidation led to the downfall of Tsarism.’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1931/dec/13.htm</ref></blockquote>
  
Some accuse us of overthrowing democracies. The phrase ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/d/i.htm#dictatorship-proletariat</ref> is often cited as the original sin in these regards, but the careful reader shall note that the phrase refers to a '''class''',<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1871/civil-war-france/postscript.htm</ref> not an individual. And with the arguable exception of Czechoslovakia, there are no instances of socialists overthrowing what could be meaningfully categorized as a democracy. One example sometimes given is Russia’s provisional government, but this was a deeply unpopular and unelected entity; the duma that assigned it did not even hold elections since 1913.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/OWUUIVJRgs4</ref> Another is the Republic of Chile on grounds that the electoral victor was a minority president, hardly an unusual occurrence in the Americas.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/ccyxx1/_/etqgfzl</ref> All other overthrows were likewise not against popular governments but against upper‐class dictatorships, such as colonial territories (Angola, China, Guinea‐Bissau, Korea, Mozambique, Poland), neocolonial states (Cuba, Vietnam), Fascist occupations (Albania, Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, Yugoslavia), decaying monarchies (Ethiopia, Romania), parafascist states (the Baltics, the Bourbon Restoration, Nicaragua), and similar.
+
Some accuse us of overthrowing democracies. The phrase ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/d/i.htm#dictatorship-proletariat</ref> is often cited as the original sin in these regards, but the careful reader shall note that the phrase refers to a '''class''',<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1871/civil-war-france/postscript.htm</ref> not an individual. And with the arguable exception of Czechoslovakia, there are no instances of socialists overthrowing what could be meaningfully categorized as a democracy. One example sometimes given is Russia’s provisional government, but this was a deeply unpopular and unelected entity; the duma that assigned it did not even hold elections since 1913.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/OWUUIVJRgs4</ref> Another is the Republic of Chile on grounds that the electoral victor was a minority president, hardly an unusual occurrence in the Americas.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/ccyxx1/_/etqgfzl</ref> All other overthrows were likewise not against popular governments but against upper‐class dictatorships, such as colonial territories (Angola, China, Guinea‐Bissau, Korea, Mozambique, Poland), neocolonial states (Cuba, Vietnam), Fascist occupations (Albania, Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, Yugoslavia), decaying monarchies (Ethiopia, Romania), parafascist states (the Baltics, the Bourbon Restoration, Nicaragua), and similar.
  
 
== Most or all socialists are strongly in favour of gun control==
 
== Most or all socialists are strongly in favour of gun control==
Line 335: Line 333:
 
== Most people in socialist states are constantly starving or are malnourished, and it’s because of socialism==
 
== Most people in socialist states are constantly starving or are malnourished, and it’s because of socialism==
  
It is true that many illiberal republics experienced famines, but rarely are all of the causes closely examined. For example, the Ukrainian one of the 1930s probably cannot be traced to any single cause, but overall it was neither exclusively nor even fundamentally induced by artificial means:<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20121127213905/http://eh.net/book_reviews/years-hunger-soviet-agriculture-1931-1933</ref> awful weather<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20110720121735/http://www.as.wvu.edu/history/Faculty/Tauger/Tauger,%20Natural%20Disaster%20and%20Human%20Actions.pdf</ref> and pestilence<ref>https://rhizzone.net/forum/post/305692</ref> were a few factors, as they were in the People’s Republic of China,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20150426173949/http://chinastudygroup.net/2011/03/o-grada-review-of-dikotter</ref> but it didn’t help that many of the landowners were protesting Soviet collectivization by destroying their crops ^[1],<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=IX4H0YOlZbQC&q="even+burned"</ref> ^[2]<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=2MpdKsjSn6EC&q=burning</ref> and generally making a mess of the place; the Western sanctions on Soviet gold (yet not on their grain) contributed<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/SMBJ_nQ4sTA</ref> as well.<ref>https://orientalreview.org/?p=4390</ref> Nonetheless, like the one in the People’s Republic of China,<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/-ZClsTgRz3I</ref> perhaps some responsibility should be given to—yes—the authorities or central planners (though these flaws are amendable within the socialist context).<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/kTl4b0w6mpk</ref><ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/9d5qb0/_/e5h19az/?context=3</ref> What is remarkable about these places however is that although they did experience some famines after they were revolutionized, the socialists also '''stopped''' the series of famines that the countries were experiencing long '''before''' they were revolutionized,<ref>https://rhizzone.net/forum/post/308686</ref> with little or no thanks to the capitalists. For example, after 1947 the Soviet Union experienced no more famines, but even before then they distributed famine relief to the Uk.S.S.R. in the 1920s<ref>https://redd.it/aonp2d</ref> and<ref>https://redd.it/a6cth3</ref> the 1930s,<ref>https://agrarianstudies.macmillan.yale.edu/sites/default/files/files/papers/TaugerAgrarianStudies.pdf</ref> including to hundreds of thousands of their Ukrainian youths.<ref>https://redd.it/boon85</ref> Even the anti‐Bolshevist historians R. W. Davies and Stephen G. Wheatcroft (who claim that Soviet officials were still partially responsible for the crisis) admitted that the Soviets at least responded to the Uk.S.S.R.’s famine by reducing food exports, reducing food quotas, and sending food aid.<ref>https://www.uio.no/studier/emner/hf/iakh/HIS2319/h16/pensumliste/stalin-and-the-soviet-famine-of-1932-33_-a-reply-to-ellman.pdf</ref> Respected scholars Alexander Dallin, J. Arch Getty, Lynne Viola, Moshe Lewin, and Roberta Manning likewise all reject the ‘famine‐genocide’ conspiracy theory; even the notorious antisocialist Robert Conquest later renounced it.<ref>https://rhizzone.net/forum/post/305692</ref> (And our much referenced Professor Tauger, for those unaware, has argued elsewhen that the British Empire had little to do with the Bengal famine:<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20100623111759/http://history.wvu.edu/r/download/63811</ref> this wouldn’t exactly support somebody’s suspicion that he’s simply a ‘biased’ writer.) All of this should be little surprise since Stalin was consistently very sympathetic to the landless and poor peasants,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20160507022536/http://history.wvu.edu:80/r/download/158403</ref> and many landless peasants supported his administration.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20110720121735/http://www.as.wvu.edu/history/Faculty/Tauger/Tauger,%20Soviet%20Peasants,%20Collectivization,%20Resistance%20and%20Adaptation.pdf</ref> Likewise, China saw no more famines after 1961. (And even this last one was not<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20110414025909/http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CHING/TAIPING.HTM</ref> their worst.<ref>http://www.mitosyfraudes.org/Polit/Famines.html</ref> Recent<ref>https://drive.google.com/file/d/1JiHMNyN2636l6NM1RtgcipDU1ztNJlup</ref> research<ref>https://drive.google.com/file/d/1iLVagufemBYVG4d043mL6XH0auu8V5HE</ref> indicates that the toll was almost certainly closer to four million or five million: worrisome statistics regardless, but clearly not ones that antisocialists would like.) Finally, the People’s Socialist Republic of Albania, the People’s Republic of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Hungarian People’s Republic, the Polish People’s Republic, the Romanian Socialist Republic, and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, simply never experienced any famines at all.
+
It is true that many illiberal republics experienced famines, but rarely are all of the causes closely examined. For example, the Ukrainian one of the 1930s probably cannot be traced to any single cause, but overall it was neither exclusively nor even fundamentally induced by artificial means:<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20121127213905/http://eh.net/book_reviews/years-hunger-soviet-agriculture-1931-1933</ref> awful weather<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20110720121735/http://www.as.wvu.edu/history/Faculty/Tauger/Tauger,%20Natural%20Disaster%20and%20Human%20Actions.pdf</ref> and pestilence<ref>https://rhizzone.net/forum/post/305692</ref> were a few factors, as they were in the People’s Republic of China,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20150426173949/http://chinastudygroup.net/2011/03/o-grada-review-of-dikotter</ref> but it didn’t help that many of the landowners were protesting Soviet collectivization by destroying their crops <ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=IX4H0YOlZbQC&q="even+burned"</ref> <ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=2MpdKsjSn6EC&q=burning</ref> and generally making a mess of the place; the Western sanctions on Soviet gold (yet not on their grain) contributed<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/SMBJ_nQ4sTA</ref> as well.<ref>https://orientalreview.org/?p=4390</ref> Nonetheless, like the one in the People’s Republic of China,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/-ZClsTgRz3I</ref> perhaps some responsibility should be given to—yes—the authorities or central planners (though these flaws are amendable within the socialist context).<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/kTl4b0w6mpk</ref><ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/9d5qb0/_/e5h19az/?context=3</ref> What is remarkable about these places however is that although they did experience some famines after they were revolutionized, the socialists also '''stopped''' the series of famines that the countries were experiencing long '''before''' they were revolutionized,<ref>https://rhizzone.net/forum/post/308686</ref> with little or no thanks to the capitalists. For example, after 1947 the Soviet Union experienced no more famines, but even before then they distributed famine relief to the Uk.S.S.R. in the 1920s<ref>https://redd.it/aonp2d</ref> and<ref>https://redd.it/a6cth3</ref> the 1930s,<ref>https://agrarianstudies.macmillan.yale.edu/sites/default/files/files/papers/TaugerAgrarianStudies.pdf</ref> including to hundreds of thousands of their Ukrainian youths.<ref>https://redd.it/boon85</ref> Even the anti‐Bolshevist historians R. W. Davies and Stephen G. Wheatcroft (who claim that Soviet officials were still partially responsible for the crisis) admitted that the Soviets at least responded to the Uk.S.S.R.’s famine by reducing food exports, reducing food quotas, and sending food aid.<ref>https://www.uio.no/studier/emner/hf/iakh/HIS2319/h16/pensumliste/stalin-and-the-soviet-famine-of-1932-33_-a-reply-to-ellman.pdf</ref> Respected scholars Alexander Dallin, J. Arch Getty, Lynne Viola, Moshe Lewin, and Roberta Manning likewise all reject the ‘famine‐genocide’ conspiracy theory; even the notorious antisocialist Robert Conquest later renounced it.<ref>https://rhizzone.net/forum/post/305692</ref> (And our much referenced Professor Tauger, for those unaware, has argued elsewhen that the British Empire had little to do with the Bengal famine:<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20100623111759/http://history.wvu.edu/r/download/63811</ref> this wouldn’t exactly support somebody’s suspicion that he’s simply a ‘biased’ writer.) All of this should be little surprise since Stalin was consistently very sympathetic to the landless and poor peasants,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20160507022536/http://history.wvu.edu:80/r/download/158403</ref> and many landless peasants supported his administration.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20110720121735/http://www.as.wvu.edu/history/Faculty/Tauger/Tauger,%20Soviet%20Peasants,%20Collectivization,%20Resistance%20and%20Adaptation.pdf</ref> Likewise, China saw no more famines after 1961. (And even this last one was not<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20110414025909/http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CHING/TAIPING.HTM</ref> their worst.<ref>http://www.mitosyfraudes.org/Polit/Famines.html</ref> Recent<ref>https://drive.google.com/file/d/1JiHMNyN2636l6NM1RtgcipDU1ztNJlup</ref> research<ref>https://drive.google.com/file/d/1iLVagufemBYVG4d043mL6XH0auu8V5HE</ref> indicates that the toll was almost certainly closer to four million or five million: worrisome statistics regardless, but clearly not ones that antisocialists would like.) Finally, the People’s Socialist Republic of Albania, the People’s Republic of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Hungarian People’s Republic, the Polish People’s Republic, the Romanian Socialist Republic, and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, simply never experienced any famines at all.
  
Evidence elsewhere reconfirms that it is usually (though not always)<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/kTl4b0w6mpk</ref> imperialists rather than socialists who cause food deficiencies. The Republic of Chile experienced resistance from the bourgeoisie, who withheld food in protest of the democratically elected socialist Salvador Allende; they even paid truckers to simply stop labouring.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/PFDxX2TKZE4</ref> The case<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/_fV-C1Ag5sI</ref> is<ref>https://venezuelanalysis.com/N3QX</ref> similar<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/YqHzDLSl8U4</ref> in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.<ref>https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=117637</ref><ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/k_JhRVlIR-c</ref> In Korea, antisocialists intentionally destroyed as much land as they could<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/QDJlNQlRbIA</ref> to impede people’s agricultural efforts. In Malaysia, anticommunists deliberately poisoned socialists’ crops.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/80h2f3/_/duvn83q</ref> In the German Democratic Republic,<ref>https://redd.it/cy3pve</ref> antisocialists deliberately poisoned people’s livestock.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/5kjtdw/_/dbpb418</ref> Anticommunists consciously initiated famines in the invaded Soviet regions.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=-h_Z_KK0MQUC&q="Hunger+Plan"</ref> In Vietnam, antisocialists deliberately targeted people’s cultivated lands and poisoned their crops.<ref>https://theconversation.com/amp/agent-orange-exposed-how-u-s-chemical-warfare-in-vietnam-unleashed-a-slow-moving-disaster-84572</ref> In the 1980s, the Western ruling classes imposed sanctions on the Polish People’s Republic,<ref>https://redd.it/cwuhvl</ref> worsening their food situation. In the Socialist Republic of Romania’s case, part of the reason for insufficient food was that the government spent much of its money on paying all of their foreign debts; trying to become independent. The Republic of Cuba<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=13310</ref> and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=416</ref> experienced food crises in part only after antisocialism destroyed their allies<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-nzUn</ref> (in the DPRK’s case natural disasters were also major contributors). Rather than donating the food that they waste constantly,<ref>https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/wasted-food-IP.pdf</ref> antisocialists sought to punish these republics for their lack of ideological conformity, so they obstructed them and their imports. We must not overlook, however, the factors that cannot be blamed on capitalism: the natural and climatic conditions of agriculture of the Soviet Union in particular were both severe and unstable; no other major country faced such serious issues in overcoming the negative influence on agricultural production. For example, agroclimatologists estimated that on average the conditions were 2–2.5 times worse than those in the U.S.A. Generally over sixty percent of the country’s territory was periodically plagued with droughts and other unfavourable weather influences. At the same time that zone normally accounted for approximately seventy‐five per cent of grain deliveries.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/SovietAgricultureMorozov</ref>
+
Evidence elsewhere reconfirms that it is usually (though not always)<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/kTl4b0w6mpk</ref> imperialists rather than socialists who cause food deficiencies. The Republic of Chile experienced resistance from the bourgeoisie, who withheld food in protest of the democratically elected socialist Salvador Allende; they even paid truckers to simply stop labouring.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/PFDxX2TKZE4</ref> The case<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/_fV-C1Ag5sI</ref> is<ref>https://venezuelanalysis.com/N3QX</ref> similar<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/YqHzDLSl8U4</ref> in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.<ref>https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=117637</ref><ref>https://invidio.us/embed/k_JhRVlIR-c</ref> In Korea, antisocialists intentionally destroyed as much land as they could<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/QDJlNQlRbIA</ref> to impede people’s agricultural efforts. In Malaysia, anticommunists deliberately poisoned socialists’ crops.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/80h2f3/_/duvn83q</ref> In the German Democratic Republic,<ref>https://redd.it/cy3pve</ref> antisocialists deliberately poisoned people’s livestock.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/5kjtdw/_/dbpb418</ref> Anticommunists consciously initiated famines in the invaded Soviet regions.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=-h_Z_KK0MQUC&q=Hunger+Plan</ref> In Vietnam, antisocialists deliberately targeted people’s cultivated lands and poisoned their crops.<ref>https://theconversation.com/amp/agent-orange-exposed-how-u-s-chemical-warfare-in-vietnam-unleashed-a-slow-moving-disaster-84572</ref> In the 1980s, the Western ruling classes imposed sanctions on the Polish People’s Republic,<ref>https://redd.it/cwuhvl</ref> worsening their food situation. In the Socialist Republic of Romania’s case, part of the reason for insufficient food was that the government spent much of its money on paying all of their foreign debts; trying to become independent. The Republic of Cuba<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=13310</ref> and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=416</ref> experienced food crises in part only after antisocialism destroyed their allies<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-nzUn</ref> (in the DPRK’s case natural disasters were also major contributors). Rather than donating the food that they waste constantly,<ref>https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/wasted-food-IP.pdf</ref> antisocialists sought to punish these republics for their lack of ideological conformity, so they obstructed them and their imports. We must not overlook, however, the factors that cannot be blamed on capitalism: the natural and climatic conditions of agriculture of the Soviet Union in particular were both severe and unstable; no other major country faced such serious issues in overcoming the negative influence on agricultural production. For example, agroclimatologists estimated that on average the conditions were 2–2.5 times worse than those in the U.S.A. Generally over sixty percent of the country’s territory was periodically plagued with droughts and other unfavourable weather influences. At the same time that zone normally accounted for approximately seventy‐five per cent of grain deliveries.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/SovietAgricultureMorozov</ref>
  
Ultimately however, the people’s democracies were not in a perpetual state of famine as antisocialists tiresomely imply.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/TMKEhewbaZg</ref> For example, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has their own cuisine<ref>https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/list_of_North_Korean_dishes</ref> like the Soviet Union<ref>https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_cuisine</ref> did; many illustrations of foods exist from the Soviet era,<ref>https://duckduckgo.com/?q=Soviet+food+site:pinterest.com</ref> and so do recordings from the People’s Republic of China during the short twentieth century.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/user/thekinolibrary/search?query=China+food</ref> In the 1930s the Soviets sent large amounts of foodstuffs and other goods to the Spanish Republicans.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/1e1bhf/_/c9w2jva</ref> In May 1945 the Soviets distributed scores of tons of food to the Berlin populace.<ref>https://redd.it/avpumz</ref> In 1947 the Soviets also successfully prevented a famine from occurring in Poland.<ref>https://redd.it/9geizx</ref> They as well as their allies also prevented one in Czechoslovakia<ref>https://redd.it/9i9dpy</ref> ^[3],<ref>https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7iUwYR74MlbcFBxbWxsdHNLMHM</ref> and later would do the same for North Korea too.<ref>https://redd.it/9qae13</ref> In the 1950s the C.I.A. wrote that, although a planned increase of the area sown to fodder crops was unfulfilled, and their fodder production (still) lagged behind animal husbandry’s increasing demands, the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic’s Sovkhozes considerably increased their sown areas and crop yields during the Fourth Five‐Year Plan; they increased livestock as well.<ref>https://wp.me/pa7b25-O</ref>
+
Ultimately however, the people’s democracies were not in a perpetual state of famine as antisocialists tiresomely imply.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/TMKEhewbaZg</ref> For example, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has their own cuisine<ref>https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/list_of_North_Korean_dishes</ref> like the Soviet Union<ref>https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_cuisine</ref> did; many illustrations of foods exist from the Soviet era,<ref>https://duckduckgo.com/?q=Soviet+food+site:pinterest.com</ref> and so do recordings from the People’s Republic of China during the short twentieth century.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/user/thekinolibrary/search?query=China+food</ref> In the 1930s the Soviets sent large amounts of foodstuffs and other goods to the Spanish Republicans.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/1e1bhf/_/c9w2jva</ref> In May 1945 the Soviets distributed scores of tons of food to the Berlin populace.<ref>https://redd.it/avpumz</ref> In 1947 the Soviets also successfully prevented a famine from occurring in Poland.<ref>https://redd.it/9geizx</ref> They as well as their allies also prevented one in Czechoslovakia<ref>https://redd.it/9i9dpy</ref> ,<ref>https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7iUwYR74MlbcFBxbWxsdHNLMHM</ref> and later would do the same for North Korea too.<ref>https://redd.it/9qae13</ref> In the 1950s the C.I.A. wrote that, although a planned increase of the area sown to fodder crops was unfulfilled, and their fodder production (still) lagged behind animal husbandry’s increasing demands, the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic’s Sovkhozes considerably increased their sown areas and crop yields during the Fourth Five‐Year Plan; they increased livestock as well.<ref>https://wp.me/pa7b25-O</ref>
  
 
Concerning the U.S.S.R. and the Indians:
 
Concerning the U.S.S.R. and the Indians:
Line 345: Line 343:
 
<blockquote>“Soon after Indian independence in 1947, the country was faced with an alarming shortage of food grain. The Indian government urgently requested both USA and USSR to send in food aid. While, the American officials were working on the modalities for food grain aid, working out its terms and conditions, when the Indian request reached Kremlin, USSR, Stalin immediately ordered a food‐grain laden ship that was already on its way to a different destination, to change course and go to India. A top Kremlin official intervened saying that documents are yet to be completed and signed, to which Stalin said ‘Documents can wait, hunger cannot.’<ref>https://m.facebook.com/TheIndianEnlightenment/posts/895087330700011</ref>” (Indian diplomat, P. Ratnam disclosed the above conversation to a group of journalists at the Indian Embassy in Moscow in 1950. See Mazdoor Bigul archive, December, 2005.)<ref>http://www.mazdoorbigul.net/pdf/Bigul-2005-12.pdf</ref></blockquote>
 
<blockquote>“Soon after Indian independence in 1947, the country was faced with an alarming shortage of food grain. The Indian government urgently requested both USA and USSR to send in food aid. While, the American officials were working on the modalities for food grain aid, working out its terms and conditions, when the Indian request reached Kremlin, USSR, Stalin immediately ordered a food‐grain laden ship that was already on its way to a different destination, to change course and go to India. A top Kremlin official intervened saying that documents are yet to be completed and signed, to which Stalin said ‘Documents can wait, hunger cannot.’<ref>https://m.facebook.com/TheIndianEnlightenment/posts/895087330700011</ref>” (Indian diplomat, P. Ratnam disclosed the above conversation to a group of journalists at the Indian Embassy in Moscow in 1950. See Mazdoor Bigul archive, December, 2005.)<ref>http://www.mazdoorbigul.net/pdf/Bigul-2005-12.pdf</ref></blockquote>
  
Unsurprisingly,<ref>https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/chengchuang-agricultural-labor-school-peasants-of-the-news-photo/183970752</ref><ref>https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/peasant-farmers-of-the-hungching-production-brigade-news-photo/170971758</ref> annual grain production in the Kwangtung Province increased.<ref>https://i.imgur.com/nCdpDKX.jpg</ref> In the 1970s, the People’s Republic of China exported food aid to Cambodians after imperialists devastated their agriculture.<ref>http://www.bannedthought.net/International/RIM/AWTW/1999-25/PolPot_eng25.htm</ref> By 1976 the average caloric intake of the Soviet population was 3,300.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=_hexCwAAQBAJ</ref> Similarly, a 1983 report discovered that Soviets and U.S. citizens ate about the same amount of food quotidianly, but the Soviet diet may have be more eutrophic; they put the daily caloric intake at 3,280.<ref>https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP84B00274R000300150009-5.pdf</ref> A lengthier report can be found here.<ref>https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000498133.pdf</ref> (If the C.I.A. is writing something positive about their enemies, then it was likely never meant for public announcements.) The Republic of Cuba has been a world leader in organic farming<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=354</ref> for a while now.<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=5636</ref> All Cuban citizens are legally entitled to food;<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/JSEIKHcYtQU</ref> the FAO concluded that the Republic of Cuba’s ‘''remarkably low percentages of child malnutrition put [them] at the forefront of developing countries''’<ref>http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/nutrition/cub_en.stm</ref> and World Food Program USA has likewise concluded that their ‘''comprehensive social protection programs''’ have ‘''largely eliminated hunger and poverty.''’<ref>https://www.wfpusa.org/countries/cuba/#</ref> The German Democratic Republic had their own foods, such as Spreewald pickles, Mocha Fix, Schnittchen, and Schnitzel, among others. Albanians ate mutton, garlic soup, sea trout, salami, shish qebab, apricots, &c. Quote:
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Unsurprisingly,<ref>https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/chengchuang-agricultural-labor-school-peasants-of-the-news-photo/183970752</ref><ref>https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/peasant-farmers-of-the-hungching-production-brigade-news-photo/170971758</ref> annual grain production in the Kwangtung Province increased.<ref>https://i.imgur.com/nCdpDKX.jpg</ref> In the 1970s, the People’s Republic of China exported food aid to Cambodians after imperialists devastated their agriculture.<ref>http://www.bannedthought.net/International/RIM/AWTW/1999-25/PolPot_eng25.htm</ref> By 1976 the average caloric intake of the Soviet population was 3,300.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=_hexCwAAQBAJ</ref> Similarly, a 1983 report discovered that Soviets and U.S. citizens ate about the same amount of food quotidianly, but the Soviet diet may have be more eutrophic; they put the daily caloric intake at 3,280.<ref>https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP84B00274R000300150009-5.pdf</ref> A lengthier report can be found here.<ref>https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000498133.pdf</ref> (If the C.I.A. is writing something positive about their enemies, then it was likely never meant for public announcements.) The Republic of Cuba has been a world leader in organic farming<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=354</ref> for a while now.<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=5636</ref> All Cuban citizens are legally entitled to food;<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/JSEIKHcYtQU</ref> the FAO concluded that the Republic of Cuba’s ‘''remarkably low percentages of child malnutrition put [them] at the forefront of developing countries''’<ref>http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/nutrition/cub_en.stm</ref> and World Food Program USA has likewise concluded that their ‘''comprehensive social protection programs''’ have ‘''largely eliminated hunger and poverty.''’<ref>https://www.wfpusa.org/countries/cuba/#</ref> The German Democratic Republic had their own foods, such as Spreewald pickles, Mocha Fix, Schnittchen, and Schnitzel, among others. Albanians ate mutton, garlic soup, sea trout, salami, shish qebab, apricots, &c. Quote:
  
 
<blockquote>‘[The People’s Socialist Republic of] Albania is among the European countries with least arable land per head of population. Nevertheless, by relying on the cooperativist order, the ever increasing needs of consumption, industry and export for bread grain and other agricultural and livestock products are ever better fulfilled in conformity with the requirements of the socio‐economic development of the country.’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/erol/albania/al-degeneration-81.pdf</ref></blockquote>
 
<blockquote>‘[The People’s Socialist Republic of] Albania is among the European countries with least arable land per head of population. Nevertheless, by relying on the cooperativist order, the ever increasing needs of consumption, industry and export for bread grain and other agricultural and livestock products are ever better fulfilled in conformity with the requirements of the socio‐economic development of the country.’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/erol/albania/al-degeneration-81.pdf</ref></blockquote>
  
Soviet cooperatives in the 1920s were quite important to the economy; they produced butter, sugar beets, eggs, grain, and other goods for the people; agricultural cooperatives had millions of members.<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/1928/sufds/ch16.htm</ref> After World War II ended, the Soviet Union had a positive population growth for the remainder of their existence. From 1949 to the late 1960s the consumption of meat, dairy, eggs, fish, sugar, tea, and alcohol all rose in the Polish People’s Republic, the German Democratic Republic, and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.<ref>https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7iUwYR74MlbcFBxbWxsdHNLMHM</ref> The Republic of Chile’s beef and bread consumption increased by 15% from 1971 to 1972. They also initiated a programme to provide every Chilean child with a half‐litre of milk daily. (See Roger Morris’s ''Through the Looking Glass in Chile''.) In 1973 Chilean socialists went out on the street, loading goods with their bare hands, struggling so that the their towns did not go short on food. Some of the carriers (who supported Salvador Allende) organized convoys to distribute food in the provinces. The population also developed a family supply system that they called ‘the people’s basket’.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/mR8xNnHQq-M</ref> The People’s Republic of China became food‐sufficient by the late 1970s,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=QaDVCQAAQBAJ&pg=PP138</ref> and today they are the second '''least''' food‐wasting country in existence;<ref>https://www.magnet.co.uk/advice-inspiration/blog/2018/February/food-waste-around-the-world</ref> they are making good progress in addressing the malnutrition issues that do exist in some rural areas.<ref>https://m.wfp.org/stories/10-facts-about-nutrition-china</ref> During the short twentieth century the Nicaraguan socialists initiated a food programme: every Nicaraguan child had a ration of beans and rice so that the entire republic, no matter how poor that it was, was being fed; the Republic of Nicaragua’s staple foods consumption increased 30%. (See Alexander Sukhostat, ''Nicaragua—Defending the Revolution'', ''Political Affairs'', December 1981, pages 28–35; Collins, ''What Difference Could a Revolution Make?'') In both the Polish People’s Republic and the Soviet Union, the states refused to raise bread prices, thus a loaf cost only a few pennies, even less than animal feed (which amusingly encouraged farmers to purchase bread over the feed). Grenada’s New JEWEL Movement distributed free milk and other foodstuffs to the needy; they leased unused land in order to establish farm cooperatives and sought to turn agriculture away from their cash‐crop exports in exchange for self‐sufficient food production instead (as documented by Michael Massing in February of 1984).
+
Soviet cooperatives in the 1920s were quite important to the economy; they produced butter, sugar beets, eggs, grain, and other goods for the people; agricultural cooperatives had millions of members.<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/1928/sufds/ch16.htm</ref> After World War II ended, the Soviet Union had a positive population growth for the remainder of their existence. From 1949 to the late 1960s the consumption of meat, dairy, eggs, fish, sugar, tea, and alcohol all rose in the Polish People’s Republic, the German Democratic Republic, and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.<ref>https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7iUwYR74MlbcFBxbWxsdHNLMHM</ref> The Republic of Chile’s beef and bread consumption increased by 15% from 1971 to 1972. They also initiated a programme to provide every Chilean child with a half‐litre of milk daily. (See Roger Morris’s ''Through the Looking Glass in Chile''.) In 1973 Chilean socialists went out on the street, loading goods with their bare hands, struggling so that the their towns did not go short on food. Some of the carriers (who supported Salvador Allende) organized convoys to distribute food in the provinces. The population also developed a family supply system that they called ‘the people’s basket’.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/mR8xNnHQq-M</ref> The People’s Republic of China became food‐sufficient by the late 1970s,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=QaDVCQAAQBAJ&pg=PP138</ref> and today they are the second '''least''' food‐wasting country in existence;<ref>https://www.magnet.co.uk/advice-inspiration/blog/2018/February/food-waste-around-the-world</ref> they are making good progress in addressing the malnutrition issues that do exist in some rural areas.<ref>https://m.wfp.org/stories/10-facts-about-nutrition-china</ref> During the short twentieth century the Nicaraguan socialists initiated a food programme: every Nicaraguan child had a ration of beans and rice so that the entire republic, no matter how poor that it was, was being fed; the Republic of Nicaragua’s staple foods consumption increased 30%. (See Alexander Sukhostat, ''Nicaragua—Defending the Revolution'', ''Political Affairs'', December 1981, pages 28–35; Collins, ''What Difference Could a Revolution Make?'') In both the Polish People’s Republic and the Soviet Union, the states refused to raise bread prices, thus a loaf cost only a few pennies, even less than animal feed (which amusingly encouraged farmers to purchase bread over the feed). Grenada’s New JEWEL Movement distributed free milk and other foodstuffs to the needy; they leased unused land in order to establish farm cooperatives and sought to turn agriculture away from their cash‐crop exports in exchange for self‐sufficient food production instead (as documented by Michael Massing in February of 1984).
  
A report published by the UNDP indicated a steep increase in the number of calories available for Venezuelans between the late 1990s and 2010.<ref>https://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/MDG/english/MDG%20Country%20Reports/Venezuela/Venezuela_MDGReport_2010_SP.pdf</ref> The Food and Agriculture Organization gave the republic a special commendation in 2013 for the socialists’ exemplary work reducing malnourishment. The same organization also noted that the number of undernourished Venezuelans was 2.8 million between 1990 and 1992, rose to 3.8 million between 2000 and 2002, but fell to a statistically insignificant number by 2010 to 2012. They likewise calculated that there were 3,020 calories available per person daily in Venezuela, a figure much larger than the 1,800 per person daily that it recommends as a minimum and far larger than the one of under 1,800 available in 1999.<ref>http://www.fao.org/americas/noticias/ver/en/c/230150</ref> (This achievement is admittedly due in some part to their sale of oil,<ref>https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=117637</ref> but it is a fine example of rational distribution nonetheless.) Venezuelan communes are expanding small‐scale urban agriculture<ref>https://venezuelanalysis.com/NoJS</ref> to help with their homeland’s current food situation,<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/mbXqGiNlWWw</ref> and 70% of the food consumed in Venezuelan houses today is a product of small‐scale family agriculture.<ref>https://venezuelanalysis.com/NJ5u</ref> Families in Caracas collectively purchase tons of produce directly from a cooperative in Lara state five hours away, because if they had to buy these items in the market or in the street they would be almost impossible to afford.<ref>https://therealnews.com/?p=183704</ref> Havana has a good number of food providers,<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/YoCYIRUXE3A</ref> and many of them have their organic urban agriculture to thank for that.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/JIWsxo5nNgg</ref> In 1947 the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea’s grain output was one hundred and seventy thousand tons larger than yesteryear and agricultural production continued to increase until, at the time of the Korean War’s outbreak, basic self‐sufficiency in food had become possible.<ref>https://redd.it/cob3r9</ref> They reachieved self‐sufficiency in food by the 1960s,<ref>https://communism.lemmy.ml/post/947</ref> and recent U.N. statistics (pgs. 79–102) note that the DPRK vastly outperforms the Republic of Korea’s production of corn, wheat, soybeans, potatoes, apples, cotton, and hemp.<ref>https://kosis.kr/upsHtml/upload/Magazine/NEW/IF/bukhanY17.pdf</ref> Unsurprisingly,<ref>https://exploredprk.com/?p=19095</ref> they have been reducing malnourishment consistently this century.<ref>https://redd.it/b64zpj</ref>
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A report published by the UNDP indicated a steep increase in the number of calories available for Venezuelans between the late 1990s and 2010.<ref>https://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/MDG/english/MDG%20Country%20Reports/Venezuela/Venezuela_MDGReport_2010_SP.pdf</ref> The Food and Agriculture Organization gave the republic a special commendation in 2013 for the socialists’ exemplary work reducing malnourishment. The same organization also noted that the number of undernourished Venezuelans was 2.8 million between 1990 and 1992, rose to 3.8 million between 2000 and 2002, but fell to a statistically insignificant number by 2010 to 2012. They likewise calculated that there were 3,020 calories available per person daily in Venezuela, a figure much larger than the 1,800 per person daily that it recommends as a minimum and far larger than the one of under 1,800 available in 1999.<ref>http://www.fao.org/americas/noticias/ver/en/c/230150</ref> (This achievement is admittedly due in some part to their sale of oil,<ref>https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=117637</ref> but it is a fine example of rational distribution nonetheless.) Venezuelan communes are expanding small‐scale urban agriculture<ref>https://venezuelanalysis.com/NoJS</ref> to help with their homeland’s current food situation,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/mbXqGiNlWWw</ref> and 70% of the food consumed in Venezuelan houses today is a product of small‐scale family agriculture.<ref>https://venezuelanalysis.com/NJ5u</ref> Families in Caracas collectively purchase tons of produce directly from a cooperative in Lara state five hours away, because if they had to buy these items in the market or in the street they would be almost impossible to afford.<ref>https://therealnews.com/?p=183704</ref> Havana has a good number of food providers,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/YoCYIRUXE3A</ref> and many of them have their organic urban agriculture to thank for that.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/JIWsxo5nNgg</ref> In 1947 the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea’s grain output was one hundred and seventy thousand tons larger than yesteryear and agricultural production continued to increase until, at the time of the Korean War’s outbreak, basic self‐sufficiency in food had become possible.<ref>https://redd.it/cob3r9</ref> They reachieved self‐sufficiency in food by the 1960s,<ref>https://communism.lemmy.ml/post/947</ref> and recent U.N. statistics (pgs. 79–102) note that the DPRK vastly outperforms the Republic of Korea’s production of corn, wheat, soybeans, potatoes, apples, cotton, and hemp.<ref>https://kosis.kr/upsHtml/upload/Magazine/NEW/IF/bukhanY17.pdf</ref> Unsurprisingly,<ref>https://exploredprk.com/?p=19095</ref> they have been reducing malnourishment consistently this century.<ref>https://redd.it/b64zpj</ref>
  
 
Concerning the Ukrainian Free Territory (written from an anarchocommunist perspective):
 
Concerning the Ukrainian Free Territory (written from an anarchocommunist perspective):
Line 382: Line 380:
 
<blockquote>‘International sanctions on the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea appear to be biting their civilian economy more than in the past, arousing concerns that the country’s historically precarious food supply, which has also been adversely affected by dry weather this spring, is jeopardised. However, the context matters. '''Food production in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has grown remarkably over the past few years; even if food production declines a bit, it may not be disastrous.''' Moreover, estimates by U.N. agencies, which are generally regarded as authoritative, tend to overstate how much food distribution by the state really matters. '''Although the evidence is far from conclusive, current market prices do not indicate that a food crisis or emergency is presently at hand.'''’<ref>https://www.38north.org/?p=14023</ref></blockquote>
 
<blockquote>‘International sanctions on the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea appear to be biting their civilian economy more than in the past, arousing concerns that the country’s historically precarious food supply, which has also been adversely affected by dry weather this spring, is jeopardised. However, the context matters. '''Food production in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has grown remarkably over the past few years; even if food production declines a bit, it may not be disastrous.''' Moreover, estimates by U.N. agencies, which are generally regarded as authoritative, tend to overstate how much food distribution by the state really matters. '''Although the evidence is far from conclusive, current market prices do not indicate that a food crisis or emergency is presently at hand.'''’<ref>https://www.38north.org/?p=14023</ref></blockquote>
  
So were there food deficiencies or empty shelves in the Eastern Bloc ''& alibi''? There were empty shelves there and then, yes, but that does not necessarily mean that the citizens were all famished; refrigerators were often well stocked even if the stores theirselves were not.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/eV2lTkCRrfI</ref> The Soviet breadlines came from their system of food distribution: basically all food was freshly made and trucked out to the stores every morning, therefore every morning people would queue up at the stores to wait for those trucks to arrive, often with the youths doing this for their families. The lines cleared in approximately one hour (two on busy days) and since at least the late 1940s everyone got their share sooner or later. Hunger had not been, and was not in later decades, a part of the Soviet scene. As Dr. Kenneth Gray, the White House’s top expert on Soviet agriculture, said in his testimony to the Joint Economic Committee of Congress ‘…'''the food shortages in the USSR are occurring at fairly respectable levels of consumption.'''’<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20110611145106/http://www.usm.maine.edu/eco/joe/works/Soviet.html</ref> The causes for empty shelves furthermore are fairly complex and cannot simply be reduced to a lack of capitalism. For example, many managers made the seemingly logical but ultimately erroneously assumption that productive labourers ought to be given grander workloads while relatively unproductive labourers should receive lighter workloads, unintentionally encouraging many to work lightly. Another instance is the Polish People’s Republic during the 1970s, where the prices of food were artificially reduced to low prices, partially in commitment to egalitarian principles but also by worker demand. Both consumption and production rose, but in disequilibrium. The Polish People’s Republic’s main exports were food<ref>https://twitter.com/LeMisandre/status/1084890146896523269</ref> and coal, but later the balance turned negative; cash stopped flowing in, the debt became overwhelming, the Polish People’s Republic’s economy was obliged to export even more for payments, and then food deficiencies and rationing occurred. A black market and extra civil unrest naturally followed, though neither helped with the problem.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/ClassStruggleInSocialistPoland#page/n183/mode/1up</ref> In the end though, these territories were not constantly suffering severe levels of malnutrition. (One has to wonder how the citizens maintained their high lifespans and average physiques as they waited in long queues only to presumably receive absolutely nothing.)
+
So were there food deficiencies or empty shelves in the Eastern Bloc ''& alibi''? There were empty shelves there and then, yes, but that does not necessarily mean that the citizens were all famished; refrigerators were often well stocked even if the stores theirselves were not.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/eV2lTkCRrfI</ref> The Soviet breadlines came from their system of food distribution: basically all food was freshly made and trucked out to the stores every morning, therefore every morning people would queue up at the stores to wait for those trucks to arrive, often with the youths doing this for their families. The lines cleared in approximately one hour (two on busy days) and since at least the late 1940s everyone got their share sooner or later. Hunger had not been, and was not in later decades, a part of the Soviet scene. As Dr. Kenneth Gray, the White House’s top expert on Soviet agriculture, said in his testimony to the Joint Economic Committee of Congress ‘…'''the food shortages in the USSR are occurring at fairly respectable levels of consumption.'''’<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20110611145106/http://www.usm.maine.edu/eco/joe/works/Soviet.html</ref> The causes for empty shelves furthermore are fairly complex and cannot simply be reduced to a lack of capitalism. For example, many managers made the seemingly logical but ultimately erroneously assumption that productive labourers ought to be given grander workloads while relatively unproductive labourers should receive lighter workloads, unintentionally encouraging many to work lightly. Another instance is the Polish People’s Republic during the 1970s, where the prices of food were artificially reduced to low prices, partially in commitment to egalitarian principles but also by worker demand. Both consumption and production rose, but in disequilibrium. The Polish People’s Republic’s main exports were food<ref>https://twitter.com/LeMisandre/status/1084890146896523269</ref> and coal, but later the balance turned negative; cash stopped flowing in, the debt became overwhelming, the Polish People’s Republic’s economy was obliged to export even more for payments, and then food deficiencies and rationing occurred. A black market and extra civil unrest naturally followed, though neither helped with the problem.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/ClassStruggleInSocialistPoland#page/n183/mode/1up</ref> In the end though, these territories were not constantly suffering severe levels of malnutrition. (One has to wonder how the citizens maintained their high lifespans and average physiques as they waited in long queues only to presumably receive absolutely nothing.)
  
 
== Socialism has not and never will work==
 
== Socialism has not and never will work==
Line 388: Line 386:
 
The response depends on whom you ask, as many of us define socialism differently,<ref>https://www.socialism101.com/basic</ref> but we’ll touch on each argument.
 
The response depends on whom you ask, as many of us define socialism differently,<ref>https://www.socialism101.com/basic</ref> but we’ll touch on each argument.
  
Firstly, some socialists insist that socialism must, by definition, abolish the law of value<ref>https://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/v/a.htm#value</ref> (‘''the mutual exchangeability of products of equal social labour''’),<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1877/anti-duhring/ch26.htm</ref> abolish (generalised) commodity<ref>https://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/c/o.htm#commodity</ref> production, and extinguish capital<ref>https://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/c/a.htm#capital</ref> (in other words, negate capitalism); arguably many of the communes, republics, and other projects fall short of those qualifications, making them merely presocialist. There are furthermore some who insist that it be a global phenomenon like capitalism is today,<ref>https://www.leftcom.org/en/about-us</ref> a criterion under which they’d all certainly fall short. But world socialism is possible<ref>https://www.trueactivist.com/?p=6919</ref> because<ref>http://www.interacademies.net/2952/30189.aspx</ref> the dominant economic model has been replaced numerous times: for a while it was chattel slavery, and then it was feudalism, something which has actually persisted longer than capitalism has. While it is difficult to accurately predict when we have all finally had enough of capitalism, the fact of the matter is that society does mutate, both on small scales and sometimes on large ones. Other sceptics insist that capitalism is eternal due to our ‘biology’, in which case, see objection three again.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/r/shitliberalssay/wiki/index#wiki_all_humans_are_naturally_lazy.2C_greedy.2C_violent.2C_blah_blah_blah</ref> There are furthermore arguments that planned economics would be far too cumbersome for individuals or collectives to handle, but it is highly disputable that such blissfully unaware arguments would apply '''at all'''<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/9klmhg/_/e70zhtw</ref> (more information);<ref>https://libcom.org/files/CommonVoice3.pdf</ref> they furthermore ignore the immense use that modern technology '''already offers''' to a planning process.<ref>http://reality.gn.apc.org/econ/quito.pdf</ref> It has more‐or‐less already been tested in a people’s republic but with primitive computers, e.g.:
+
Firstly, some socialists insist that socialism must, by definition, abolish the law of value<ref>https://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/v/a.htm#value</ref> (‘''the mutual exchangeability of products of equal social labour''’),<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1877/anti-duhring/ch26.htm</ref> abolish (generalised) commodity<ref>https://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/c/o.htm#commodity</ref> production, and extinguish capital<ref>https://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/c/a.htm#capital</ref> (in other words, negate capitalism); arguably many of the communes, republics, and other projects fall short of those qualifications, making them merely presocialist. There are furthermore some who insist that it be a global phenomenon like capitalism is today,<ref>https://www.leftcom.org/en/about-us</ref> a criterion under which they’d all certainly fall short. But world socialism is possible<ref>https://www.trueactivist.com/?p=6919</ref> because<ref>http://www.interacademies.net/2952/30189.aspx</ref> the dominant economic model has been replaced numerous times: for a while it was chattel slavery, and then it was feudalism, something which has actually persisted longer than capitalism has. While it is difficult to accurately predict when we have all finally had enough of capitalism, the fact of the matter is that society does mutate, both on small scales and sometimes on large ones. Other sceptics insist that capitalism is eternal due to our ‘biology’, in which case, see [[user:Anarcho-Bolshevik/compendium#All_humans_are_naturally_lazy.2C_greedy.2C_violent.2C_blah_blah_blah|objection three]] again. There are furthermore arguments that planned economics would be far too cumbersome for individuals or collectives to handle, but it is highly disputable that such blissfully unaware arguments would apply '''at all'''<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/9klmhg/_/e70zhtw</ref> (more information);<ref>https://libcom.org/files/CommonVoice3.pdf</ref> they furthermore ignore the immense use that modern technology '''already offers''' to a planning process.<ref>http://reality.gn.apc.org/econ/quito.pdf</ref> It has more‐or‐less already been tested in a people’s republic but with primitive computers, e.g.:
  
 
<blockquote>‘What Soviet economic planners resorted to was running smaller spreadsheets. They handled only a few thousand key products and ran these through their mainframe computers as linear programmes: for these the equations [could] be solved. This explains one of the strengths of the Soviet economy: it did well on certain key projects like the space programme which can be given priority in the planning process, but there [was] just not the computer power available to apply the same techniques more widely.’</blockquote>
 
<blockquote>‘What Soviet economic planners resorted to was running smaller spreadsheets. They handled only a few thousand key products and ran these through their mainframe computers as linear programmes: for these the equations [could] be solved. This explains one of the strengths of the Soviet economy: it did well on certain key projects like the space programme which can be given priority in the planning process, but there [was] just not the computer power available to apply the same techniques more widely.’</blockquote>
  
Secondly, a more relaxed definition of socialism<ref>https://i.imgur.com/xPRwZIt.png</ref> is that it can exist on a smaller scale, in which case, there are plenty of examples: from Burkina Faso<ref>https://wp.me/p5qA5b-5Z</ref> to Grenada<ref>https://wp.me/p8zBok-9I</ref> to Revolutionary Catalonia<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/e8pGQNgXKRM</ref> to the Paris Commune<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secA5.html#seca51</ref> to the Hungarian Commune<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HungarianSovietRepublic</ref> to Seychelles to FEJUVE<ref>http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/etd/ucb/text/Hetland_berkeley_0028E_15568.pdf</ref> ^[1]<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20180109064155/https://anarchyinaction.org/index.php?title=El_Alto</ref> to the Shinmin Prefecture<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20170808033705/https://anarchyinaction.org/index.php?title=Cartography_of_Revolutionary_Anarchism</ref> to the Neozapatistas<ref>https://intercontinentalcry.org/?p=22499</ref> and their Autonomous Municipalities<ref>https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0094582x06298746</ref> to the Socialist<ref>https://marxistleninist.wordpress.com/2010/07/30/another-look-at-the-question-of-yugoslav-socialism/amp</ref> Federal Republic of Yugoslavia<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/a7mz8d/_/ec4zwx7</ref> to the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria<ref>https://novaramedia.com/?p=1127</ref> or to Free Territory.<ref>https://www.nestormakhno.info/english/makfaq/h_6_7.htm</ref> The brief lifespans of many of these is not, as antisocialists typically imply, purely the result of internal collapse, but<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=13920</ref> from capitalist corruption.<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-nC83</ref> In addition, worker cooperatives, while not necessarily threatening to capital, have nevertheless been demonstrated<ref>https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11211-006-0002-z</ref> as being not only viable but also superior to the standard business model in many ways.<ref>https://www.thenation.com/?p=207635</ref> ^[1],<ref>https://www.uk.coop/sites/default/files/uploads/attachments/worker_co-op_report.pdf</ref> ^[2],<ref>https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147596709000560</ref> ^[3],<ref>https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2437929</ref> ^[4]<ref>https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/261952</ref>
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Secondly, a more relaxed definition of socialism<ref>https://i.imgur.com/xPRwZIt.png</ref> is that it can exist on a smaller scale, in which case, there are plenty of examples: from Burkina Faso<ref>https://wp.me/p5qA5b-5Z</ref> to Grenada<ref>https://wp.me/p8zBok-9I</ref> to Revolutionary Catalonia<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/e8pGQNgXKRM</ref> to the Paris Commune<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secA5.html#seca51</ref> to the Hungarian Commune<ref>https://archive.org/stream/HungarianSovietRepublic</ref> to Seychelles to FEJUVE<ref>http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/etd/ucb/text/Hetland_berkeley_0028E_15568.pdf</ref> <ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20180109064155/https://anarchyinaction.org/index.php?title=El_Alto</ref> to the Shinmin Prefecture<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20170808033705/https://anarchyinaction.org/index.php?title=Cartography_of_Revolutionary_Anarchism</ref> to the Neozapatistas<ref>https://intercontinentalcry.org/?p=22499</ref> and their Autonomous Municipalities<ref>https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0094582x06298746</ref> to the Socialist<ref>https://marxistleninist.wordpress.com/2010/07/30/another-look-at-the-question-of-yugoslav-socialism/amp</ref> Federal Republic of Yugoslavia<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/a7mz8d/_/ec4zwx7</ref> to the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria<ref>https://novaramedia.com/?p=1127</ref> or to Free Territory.<ref>https://www.nestormakhno.info/english/makfaq/h_6_7.htm</ref> The brief lifespans of many of these is not, as antisocialists typically imply, purely the result of internal collapse, but<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=13920</ref> from capitalist corruption.<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-nC83</ref> In addition, worker cooperatives, while not necessarily threatening to capital, have nevertheless been demonstrated<ref>https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11211-006-0002-z</ref> as being not only viable but also superior to the standard business model in many ways.<ref>https://www.thenation.com/?p=207635</ref> <ref>https://www.uk.coop/sites/default/files/uploads/attachments/worker_co-op_report.pdf</ref> <ref>https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147596709000560</ref> ,<ref>https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2437929</ref> ^[4]<ref>https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/261952</ref>
  
The Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria<ref>https://slate.com/human-interest/2015/11/rojava-is-a-radical-experiment-in-democracy-in-northern-syria-american-leftists-need-to-pay-more-attention.html</ref>—even in spite of the embargoes and other nuisances that neoimperialists have imposed on them, and their (limited) tolerance for privatization and Yankee assistance—has massively increased gender equality, ethnic equality, healthcare access, education access, autonomy, political democracy,<ref>https://wp.me/p2ZC4U-Ou</ref> harnessed the local resources largely for use rather than profit,<ref>https://nicolasphebus.tumblr.com/post/106580014578</ref> and more.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/cDnenjIdnnE</ref> They have greatly improved and modernized their region in many ways.<ref>https://www.globalrights.info/?p=77879</ref> They have the support of state socialists both at home<ref>https://rojava-ml.wixsite.com/imlr</ref> and from the Turkish Communist Party.
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The Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria<ref>https://slate.com/human-interest/2015/11/rojava-is-a-radical-experiment-in-democracy-in-northern-syria-american-leftists-need-to-pay-more-attention.html</ref>—even in spite of the embargoes and other nuisances that neoimperialists have imposed on them, and their (limited) tolerance for privatization and Yankee assistance—has massively increased gender equality, ethnic equality, healthcare access, education access, autonomy, political democracy,<ref>https://wp.me/p2ZC4U-Ou</ref> harnessed the local resources largely for use rather than profit,<ref>https://nicolasphebus.tumblr.com/post/106580014578</ref> and more.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/cDnenjIdnnE</ref> They have greatly improved and modernized their region in many ways.<ref>https://www.globalrights.info/?p=77879</ref> They have the support of state socialists both at home<ref>https://rojava-ml.wixsite.com/imlr</ref> and from the Turkish Communist Party.
  
 
Grenada’s New JEWEL Movement<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=13721</ref> made grade school and secondary education gratis for all, a first in the territory’s history. They also distributed materials for home improvement to the needy, saw unemployment dropped dramatically from 49% to 14% in three years, took measures in support of equal pay and equal legal status for women, and saw cultural and sports programmes set up for youths, all of this in addition to the healthcare and food mentioned earlier. (See Michael Massing’s ''Grenada Before and After'' written in ''Atlantic Monthly'', February 1984.)
 
Grenada’s New JEWEL Movement<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=13721</ref> made grade school and secondary education gratis for all, a first in the territory’s history. They also distributed materials for home improvement to the needy, saw unemployment dropped dramatically from 49% to 14% in three years, took measures in support of equal pay and equal legal status for women, and saw cultural and sports programmes set up for youths, all of this in addition to the healthcare and food mentioned earlier. (See Michael Massing’s ''Grenada Before and After'' written in ''Atlantic Monthly'', February 1984.)
  
Spain improved dramatically from the socialist revolution of the 1930s.<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secA5.html#seca56</ref> The benefits are numerous: labourers in both agricultural and industrial sectors continued production effectively and devoid of any hierarchy involved; working conditions and output were both improved; healthcare became gratis; education was increased; gender equality started to flourish in part thanks to ''Mujeres Libres''; and living standards in general improved, all done in spite of the anticommunist aggression.<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secI8.html</ref> Catalonia’s anarchist movement created not only a defence industry from almost nothing, but also improved working conditions and innovated with new techniques and processes. They demonstrated that self‐management is possible, that it allows a massive increase in innovation and new ideas, and that the constructive powers of people inspired by an ideal can transform society.<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secI8.html#seci814</ref> In Barcelona for example, the labourers ran the trains, cinemas, factories, department stores, and even greyhound tracks. The trades unions managed food supplies; union lorries drove out to the villages with goods to trade for food. Barter (rather than purchasing) sustained the region for the first weeks of the Civil War. In some cases money successfully fell into disuse; people could do shopping with vouchers that local committees issued.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/c9X8vgdHw10</ref> (Decentral planners operated in some areas where influence of the CNT and UGT was most extensive, particularly the rural regions.)
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Spain improved dramatically from the socialist revolution of the 1930s.<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secA5.html#seca56</ref> The benefits are numerous: labourers in both agricultural and industrial sectors continued production effectively and devoid of any hierarchy involved; working conditions and output were both improved; healthcare became gratis; education was increased; gender equality started to flourish in part thanks to ''Mujeres Libres''; and living standards in general improved, all done in spite of the anticommunist aggression.<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secI8.html</ref> Catalonia’s anarchist movement created not only a defence industry from almost nothing, but also improved working conditions and innovated with new techniques and processes. They demonstrated that self‐management is possible, that it allows a massive increase in innovation and new ideas, and that the constructive powers of people inspired by an ideal can transform society.<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secI8.html#seci814</ref> In Barcelona for example, the labourers ran the trains, cinemas, factories, department stores, and even greyhound tracks. The trades unions managed food supplies; union lorries drove out to the villages with goods to trade for food. Barter (rather than purchasing) sustained the region for the first weeks of the Civil War. In some cases money successfully fell into disuse; people could do shopping with vouchers that local committees issued.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/c9X8vgdHw10</ref> (Decentral planners operated in some areas where influence of the CNT and UGT was most extensive, particularly the rural regions.)
  
The Indian state Kerala, where the actions of popular organizations and mass movements have gained important victories over the last four or so decades against political and economic oppression, has generated a level of social development better than that found in most of the other superexploited (‘third world’) countries and accomplished without any external investments. As of the 1990s the literacy there is widespread, the birth and death rates are lower than those in the rest of India, the public health services are superior, the under‐age labourers are fewer, the nutritional levels are higher with thanks to a publicly subsidized food rationing programme, women have more enlightened legal support and educational programmes, and finally some social security protections for the proletariat and for the destitute and physically disabled. The Kerala proletariat radically altered a complex and exploitative economy of agrarian relations and gained important victories against the more horrid forms of caste oppression; they have had some success with their decentral planning (and some difficulties, but it is doubtful that these were structural).<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=_gIkDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA79</ref> All of this was accomplished in spite of low income, low resources, some persistent poverty, and no special sources of wealth; it is with thanks to socialist organization and political struggle that has affected large numbers of citizens that the state’s democracy was electrified. ^[1],<ref>https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9780230374232_2</ref> ^[2]<ref>https://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198292043.001.0001/acprof-9780198292043-chapter-4</ref> Also in India are the Naxalites, a movement that has distributed land to the poor, defeated the exploitations of indigenous, sexual, and rural labor, issued fairer wages, improved local healthcare, prevented the antisocialists’ forced eviction and seizure of natural resources, and more.<ref>https://communism.lemmy.ml/post/974</ref>
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The Indian state Kerala, where the actions of popular organizations and mass movements have gained important victories over the last four or so decades against political and economic oppression, has generated a level of social development better than that found in most of the other superexploited (‘third world’) countries and accomplished without any external investments. As of the 1990s the literacy there is widespread, the birth and death rates are lower than those in the rest of India, the public health services are superior, the under‐age labourers are fewer, the nutritional levels are higher with thanks to a publicly subsidized food rationing programme, women have more enlightened legal support and educational programmes, and finally some social security protections for the proletariat and for the destitute and physically disabled. The Kerala proletariat radically altered a complex and exploitative economy of agrarian relations and gained important victories against the more horrid forms of caste oppression; they have had some success with their decentral planning (and some difficulties, but it is doubtful that these were structural).<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=_gIkDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA79</ref> All of this was accomplished in spite of low income, low resources, some persistent poverty, and no special sources of wealth; it is with thanks to socialist organization and political struggle that has affected large numbers of citizens that the state’s democracy was electrified. <ref>https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9780230374232_2</ref> <ref>https://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198292043.001.0001/acprof-9780198292043-chapter-4</ref> Also in India are the Naxalites, a movement that has distributed land to the poor, defeated the exploitations of indigenous, sexual, and rural labor, issued fairer wages, improved local healthcare, prevented the antisocialists’ forced eviction and seizure of natural resources, and more.<ref>https://communism.lemmy.ml/post/974</ref>
  
 
The Neozapatistas, in addition to their new and improved healthcare and education, have constructed an economic infrastructure designed to address the high level of poverty in their communities. This autonomous economy offers a grassroots alternative to global capitalism. Economic cooperatives generate resources that are invested back into the community. Cooperative stores provide merchandise for community members at reasonable prices while also generating income. Money raised by the cooperatives is used to cover shared expenses, for example when the community’s representatives travel to a regional meeting. The EZLN has also greatly improved hygiene and sanitation infrastructure in the territory under their control, and have even managed to (almost) eliminate alcohol consumption in their communities, which has had a massively positive impact on public health. Another important advance that the EZLN made is the improvement in gender relations in their communities and have taken an active approach to fighting neopatriarchy. In 2018 for example, they organized an event entirely by, and for, women.<ref>https://redd.it/da8nbq</ref> While it would be an exaggeration to classify either them or their social existence as anarchist, their relatively decentralized or libertarian model has nevertheless been an important inspiration to anarchists and other socialists.
 
The Neozapatistas, in addition to their new and improved healthcare and education, have constructed an economic infrastructure designed to address the high level of poverty in their communities. This autonomous economy offers a grassroots alternative to global capitalism. Economic cooperatives generate resources that are invested back into the community. Cooperative stores provide merchandise for community members at reasonable prices while also generating income. Money raised by the cooperatives is used to cover shared expenses, for example when the community’s representatives travel to a regional meeting. The EZLN has also greatly improved hygiene and sanitation infrastructure in the territory under their control, and have even managed to (almost) eliminate alcohol consumption in their communities, which has had a massively positive impact on public health. Another important advance that the EZLN made is the improvement in gender relations in their communities and have taken an active approach to fighting neopatriarchy. In 2018 for example, they organized an event entirely by, and for, women.<ref>https://redd.it/da8nbq</ref> While it would be an exaggeration to classify either them or their social existence as anarchist, their relatively decentralized or libertarian model has nevertheless been an important inspiration to anarchists and other socialists.
  
Parenti’s ''To Kill a Nation'' indicates that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia<ref>https://redd.it/cu8rug</ref> had one of the most vigorous growth rates between 1960 and 1980, along with medical care and education gratis, a guaranteed right to an income, mensual vacations with pay, a literacy rate of over 90%, a life expectancy of 7.2 decades, in addition to its inexpensive public transport, housing, and utilities—in a mostly publicly owned, semiplanned economy—for its multiethnic citizenry.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/yugoslaviacountr00curt_0</ref> As late as 1990, better than 60% of the total labour force was in the public sector, much of it self‐managed. Croats, Serbs, and others lived together in relative contentment, experiencing quotidian friendships throughout the regions before May 1991. ^[1]<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-nNGg</ref>
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Parenti’s ''To Kill a Nation'' indicates that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia<ref>https://redd.it/cu8rug</ref> had one of the most vigorous growth rates between 1960 and 1980, along with medical care and education gratis, a guaranteed right to an income, mensual vacations with pay, a literacy rate of over 90%, a life expectancy of 7.2 decades, in addition to its inexpensive public transport, housing, and utilities—in a mostly publicly owned, semiplanned economy—for its multiethnic citizenry.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/yugoslaviacountr00curt_0</ref> As late as 1990, better than 60% of the total labour force was in the public sector, much of it self‐managed. Croats, Serbs, and others lived together in relative contentment, experiencing quotidian friendships throughout the regions before May 1991.<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-nNGg</ref>
  
Finally, there are places such as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics<ref>https://www.ernestmandel.org/en/works/txt/1951/theory_of_statecapitalism.htm</ref> and the People’s Republic of China,<ref>https://communism.lemmy.ml/post/965</ref> repetitively referenced as ‘failures of socialism’. The reality,<ref>https://redd.it/cvgnzm</ref> is that<ref>https://eng.globalaffairs.ru/number/The-Russian-Federation-Before-and-After-the-Soviet-Union-15077</ref> even these homelands were still vast improvements compared to the previous states of<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1646771/pdf/amjph00269-0055.pdf</ref> affairs:<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1646824/pdf/amjph00253-0110b.pdf</ref> the People’s Republic of China<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=16075</ref> achieved<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/cvRzvUHXWF8</ref> briefer working hours<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/fi/vol14/no02/china.html</ref> (especially compared to the ’00s),<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/atc/1126.html</ref> higher literacy rates,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/793wbm/_/dozk8vq</ref> more accessible medicine, lower mortality rates<ref>http://sites.fordschool.umich.edu/china-policy/files/2012/07/PP_716_Final_Policy_Paper_Health-Final.pdf</ref> (in fact better healthcare than that in the U.S.),<ref>https://hotpot.team/?p=228</ref> higher and better life expectancies,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=GF0_GNqgqV4C&pg=PA300</ref> their own advances in space flight,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=tMc8CgAAQBAJ</ref> democratic communes,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=8kFXAAAAMAAJ</ref> strong laws against poor working conditions,<ref>https://www.shrm.org/ResourcesAndTools/hr-topics/global-hr/Pages/China-Workplace-Safety-Law.aspx</ref> wages increasing when productivity rises<ref>https://www.cnbc.com/2017/02/27/chinese-wages-rise-made-in-china-isnt-so-cheap-anymore.html</ref> (in fact wages steadily increasing by 12% yearly from 2001 to now),<ref>https://www.economist.com/briefing/2015/03/12/a-tightening-grip</ref> a significant rate at which they arrest shifty businessmen,<ref>https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/01/why-do-chinese-billionaires-keep-ending-up-in-prison/272633</ref> and a<ref>https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN?locations=CN</ref> greater population<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4331212</ref> (so much so that experts Amartya Sen and Jean Drèze<ref>https://www.univerlag.uni-goettingen.de/handle/3/isbn-3-938616-63-6</ref> have postdicted that India would have benefited far more from adopting the P.R.C.’s route).<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=4ErRaUQhb-8C&pg=PA177</ref> ''The Unknown Cultural Revolution'',<ref>http://www.socialiststories.com/liberate/The%20Unknown%20Cultural%20Revolution%20-%20Dongping%20Han.pdf</ref> written by somebody who lived in the People’s Republic of China at the time, goes into detail about the positive effects of education reform, agricultural and industrial progress, and political empowerment brought by the Cultural Revolution (especially in rural areas). Much of the same is true for the Soviet Union<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/8mz7so/_/dzs24tg</ref> (which even antisocialists<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20170915012329/http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/sovi.html</ref> have acknowledged as a superpower), and there were other accomplishments:<ref>https://archive.org/stream/IsTheRedFlagFlying</ref> the numerous achievements in the space race (which influenced U.S. science,<ref>https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14829195</ref> to the point where some U.S. rockets still use Soviet‐era engines)<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/oGr1UVNBDLs</ref> including the first, albeit unmanned, mission to the moon,<ref>https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1959-014A</ref> the world’s first direct‐to‐home television service,<ref>https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/ekran.htm</ref> the first and so far only Pole in space (that being Mirosław Hermaszewski),<ref>https://www.polskieradio.pl/39/156/Artykul/874685,Miroslaw-Hermaszewski-–-pierwszy-Polak-w-kosmosie</ref> the first modern mobile telephone<ref>https://psmag.com/magazine/cellphone-revolutionary-objects</ref> (that being LK‐1; previous mobiles were usually restricted to vehicles and occasionally some suitcases), rapid industrialization thanks to their prioritization of use‐value<ref>https://cdn.discordapp.com/attachments/395543306500833280/601669298645106698/USSR_Capitalist_or_Transitional_Society.rtf</ref> (an important socialist principle), an elaborate system of underground transit, the world’s first facility acting as a blood bank,<ref>https://deputyprimeminister.gov.mt/en/nbts/Pages/About-Blood/History-of-Blood.aspx</ref> the Bezostaia crop,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/951ixq/_/e3p9atk</ref> the prototypes of the domesticated foxes,<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/4dwjS_eI-lQ</ref> a very efficient cane‐harvesting combine,<ref>https://twitter.com/LeMisandre/status/1094376926897160193</ref> the Tupolev Tu‐114<ref>https://www.aerospaceweb.org/aircraft/jetliner/tu114</ref> (a rarity, but it was the fastest ever record speed<ref>https://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/performance/q0023.shtml</ref> for a propeller‐driven aircraft<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20071007145139/http://records.fai.org/general_aviation/current.asp?id1=21&id2=3</ref> of any type even to this day), the tokamak reactor (which may be the key to harnessing nuclear fusion for energy),<ref>https://www.iter.org/newsline/55/1194</ref> a distributed decision support system (made with some British assistance) to aid in a national economy’s management<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20090910060602/http://newsinfo.iu.edu/web/page/normal/11088.html</ref> (lessening the potential damage caused by forty thousand truckers<ref>https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022216X06001179</ref> whom antisocialists bribed into striking) established in only four months,<ref>http://ricardo.ecn.wfu.edu/~cottrell/socialism_book/new_socialism.pdf</ref> the first proposal anywhere in the world to create a national computer network for civilians, that being the OGAS<ref>https://aeon.co/essays/how-the-soviets-invented-the-internet-and-why-it-didn-t-work</ref> (which was naïvely unfunded, but at least it demonstrates the Soviets’ technological capability), other inventions,<ref>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/category:Soviet_inventions</ref> the highest number of doctors<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/newsholme/1933/red-medicine/index.htm</ref> per capita in the world (in fact the world’s highest physician‐patient ratio),<ref>https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0735675784900482</ref> and all historians concur that nobody but the Soviet Union deserves most of the credit for ending the Third Reich.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/b0epew/_/eifj5g6</ref> Soviet Colonel Georgi Mosolov helped break the record for the world’s fastest aircraft twice, first during 1959 as the Ye‐6/3 (see ''MiG'', pgs. 274–275) and again during 1962 as the Ye‐166 (ibid., pgs. 298–300, or ''Jane’s All The World’s Aircraft 1965–66'', p. 346), respectively. Fritz Todt (in an exchange with an anti‐Soviet hack) said that there was even an anticommunist Chancellor who noted in November 1941 ‘''How is it possible that such a primitive people can reach such technical objectives in such a short period of time?''’ This is evidenced almost a year later with the said anticommunist’s admission that ‘''With respect to Russia, it is incontestable that Stalin raised the standard of living. The Russian people don’t go hungry [at the moment when Operation Barbarossa was launched]. In general, it’s necessary to recognize that they have built factories of similar importance to Hermann Goering Reichswerke where two years ago nothing but unknown villages existed. We come across railway lines that aren’t on the maps.''’<ref>https://docs.google.com/document/d/1WS8cCjXDgdJaXFrkW9b1ldY3xlwiPPQ89AwZo53Amlk</ref>
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Finally, there are places such as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics<ref>https://www.ernestmandel.org/en/works/txt/1951/theory_of_statecapitalism.htm</ref> and the People’s Republic of China,<ref>https://communism.lemmy.ml/post/965</ref> repetitively referenced as ‘failures of socialism’. The reality,<ref>https://redd.it/cvgnzm</ref> is that<ref>https://eng.globalaffairs.ru/number/The-Russian-Federation-Before-and-After-the-Soviet-Union-15077</ref> even these homelands were still vast improvements compared to the previous states of<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1646771/pdf/amjph00269-0055.pdf</ref> affairs:<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1646824/pdf/amjph00253-0110b.pdf</ref> the People’s Republic of China<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=16075</ref> achieved<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/cvRzvUHXWF8</ref> briefer working hours<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/fi/vol14/no02/china.html</ref> (especially compared to the ’00s),<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/atc/1126.html</ref> higher literacy rates,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/793wbm/_/dozk8vq</ref> more accessible medicine, lower mortality rates<ref>http://sites.fordschool.umich.edu/china-policy/files/2012/07/PP_716_Final_Policy_Paper_Health-Final.pdf</ref> (in fact better healthcare than that in the U.S.),<ref>https://hotpot.team/?p=228</ref> higher and better life expectancies,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=GF0_GNqgqV4C&pg=PA300</ref> their own advances in space flight,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=tMc8CgAAQBAJ</ref> democratic communes,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=8kFXAAAAMAAJ</ref> strong laws against poor working conditions,<ref>https://www.shrm.org/ResourcesAndTools/hr-topics/global-hr/Pages/China-Workplace-Safety-Law.aspx</ref> wages increasing when productivity rises<ref>https://www.cnbc.com/2017/02/27/chinese-wages-rise-made-in-china-isnt-so-cheap-anymore.html</ref> (in fact wages steadily increasing by 12% yearly from 2001 to now),<ref>https://www.economist.com/briefing/2015/03/12/a-tightening-grip</ref> a significant rate at which they arrest shifty businessmen,<ref>https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/01/why-do-chinese-billionaires-keep-ending-up-in-prison/272633</ref> and a<ref>https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN?locations=CN</ref> greater population<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4331212</ref> (so much so that experts Amartya Sen and Jean Drèze<ref>https://www.univerlag.uni-goettingen.de/handle/3/isbn-3-938616-63-6</ref> have postdicted that India would have benefited far more from adopting the P.R.C.’s route).<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=4ErRaUQhb-8C&pg=PA177</ref> ''The Unknown Cultural Revolution'',<ref>http://www.socialiststories.com/liberate/The%20Unknown%20Cultural%20Revolution%20-%20Dongping%20Han.pdf</ref> written by somebody who lived in the People’s Republic of China at the time, goes into detail about the positive effects of education reform, agricultural and industrial progress, and political empowerment brought by the Cultural Revolution (especially in rural areas). Much of the same is true for the Soviet Union<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/8mz7so/_/dzs24tg</ref> (which even antisocialists<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20170915012329/http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/sovi.html</ref> have acknowledged as a superpower), and there were other accomplishments:<ref>https://archive.org/stream/IsTheRedFlagFlying</ref> the numerous achievements in the space race (which influenced U.S. science,<ref>https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14829195</ref> to the point where some U.S. rockets still use Soviet‐era engines)<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/oGr1UVNBDLs</ref> including the first, albeit unmanned, mission to the moon,<ref>https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1959-014A</ref> the world’s first direct‐to‐home television service,<ref>https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/ekran.htm</ref> the first and so far only Pole in space (that being Mirosław Hermaszewski),<ref>https://www.polskieradio.pl/39/156/Artykul/874685,Miroslaw-Hermaszewski-–-pierwszy-Polak-w-kosmosie</ref> the first modern mobile telephone<ref>https://psmag.com/magazine/cellphone-revolutionary-objects</ref> (that being LK‐1; previous mobiles were usually restricted to vehicles and occasionally some suitcases), rapid industrialization thanks to their prioritization of use‐value<ref>https://cdn.discordapp.com/attachments/395543306500833280/601669298645106698/USSR_Capitalist_or_Transitional_Society.rtf</ref> (an important socialist principle), an elaborate system of underground transit, the world’s first facility acting as a blood bank,<ref>https://deputyprimeminister.gov.mt/en/nbts/Pages/About-Blood/History-of-Blood.aspx</ref> the Bezostaia crop,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/951ixq/_/e3p9atk</ref> the prototypes of the domesticated foxes,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/4dwjS_eI-lQ</ref> a very efficient cane‐harvesting combine,<ref>https://twitter.com/LeMisandre/status/1094376926897160193</ref> the Tupolev Tu‐114<ref>https://www.aerospaceweb.org/aircraft/jetliner/tu114</ref> (a rarity, but it was the fastest ever record speed<ref>https://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/performance/q0023.shtml</ref> for a propeller‐driven aircraft<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20071007145139/http://records.fai.org/general_aviation/current.asp?id1=21&id2=3</ref> of any type even to this day), the tokamak reactor (which may be the key to harnessing nuclear fusion for energy),<ref>https://www.iter.org/newsline/55/1194</ref> a distributed decision support system (made with some British assistance) to aid in a national economy’s management<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20090910060602/http://newsinfo.iu.edu/web/page/normal/11088.html</ref> (lessening the potential damage caused by forty thousand truckers<ref>https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022216X06001179</ref> whom antisocialists bribed into striking) established in only four months,<ref>http://ricardo.ecn.wfu.edu/~cottrell/socialism_book/new_socialism.pdf</ref> the first proposal anywhere in the world to create a national computer network for civilians, that being the OGAS<ref>https://aeon.co/essays/how-the-soviets-invented-the-internet-and-why-it-didn-t-work</ref> (which was naïvely unfunded, but at least it demonstrates the Soviets’ technological capability), other inventions,<ref>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/category:Soviet_inventions</ref> the highest number of doctors<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/newsholme/1933/red-medicine/index.htm</ref> per capita in the world (in fact the world’s highest physician‐patient ratio),<ref>https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0735675784900482</ref> and all historians concur that nobody but the Soviet Union deserves most of the credit for ending the Third Reich.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/b0epew/_/eifj5g6</ref> Soviet Colonel Georgi Mosolov helped break the record for the world’s fastest aircraft twice, first during 1959 as the Ye‐6/3 (see ''MiG'', pgs. 274–275) and again during 1962 as the Ye‐166 (ibid., pgs. 298–300, or ''Jane’s All The World’s Aircraft 1965–66'', p. 346), respectively. Fritz Todt (in an exchange with an anti‐Soviet hack) said that there was even an anticommunist Chancellor who noted in November 1941 ‘''How is it possible that such a primitive people can reach such technical objectives in such a short period of time?''’ This is evidenced almost a year later with the said anticommunist’s admission that ‘''With respect to Russia, it is incontestable that Stalin raised the standard of living. The Russian people don’t go hungry [at the moment when Operation Barbarossa was launched]. In general, it’s necessary to recognize that they have built factories of similar importance to Hermann Goering Reichswerke where two years ago nothing but unknown villages existed. We come across railway lines that aren’t on the maps.''’<ref>https://docs.google.com/document/d/1WS8cCjXDgdJaXFrkW9b1ldY3xlwiPPQ89AwZo53Amlk</ref>
  
The Soviets provided housing, education, and healthcare as basic rights:<ref>https://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/const/36cons01.html</ref> Healthcare,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20190518072331/http://medicalency.com/bolnitsy-v-sssr.htm</ref> shelter, transport,<ref>https://wp.me/p3rKs-tS</ref> water, education,<ref>https://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0000/000013/001300eo.pdf</ref><ref>https://www.revolutionarydemocracy.org/archive/PubEdUSSR.htm</ref> and many foods were either very cheap or decommodified.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/r/shitliberalssay/wiki/index#wiki_most_people_in_socialist_states_are_constantly_starving_or_are_malnourished.2C_and_it.2019s_because_of_socialism</ref> ^[1]<ref>https://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/const/36cons04.html#chap10</ref> Education improved.<ref>https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED543902.pdf</ref> Economic equality, while imperfect, was still much better,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/8lftzp/_/dzi4etm</ref> including for single mothers.<ref>https://www.quora.com/IS-it-true-that-a-single-mother-with-1-job-was-able-of-live-well-in-the-Soviet-union/answer/Alexander-Finnegan</ref> Unemployment decreased severely and economic growth continued for seven decades<ref>https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.507.8966&rep=rep1&type=pdf</ref> (statistically unemployment is often put at 0%, but this is likely a slight exaggeration reliant on the Soviets’ definition). They recognised overtime as a potential threat to the health of workers and permitted it only under special circumstances and on agreement with the trades union.<ref>https://communism.lemmy.ml/post/828</ref> The populaces in general were happier.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/r/shitliberalssay/wiki/index#wiki_socialism_has_no_popular_support</ref> During the Great Depression, many people consciously sought refuge in the U.S.S.R. (at least for a while!).<ref>https://www.genealogia.fi/emi/art/article237e.htm</ref> Comparing any planned economy to the United States would indeed make the market seem much more efficient (especially by means of Eurocentric methods like the GDP<ref>https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=8482</ref> or the HDI).<ref>https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800997001687</ref> But when adjusting for material circumstances, trying to compare the United States, one of the most prosperous nations in modern history with an immense amount of access to global markets and a variety of neocolonies to superexploit, and Russia, a land that just escaped feudalism and preindustrialization only by the 1920s and suffered countless sanctions throughout the short twentieth century,<ref>https://www.americanforeignrelations.com/E-N/Embargoes-and-Sanctions-Cold-war-sanctions.html</ref> is almost meaningless. Many studies that adjust for material conditions have demonstrated that planned economies have historically performed '''better''' in growing a society: the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was fit and incentivized to cater to the needs and wants of its people without markets.<ref>https://www.demos.co.uk/files/Entrepreneurial_State_-_web.pdf</ref>
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The Soviets provided housing, education, and healthcare as basic rights:<ref>https://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/const/36cons01.html</ref> Healthcare,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20190518072331/http://medicalency.com/bolnitsy-v-sssr.htm</ref> shelter, transport,<ref>https://wp.me/p3rKs-tS</ref> water, education,<ref>https://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0000/000013/001300eo.pdf</ref><ref>https://www.revolutionarydemocracy.org/archive/PubEdUSSR.htm</ref> and [[User:Anarcho-Bolshevik/compendium#Most_people_in_socialist_states_are_constantly_starving_or_are_malnourished.2C_and_it.E2.80.99s_because_of_socialism|many foods were either very cheap or decommodified.]]<ref>https://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/const/36cons04.html#chap10</ref> Education improved.<ref>https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED543902.pdf</ref> Economic equality, while imperfect, was still much better,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/8lftzp/_/dzi4etm</ref> including for single mothers.<ref>https://www.quora.com/IS-it-true-that-a-single-mother-with-1-job-was-able-of-live-well-in-the-Soviet-union/answer/Alexander-Finnegan</ref> Unemployment decreased severely and economic growth continued for seven decades<ref>https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.507.8966&rep=rep1&type=pdf</ref> (statistically unemployment is often put at 0%, but this is likely a slight exaggeration reliant on the Soviets’ definition). They recognised overtime as a potential threat to the health of workers and permitted it only under special circumstances and on agreement with the trades union.<ref>https://communism.lemmy.ml/post/828</ref> [[user:Anarcho-Bolshevik/compendium#Socialism_has_no_popular_support|The populaces in general were happier.]] During the Great Depression, many people consciously sought refuge in the U.S.S.R. (at least for a while!).<ref>https://www.genealogia.fi/emi/art/article237e.htm</ref> Comparing any planned economy to the United States would indeed make the market seem much more efficient (especially by means of Eurocentric methods like the GDP<ref>https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=8482</ref> or the HDI<ref>https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800997001687</ref>). But when adjusting for material circumstances, trying to compare the United States, one of the most prosperous nations in modern history with an immense amount of access to global markets and a variety of neocolonies to superexploit, and Russia, a land that just escaped feudalism and preindustrialization only by the 1920s and suffered countless sanctions throughout the short twentieth century,<ref>https://www.americanforeignrelations.com/E-N/Embargoes-and-Sanctions-Cold-war-sanctions.html</ref> is almost meaningless. Many studies that adjust for material conditions have demonstrated that planned economies have historically performed '''better''' in growing a society: the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was fit and incentivized to cater to the needs and wants of its people without markets.<ref>https://www.demos.co.uk/files/Entrepreneurial_State_-_web.pdf</ref>
  
Contrary to popular belief, dissent was not '''''overwhelmingly''''' restricted,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/99br9h/_/e4n270s</ref> not even during the 1930s<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=BgQpfVi8Z-wC&pg=PA185</ref> and 1940s.<ref>https://imgur.com/ZTbgLw9</ref> Professor Robert W. Thurston discovered that ‘''Stalin, the press, and the Stakhanovite movement all regularly encouraged ordinary people to criticize those in authority.''’ He pointed out that many arrests in the 1930s were actually late punishments for genuine offenses such as serving in the White Army. He asks us, ‘''If the citizenry was supposed to be terrorized and stop thinking, why encourage criticism and input from below on a large scale?''’ and concluded that ‘''my evidence suggests that widespread fear did not exist in the case at hand [the Soviet ‘Great Terror’ period]''’.<ref>https://www.jstor.org/stable/2499177?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents</ref> Soviet trades unions were allowed to criticize and participate in state policies;<ref>https://drive.google.com/file/d/1wRzUh9CXT7IP1NoPwE3mBIEKPvRoztqz</ref> Soviet workers could openly criticize management, the result of which often ended in favour of the critic.<ref>http://ge.tt/2W0V2Id1/v/0?c</ref> ^[1]<ref>https://www.nytimes.com/1960/05/22/archives/soviet-men-at-the-top-the-red-executive-a-study-of-the-organization.html</ref> To quote Anglo scholar David Granick:
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Contrary to popular belief, dissent was not '''''overwhelmingly''''' restricted,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/99br9h/_/e4n270s</ref> not even during the 1930s<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=BgQpfVi8Z-wC&pg=PA185</ref> and 1940s.<ref>https://imgur.com/ZTbgLw9</ref> Professor Robert W. Thurston discovered that ‘''Stalin, the press, and the Stakhanovite movement all regularly encouraged ordinary people to criticize those in authority.''’ He pointed out that many arrests in the 1930s were actually late punishments for genuine offenses such as serving in the White Army. He asks us, ‘''If the citizenry was supposed to be terrorized and stop thinking, why encourage criticism and input from below on a large scale?''’ and concluded that ‘''my evidence suggests that widespread fear did not exist in the case at hand [the Soviet ‘Great Terror’ period]''’.<ref>https://www.jstor.org/stable/2499177?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents</ref> Soviet trades unions were allowed to criticize and participate in state policies;<ref>https://drive.google.com/file/d/1wRzUh9CXT7IP1NoPwE3mBIEKPvRoztqz</ref> Soviet workers could openly criticize management, the result of which often ended in favour of the critic.<ref>http://ge.tt/2W0V2Id1/v/0?c</ref> <ref>https://www.nytimes.com/1960/05/22/archives/soviet-men-at-the-top-the-red-executive-a-study-of-the-organization.html</ref> To quote Anglo scholar David Granick:
  
 
<blockquote>‘One factory director […] implied that production meetings were a real ordeal for him. But at a question as to whether workers dared to criticize openly, he said, “any director who suppressed criticism would be severely punished. he would not only be removed, he would be tried.”’<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20190512102949/www.marx2mao.com/Other/RCSU75.html</ref></blockquote>
 
<blockquote>‘One factory director […] implied that production meetings were a real ordeal for him. But at a question as to whether workers dared to criticize openly, he said, “any director who suppressed criticism would be severely punished. he would not only be removed, he would be tried.”’<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20190512102949/www.marx2mao.com/Other/RCSU75.html</ref></blockquote>
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On December 22, 1982, both the Supreme Soviet and the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party unanimously approved a nuclear arms freeze resolution<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=c2rfAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA2-PA8</ref> (almost identical to the version that had been passed by numerous municipalities and states throughout the United States). They also (unsuccessfully) plead to the U.S.A. for a prohibition on nuclear testing,<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=13625</ref> and for damn good reason too.<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-nz8l</ref> The Soviets did not ‘cheat’ on their nuclear weapons testing agreements (as some antisocialists have claimed),<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=13922</ref> and they still had less of a military arms buildup than the U.S.A.,<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=13848</ref> which antisocialists theirselves reconfirmed in the twenty‐first century.<ref>https://archives.globalresearch.ca/articles/LEO306G.html</ref>
 
On December 22, 1982, both the Supreme Soviet and the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party unanimously approved a nuclear arms freeze resolution<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=c2rfAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA2-PA8</ref> (almost identical to the version that had been passed by numerous municipalities and states throughout the United States). They also (unsuccessfully) plead to the U.S.A. for a prohibition on nuclear testing,<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=13625</ref> and for damn good reason too.<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-nz8l</ref> The Soviets did not ‘cheat’ on their nuclear weapons testing agreements (as some antisocialists have claimed),<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=13922</ref> and they still had less of a military arms buildup than the U.S.A.,<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=13848</ref> which antisocialists theirselves reconfirmed in the twenty‐first century.<ref>https://archives.globalresearch.ca/articles/LEO306G.html</ref>
  
Howard M. Leichter noted that the quality of Russian medical care had improved substantially during the short twentieth century;<ref>https://wp.me/pa7b25-X</ref> at the Cold War’s height the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics had a lower general mortality rate than Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States.<ref>https://wp.me/pa7b25-1A</ref> Professor Vicente Navarro agreed, concluding that ‘''socialism and socialist forces have been, for the most part, better able to improve health conditions than have capitalism and capitalist forces''’ and that ‘''the evidence presented in this article shows that the historical experience of socialism has not been one of failure. To the contrary: it has been, for the most part, more successful than capitalism in improving the health conditions of the world’s populations.''’<ref>https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.2190/B2TP-3R5M-Q7UP-DUA2</ref> Anthropometric data indicate that for decades Soviet life expectancy grew faster than any other homeland recorded at the time.<ref>https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/slavic-review/article/great-leap-upwards-anthropometric-data-and-indicators-of-crises-and-secular-change-in-soviet-welfare-levels-18801960/B7C984FD62885FF22095D8C641BD7237</ref> By the 1970s Soviet life expectancy was higher than that of Finland, Portugal, South America, and even Eastern Europe (and only marginally lower than that in Britain, Japan, and W. Germany). In the German Democratic Republic it was likewise higher than that in Austria, Australia, Belgium, the British Empire, Canada, Italy, Switzerland, and W. Germany.<ref>https://www.nybooks.com/?p=24687</ref> As in the DPRK,<ref>https://www.womenonwaves.org/en/id/4888</ref> abortions were freely permitted (with a few exceptions: the R.S.F.S.R. from 1936–1955, the P. Soc. Rep. of Albania, the Soc. Rep. of Romania, and the Rep. of Nicaragua); in fact the R.S.F.S.R. was the first country to fully deregulate the procedure.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=UHymAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA5</ref> Lobotomy was prohibited as early as 1950 in the Soviet Union.<ref>https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01401819</ref> Soviet physicians vaccinated millions of people (against cholera) in the early 1920s alone; they likewise made improvements in public services such as waterworks and sanitation. They not only vaccinated their citizens but also fed them, educated them about hygiene, and maintained the (prerevolutionary) administrative structure and system of emergency response.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=X7BYDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT347</ref> Since 1955, the Soviets used a lyophilized rabies vaccine extensively; Likhachev developed the vaccine.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=SoY-AAAAYAAJ</ref> They vaccinated millions of people against measles in the 1970s.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/aqiy5q/_/eggb7ic</ref> Antirabies aid was fully decentralized and inoculation against rabies was carried out by a wide network of institutions for prevention and treatment.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=citMAAAAYAAJ</ref> Soviet scientist Mikhail Chumakov organized the first industrial production and mass use of oral poliovirus vaccine from Dr. Albert Sabin’s strains. ^[1],<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6760938</ref> ^[2]<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3696960</ref> After successful clinical trials conducted in the Soviet Union that left polio virtually wiped out with no safety issues, it soon became the vaccine of choice in the West.<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4659912</ref> In 1958 the Soviet Union proposed to the World Health Assembly that the World Health Organization undertake a global eradication programme of smallpox,<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7293</ref> which was approved in 1959. Within a decade a number of countries embarked on mass vaccination campaigns, and the People’s Republic of China (among several other countries) successfully eliminated the disease.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=QEQrAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA98</ref> The Soviets likewise gladly participated in the eradication of smallpox,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=cka5AAAAIAAJ&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=vaccinated</ref> including in the Aral.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=JyXPFC1hOzEC</ref> The Scientific Research Institute of Oncology and Medical Radiology of the Ministry of Health of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic pioneered the operation involving the transplantation of the left adrenal with the right adrenalectomy in people with advanced breast carcinoma. They demonstrated that objective remission in 70% of patients.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=nbQ5DQAAQBAJ&pg=PA91</ref> The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has immunized theirselves from diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=4eBwBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA271</ref> During the short twentieth century (and since at least the 1970s), the People’s Republic of China prioritised not profit but the working masses’ welfare.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=OLNrl7XYBCEC&pg=PA251</ref>
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Howard M. Leichter noted that the quality of Russian medical care had improved substantially during the short twentieth century;<ref>https://wp.me/pa7b25-X</ref> at the Cold War’s height the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics had a lower general mortality rate than Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States.<ref>https://wp.me/pa7b25-1A</ref> Professor Vicente Navarro agreed, concluding that ‘''socialism and socialist forces have been, for the most part, better able to improve health conditions than have capitalism and capitalist forces''’ and that ‘''the evidence presented in this article shows that the historical experience of socialism has not been one of failure. To the contrary: it has been, for the most part, more successful than capitalism in improving the health conditions of the world’s populations.''’<ref>https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.2190/B2TP-3R5M-Q7UP-DUA2</ref> Anthropometric data indicate that for decades Soviet life expectancy grew faster than any other homeland recorded at the time.<ref>https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/slavic-review/article/great-leap-upwards-anthropometric-data-and-indicators-of-crises-and-secular-change-in-soviet-welfare-levels-18801960/B7C984FD62885FF22095D8C641BD7237</ref> By the 1970s Soviet life expectancy was higher than that of Finland, Portugal, South America, and even Eastern Europe (and only marginally lower than that in Britain, Japan, and W. Germany). In the German Democratic Republic it was likewise higher than that in Austria, Australia, Belgium, the British Empire, Canada, Italy, Switzerland, and W. Germany.<ref>https://www.nybooks.com/?p=24687</ref> As in the DPRK,<ref>https://www.womenonwaves.org/en/id/4888</ref> abortions were freely permitted (with a few exceptions: the R.S.F.S.R. from 1936–1955, the P. Soc. Rep. of Albania, the Soc. Rep. of Romania, and the Rep. of Nicaragua); in fact the R.S.F.S.R. was the first country to fully deregulate the procedure.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=UHymAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA5</ref> Lobotomy was prohibited as early as 1950 in the Soviet Union.<ref>https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01401819</ref> Soviet physicians vaccinated millions of people (against cholera) in the early 1920s alone; they likewise made improvements in public services such as waterworks and sanitation. They not only vaccinated their citizens but also fed them, educated them about hygiene, and maintained the (prerevolutionary) administrative structure and system of emergency response.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=X7BYDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT347</ref> Since 1955, the Soviets used a lyophilized rabies vaccine extensively; Likhachev developed the vaccine.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=SoY-AAAAYAAJ</ref> They vaccinated millions of people against measles in the 1970s.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/aqiy5q/_/eggb7ic</ref> Antirabies aid was fully decentralized and inoculation against rabies was carried out by a wide network of institutions for prevention and treatment.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=citMAAAAYAAJ</ref> Soviet scientist Mikhail Chumakov organized the first industrial production and mass use of oral poliovirus vaccine from Dr. Albert Sabin’s strains. <ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6760938</ref> <ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3696960</ref> After successful clinical trials conducted in the Soviet Union that left polio virtually wiped out with no safety issues, it soon became the vaccine of choice in the West.<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4659912</ref> In 1958 the Soviet Union proposed to the World Health Assembly that the World Health Organization undertake a global eradication programme of smallpox,<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7293</ref> which was approved in 1959. Within a decade a number of countries embarked on mass vaccination campaigns, and the People’s Republic of China (among several other countries) successfully eliminated the disease.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=QEQrAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA98</ref> The Soviets likewise gladly participated in the eradication of smallpox,<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=cka5AAAAIAAJ&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=vaccinated</ref> including in the Aral.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=JyXPFC1hOzEC</ref> The Scientific Research Institute of Oncology and Medical Radiology of the Ministry of Health of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic pioneered the operation involving the transplantation of the left adrenal with the right adrenalectomy in people with advanced breast carcinoma. They demonstrated that objective remission in 70% of patients.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=nbQ5DQAAQBAJ&pg=PA91</ref> The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has immunized theirselves from diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=4eBwBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA271</ref> During the short twentieth century (and since at least the 1970s), the People’s Republic of China prioritised not profit but the working masses’ welfare.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=OLNrl7XYBCEC&pg=PA251</ref>
  
''A Difficult Road: The Transition to Socialism in Mozambique'' indicates that the People’s Republic of Mozambique enjoyed higher literacy rates, mass vaccinations, a more democratic education, agricultural advancements, a (much) less hierarchal administration, and more. The Republic of Cuba,<ref>https://www.invent-the-future.org/?p=40</ref> which benefited in many ways from the revolution<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/npkeecCErQc</ref> (including great education,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/6ah2qd/_/dheso0g</ref> a solid democracy,<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/2aMsi-A56ds</ref> higher lifespans, lower infant mortality, less poverty,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20100316013355/http://www.cubatruth.info/</ref> full electrification,<ref>http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-12/15/c_137676260.htm</ref> a body of elected delegates who direct the economy away from the established framework and into one that successfully allows for workers’ self‐management<ref>https://www.grocer.coop/node/7763</ref> ^[1],<ref>https://www.pri.org/node/72415</ref> and more (see Huberman & Sweezy’s ''Socialism in Cuba''), all despite<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-nM3h</ref> suffering decades of antisocialist aggression),<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-nMS1</ref> is famous for its number of medical professionals, causing some people to return there<ref>https://hrld.us/2Dkxukr</ref> or seek their medical training there.<ref>https://wp.me/p7fSmo-BA</ref> In 2006 the ''International Journal of Epidemiology'' stated that the Republic of ‘''Cuba represents an important alternative example where modest infrastructure investments combined with a well-developed public health strategy have generated health status measures comparable with those of industrialized countries.''’<ref>https://academic.oup.com/ije/article-pdf/35/4/817/2003802/dyl175.pdf</ref> (Some have speculated that Cuban physicians are simply given ‘health outcome targets’ to meet or face penalties, encouraging them to manipulate their data, but we have yet to see documented evidence for this.) Unsurprisingly, their scientists were the first to introduce a vaccine for lung cancer,<ref>https://amp.theguardian.com/science/2008/jun/26/cancer.cuba</ref> an anti‐AIDS contagion pill,<ref>https://havanatimes.org/?p=154220</ref> and they designed new<ref>https://wp.me/p5rQ17-Wt</ref> hepatitis B vaccines;<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28439708</ref> ''Time'' reported that the Republic of Cuba has eliminated the transmission of HIV through pregnancies,<ref>https://ti.me/1KsPx9i</ref> making them the world’s first country to do so,<ref>https://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2015/mtct-hiv-cuba/en</ref> and since 2019 they have been distributing PrEP gratis to those who need it,<ref>https://www.lgbtqnation.com/?p=274922</ref> reducing the chance of HIV infection by as much as 90%.<ref>https://oncubanews.com/en/?p=196144</ref> (Even the antisocialist ''Bloomberg'' placed the Republic of Cuba’s healthcare above the U.S.’s,<ref>https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-02-24/spain-tops-italy-as-world-s-healthiest-nation-while-u-s-slips</ref> and the antisocialist ''New York Times'' has confirmed that U.S. students do travel there to seek medical training.)<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20180131015610/http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/25/world/americas/25iht-cuba.1.6817768.html</ref> Both they and the People’s Republic of China have distributed 933 tons of medicine to the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.<ref>http://amp.uniradioinforma.com/noticias/internacional/556699/venezuela-recibe-933-toneladas-de-medicinas-y-materiales-medicos.html</ref> In a rare move, some Western antisocialists established a programme in the 1960s to provide economic growth, employment, agrarian reform, education, housing, healthcare, more equitable distributions of national income, and other benefits to the people of Central and South America in order to discourage their interest in communism. But in 1970, researchers Jerome Levinson and Juan de Onis<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=yFuwAAAAIAAJ</ref> discovered that the Republic of '''Cuba actually came closer to these goals''' than most of the programme’s members.<ref>https://twitter.com/LeMisandre/status/1121928913960280064</ref> UNICEF statistics indicate that the Republic of Cuba achieved higher rates of literacy, life expectancy, and prenatal care than the United States did.<ref>https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/cuba_statistics.html</ref> So did<ref>https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN?locations=CU-US</ref> the<ref>https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.IMRT.IN?locations=CU-US</ref> World Bank’s.<ref>https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.AMRT.MA?locations=CU-US</ref> Bolivian permanent revolutionaries have supported and positively influenced the local miners, landless peasants, and strikers,<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/writers/alex/works/in_trot/bolivia.htm</ref> and today the Plurinational State of Bolivia has increased workers’ rights, social welfare, public pensions, minimum wages, and more. They have also reduced poverty, deprivation, child mortality, illiteracy, gender inequality, and related burdens.<ref>https://redd.it/cg2we5</ref> The Republic of Nicaragua’s socialist movement did the same.<ref>https://redd.it/cfhpjj</ref>
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''A Difficult Road: The Transition to Socialism in Mozambique'' indicates that the People’s Republic of Mozambique enjoyed higher literacy rates, mass vaccinations, a more democratic education, agricultural advancements, a (much) less hierarchal administration, and more. The Republic of Cuba,<ref>https://www.invent-the-future.org/?p=40</ref> which benefited in many ways from the revolution<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/npkeecCErQc</ref> (including great education,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/6ah2qd/_/dheso0g</ref> a solid democracy,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/2aMsi-A56ds</ref> higher lifespans, lower infant mortality, less poverty,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20100316013355/http://www.cubatruth.info/</ref> full electrification,<ref>http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-12/15/c_137676260.htm</ref> a body of elected delegates who direct the economy away from the established framework and into one that successfully allows for workers’ self‐management<ref>https://www.grocer.coop/node/7763</ref> <ref>https://www.pri.org/node/72415</ref> and more (see Huberman & Sweezy’s ''Socialism in Cuba''), all despite<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-nM3h</ref> suffering decades of antisocialist aggression),<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-nMS1</ref> is famous for its number of medical professionals, causing some people to return there<ref>https://hrld.us/2Dkxukr</ref> or seek their medical training there.<ref>https://wp.me/p7fSmo-BA</ref> In 2006 the ''International Journal of Epidemiology'' stated that the Republic of ‘''Cuba represents an important alternative example where modest infrastructure investments combined with a well-developed public health strategy have generated health status measures comparable with those of industrialized countries.''’<ref>https://academic.oup.com/ije/article-pdf/35/4/817/2003802/dyl175.pdf</ref> (Some have speculated that Cuban physicians are simply given ‘health outcome targets’ to meet or face penalties, encouraging them to manipulate their data, but we have yet to see documented evidence for this.) Unsurprisingly, their scientists were the first to introduce a vaccine for lung cancer,<ref>https://amp.theguardian.com/science/2008/jun/26/cancer.cuba</ref> an anti‐AIDS contagion pill,<ref>https://havanatimes.org/?p=154220</ref> and they designed new<ref>https://wp.me/p5rQ17-Wt</ref> hepatitis B vaccines;<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28439708</ref> ''Time'' reported that the Republic of Cuba has eliminated the transmission of HIV through pregnancies,<ref>https://ti.me/1KsPx9i</ref> making them the world’s first country to do so,<ref>https://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2015/mtct-hiv-cuba/en</ref> and since 2019 they have been distributing PrEP gratis to those who need it,<ref>https://www.lgbtqnation.com/?p=274922</ref> reducing the chance of HIV infection by as much as 90%.<ref>https://oncubanews.com/en/?p=196144</ref> (Even the antisocialist ''Bloomberg'' placed the Republic of Cuba’s healthcare above the U.S.’s,<ref>https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-02-24/spain-tops-italy-as-world-s-healthiest-nation-while-u-s-slips</ref> and the antisocialist ''New York Times'' has confirmed that U.S. students do travel there to seek medical training.)<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20180131015610/http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/25/world/americas/25iht-cuba.1.6817768.html</ref> Both they and the People’s Republic of China have distributed 933 tons of medicine to the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.<ref>http://amp.uniradioinforma.com/noticias/internacional/556699/venezuela-recibe-933-toneladas-de-medicinas-y-materiales-medicos.html</ref> In a rare move, some Western antisocialists established a programme in the 1960s to provide economic growth, employment, agrarian reform, education, housing, healthcare, more equitable distributions of national income, and other benefits to the people of Central and South America in order to discourage their interest in communism. But in 1970, researchers Jerome Levinson and Juan de Onis<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=yFuwAAAAIAAJ</ref> discovered that the Republic of '''Cuba actually came closer to these goals''' than most of the programme’s members.<ref>https://twitter.com/LeMisandre/status/1121928913960280064</ref> UNICEF statistics indicate that the Republic of Cuba achieved higher rates of literacy, life expectancy, and prenatal care than the United States did.<ref>https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/cuba_statistics.html</ref> So did<ref>https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN?locations=CU-US</ref> the<ref>https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.IMRT.IN?locations=CU-US</ref> World Bank’s.<ref>https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.AMRT.MA?locations=CU-US</ref> Bolivian permanent revolutionaries have supported and positively influenced the local miners, landless peasants, and strikers,<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/writers/alex/works/in_trot/bolivia.htm</ref> and today the Plurinational State of Bolivia has increased workers’ rights, social welfare, public pensions, minimum wages, and more. They have also reduced poverty, deprivation, child mortality, illiteracy, gender inequality, and related burdens.<ref>https://redd.it/cg2we5</ref> The Republic of Nicaragua’s socialist movement did the same.<ref>https://redd.it/cfhpjj</ref>
  
The People’s Socialist<ref>https://redd.it/ctris1</ref> Republic<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/V_nlWEIWOJA</ref> of<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/CbSiE09Aaw4</ref> Albania<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/DhLoH_Ady9o</ref> increased literacy, electricity, gender equality, employment, healthcare access,<ref>https://archive.org/stream/PickaxeRifle</ref> abolished taxation,<ref>https://www.google.com/search?tbo=p&tbm=bks&q=“taxes”+“Socialist+Republic+of+Albania”</ref> and supported Indonesian socialists. The People’s Republic of Bulgaria likewise severely reduced poverty, illiteracy, unhealthiness, unemployment, inflation, homelessness, slums, and backwardness generally.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/ModernBulgariaZhivkov</ref> Even the social democrat Kristen Ghodsee admitted that the People’s Republic of Bulgaria brought people accessible healthcare, education, more employment, literacy, housing, gender equality, and technological modernization. (She also concedes that many of “communism’s victims” were specifically oppressors.)<ref>https://wp.me/p3rKs-Gx</ref> By the 1980s the Hungarian People’s Republic had achieved a very high standard of living compared to the prerevolutionary era.<ref>https://redd.it/d8ykg7</ref> The Socialist Republic of Romania,<ref>https://archive.org/stream/RumanianSummer</ref> in spite of their tolerance for neoimperialism and prioritization of Western debts (which they eventually paid off,<ref>https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0888325412465513</ref> possibly making them the first country in history to pay off its external debt entirely), transitioned from a monarchofascist state to a people’s republic, which strongly improved healthcare, eradicated illiteracy, and employed more educators.<ref>https://www.workers.org/2012/world/romania_0223</ref> (A liberal and less flattering analysis is available,<ref>https://drive.google.com/file/d/1S6oNxc0yNm5DumK-xjRpur76-O9pkU-3</ref> if one insists on that.) The People’s Republic of China abolished serfdom in Tibet, the many crushing taxes, the compulsory religious observance, in addition to severely reducing the unemployment, beggary, and hierarchy, while constructing new projects such as secular schools, running water and electrical systems<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20181022143056/http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article19605.htm</ref> in the region.
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The People’s Socialist<ref>https://redd.it/ctris1</ref> Republic<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/V_nlWEIWOJA</ref> of<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/CbSiE09Aaw4</ref> Albania<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/DhLoH_Ady9o</ref> increased literacy, electricity, gender equality, employment, healthcare access,<ref>https://archive.org/stream/PickaxeRifle</ref> abolished taxation,<ref>https://www.google.com/search?tbo=p&tbm=bks&q=“taxes”+“Socialist+Republic+of+Albania”</ref> and supported Indonesian socialists. The People’s Republic of Bulgaria likewise severely reduced poverty, illiteracy, unhealthiness, unemployment, inflation, homelessness, slums, and backwardness generally.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/ModernBulgariaZhivkov</ref> Even the social democrat Kristen Ghodsee admitted that the People’s Republic of Bulgaria brought people accessible healthcare, education, more employment, literacy, housing, gender equality, and technological modernization. (She also concedes that many of “communism’s victims” were specifically oppressors.)<ref>https://wp.me/p3rKs-Gx</ref> By the 1980s the Hungarian People’s Republic had achieved a very high standard of living compared to the prerevolutionary era.<ref>https://redd.it/d8ykg7</ref> The Socialist Republic of Romania,<ref>https://archive.org/stream/RumanianSummer</ref> in spite of their tolerance for neoimperialism and prioritization of Western debts (which they eventually paid off,<ref>https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0888325412465513</ref> possibly making them the first country in history to pay off its external debt entirely), transitioned from a monarchofascist state to a people’s republic, which strongly improved healthcare, eradicated illiteracy, and employed more educators.<ref>https://www.workers.org/2012/world/romania_0223</ref> (A liberal and less flattering analysis is available,<ref>https://drive.google.com/file/d/1S6oNxc0yNm5DumK-xjRpur76-O9pkU-3</ref> if one insists on that.) The People’s Republic of China abolished serfdom in Tibet, the many crushing taxes, the compulsory religious observance, in addition to severely reducing the unemployment, beggary, and hierarchy, while constructing new projects such as secular schools, running water and electrical systems<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20181022143056/http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article19605.htm</ref> in the region.
  
Ethiopian socialists emancipated serfs after defeating an anticommunist monarch in the 1970s. They dug wells, purchased machinery for the people, constructed schools and health clinics, provided women and others with the means of self‐defence, formed massive peasant organizations that assumed the tasks of dividing the land, constructed dams and irrigation ditches, distributed both fertilizer and improved seeds, established marketing cooperatives, and rose farm production by 10%. Due to the National Work Campaign for Development Through Cooperation, some 4,377,900 functional literacy books were published in various regions; over two hundred medical clinics were established; peasants were taught the elementary rules of hygiene, diet and child care; mass vaccinations were carried out against tuberculosis and small pox; and nearly half a million cattle were inoculated against animal disease. (See ''The Ethiopian Revolution and the Struggle against U.S. Imperialism''.) They also implemented a programme to preserve Ethiopia’s biodiversity in response to a famine that they suffered in the mid‐1980s.<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-5U</ref> The German Democratic Republic compared better to West Germany in many respects.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/wWS4Nyl3sNw</ref> The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia taxed the interest earned on foreign currency accounts, a policy which was popular amongst the lower‐class Yugoslavs. This republic was also the only remaining multiethnic society among the various former Yugoslav territories; the only spot where Albanians, Croats, Egyptians, Gorani, Hungarians, Jews, Roma, Serbs, and numerous other ethnicities could live together with some measure of security and tolerance.<ref>http://michaelparenti.org/Milosevic.html</ref> In the 2010s the Syrian Arab Republic initiated benefits for the proletariat such as a salary increase for public workers; greater freedom for the press and political parties; a reconsideration of the emergency rule; security against sickness, disability and old age; access to health care; and free education at all levels, among other features.<ref>https://wp.me/p3rKs-Pa</ref> The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has benefited greatly from its socialist movement;<ref>https://fair.org/?p=8930901</ref> their<ref>https://www.counterpunch.org/?p=97744</ref> communes have been and continue to be very successful<ref>https://mronline.org/?p=108799</ref> for example (see ''Building the Commune: Radical Democracy in Venezuela''),<ref>https://popularresistance.org/?p=98849</ref> and over 1,500 international observers evaluated their elections as fair.<ref>https://journalcontent.mediatheoryjournal.org/index.php/mt/article/view/65/56</ref> The list goes on. Even the number of famines was decreasing; the Uk.S.S.R.’s one from the early 1930s was Ukraine’s last famine, and it, like the Chinese famine, was stopped with no thanks to the capitalists. The disasters were not intentional as anticommunists tiresomely insist and never substantiate; Máo,<ref>https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=5005</ref> Stalin,<ref>https://lorenzoae.wordpress.com/2017/10/11/on-russia-todays-liberals/amp/#two</ref> and others were not in denial that they made mistakes.
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Ethiopian socialists emancipated serfs after defeating an anticommunist monarch in the 1970s. They dug wells, purchased machinery for the people, constructed schools and health clinics, provided women and others with the means of self‐defence, formed massive peasant organizations that assumed the tasks of dividing the land, constructed dams and irrigation ditches, distributed both fertilizer and improved seeds, established marketing cooperatives, and rose farm production by 10%. Due to the National Work Campaign for Development Through Cooperation, some 4,377,900 functional literacy books were published in various regions; over two hundred medical clinics were established; peasants were taught the elementary rules of hygiene, diet and child care; mass vaccinations were carried out against tuberculosis and small pox; and nearly half a million cattle were inoculated against animal disease. (See ''The Ethiopian Revolution and the Struggle against U.S. Imperialism''.) They also implemented a programme to preserve Ethiopia’s biodiversity in response to a famine that they suffered in the mid‐1980s.<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-5U</ref> The German Democratic Republic compared better to West Germany in many respects.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/wWS4Nyl3sNw</ref> The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia taxed the interest earned on foreign currency accounts, a policy which was popular amongst the lower‐class Yugoslavs. This republic was also the only remaining multiethnic society among the various former Yugoslav territories; the only spot where Albanians, Croats, Egyptians, Gorani, Hungarians, Jews, Roma, Serbs, and numerous other ethnicities could live together with some measure of security and tolerance.<ref>http://michaelparenti.org/Milosevic.html</ref> In the 2010s the Syrian Arab Republic initiated benefits for the proletariat such as a salary increase for public workers; greater freedom for the press and political parties; a reconsideration of the emergency rule; security against sickness, disability and old age; access to health care; and free education at all levels, among other features.<ref>https://wp.me/p3rKs-Pa</ref> The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has benefited greatly from its socialist movement;<ref>https://fair.org/?p=8930901</ref> their<ref>https://www.counterpunch.org/?p=97744</ref> communes have been and continue to be very successful<ref>https://mronline.org/?p=108799</ref> for example (see ''Building the Commune: Radical Democracy in Venezuela''),<ref>https://popularresistance.org/?p=98849</ref> and over 1,500 international observers evaluated their elections as fair.<ref>https://journalcontent.mediatheoryjournal.org/index.php/mt/article/view/65/56</ref> The list goes on. Even the number of famines was decreasing; the Uk.S.S.R.’s one from the early 1930s was Ukraine’s last famine, and it, like the Chinese famine, was stopped with no thanks to the capitalists. The disasters were not intentional as anticommunists tiresomely insist and never substantiate; Máo,<ref>https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=5005</ref> Stalin,<ref>https://lorenzoae.wordpress.com/2017/10/11/on-russia-todays-liberals/amp/#two</ref> and others were not in denial that they made mistakes.
  
Some antisocialists assert that a socialist economy would be just as pollutive—if not worse—than a capitalist one. Indeed, pollution and irresponsible use of the environment were very significant issues in the late U.S.S.R.; for example, a series of dry years in the 1970s (particularly 1974–1975) and low flows between 1982 and 1986 contributed to the Aral Sea’s desiccation, but overconsumption of the water for irrigation was another factor. The discontinuation of many Soviet industries has lead to a temporary reduction in CO₂ emissions.<ref>https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/ab1cf1</ref> ''Is the Red Flag Flying?'' also mentions internal disputes over other environmental issues in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/IsTheRedFlagFlying#page/n45/mode/1up</ref> But such difficulties can sometimes be traced back to the immense pressure to compete and defend against capitalist aggression; they are by no means structural to socialist theory.<ref>https://elr.info/sites/default/files/articles/17.10068.htm</ref> For example, as early as 1845 Marx would recognise the damage that capitalist industry was causing the earth’s rivers,<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/german-ideology/ch01b.htm#p58</ref> and later Vladimir Lenin would inspire many ecosocialists in the U.S.S.R.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20170815005108/https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/07/opinion/lenin-environment-siberia.html</ref> ''Song of the Forest''<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=ROh5_cG8zHQC&pg=PA11</ref> documents how the Soviet environment was treated during Stalin’s lifetime, and mentions specifically the Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=qWBk6qvrwRYC&pg=PA129</ref> that he spearheaded. Starting in the 1960s, the Soviets proposed a large‐scale project to redirect part of the flow of the Ob basin’s rivers to Central Asia over a gigantic canal system; replenishing the Aral Sea was considered as one of the project’s main goals.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=2YXnBxZg7c4C&pg=PA174</ref> (It was only due to its staggering costs and the negative public opinion in the R.S.F.S.R. that the federal authorities unfortunately relinquished the project by 1986. It may also be worth noting that, curiously, the worst effects of the sea’s desiccation manifested '''after''' the short twentieth century:<ref>https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/file:AralSea1989_2014.jpg</ref> when a market economy was well in place.) Socialists have also massively benefited the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria’s environment<ref>https://unicornriot.ninja/?p=22542</ref> in many ways,<ref>https://climateandcapitalism.com/?p=29242</ref> and the Republic of ‘''Cuba’s successful models of sustainable development — in areas of food, housing and health — are now being widely replicated throughout Latin America.''’<ref>https://www.greenleft.org.au/content/cubas-green-revolution-—-achieving-sustainability</ref> Over 73% of the DPRK’s electricity comes from clean sources<ref>https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis.php?iso=PRK</ref> and the Republic of Cuba is slowly catching up with them.<ref>https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis.php?iso=CUB</ref> (In contrast, only about 2% of South Korea’s energy comes from renewable sources.)<ref>https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis.php?iso=KOR</ref> ''Reuters'' did a report (in their typical, obnoxious antisocialist fashion) on solar panels in the DPRK.<ref>https://www.reuters.com/article/northkorea-solar/in-north-korea-solar-panel-boom-gives-power-to-the-people-idUSL4N0XC2O620150421</ref> P.R.C. officials have planted scores of thousands of trees in response to climate change.<ref>https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/china-tree-plant-soldiers-reassign-climate-change-global-warming-deforestation-a8208836.html</ref> A modern planned economy<ref>https://www.leftvoice.org/?p=7258</ref> would strain the earth’s climate far less than another market economy.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/-U4CZ92ftE4</ref>
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Some antisocialists assert that a socialist economy would be just as pollutive—if not worse—than a capitalist one. Indeed, pollution and irresponsible use of the environment were very significant issues in the late U.S.S.R.; for example, a series of dry years in the 1970s (particularly 1974–1975) and low flows between 1982 and 1986 contributed to the Aral Sea’s desiccation, but overconsumption of the water for irrigation was another factor. The discontinuation of many Soviet industries has lead to a temporary reduction in CO₂ emissions.<ref>https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/ab1cf1</ref> ''Is the Red Flag Flying?'' also mentions internal disputes over other environmental issues in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/IsTheRedFlagFlying#page/n45/mode/1up</ref> But such difficulties can sometimes be traced back to the immense pressure to compete and defend against capitalist aggression; they are by no means structural to socialist theory.<ref>https://elr.info/sites/default/files/articles/17.10068.htm</ref> For example, as early as 1845 Marx would recognise the damage that capitalist industry was causing the earth’s rivers,<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/german-ideology/ch01b.htm#p58</ref> and later Vladimir Lenin would inspire many ecosocialists in the U.S.S.R.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20170815005108/https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/07/opinion/lenin-environment-siberia.html</ref> ''Song of the Forest''<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=ROh5_cG8zHQC&pg=PA11</ref> documents how the Soviet environment was treated during Stalin’s lifetime, and mentions specifically the Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=qWBk6qvrwRYC&pg=PA129</ref> that he spearheaded. Starting in the 1960s, the Soviets proposed a large‐scale project to redirect part of the flow of the Ob basin’s rivers to Central Asia over a gigantic canal system; replenishing the Aral Sea was considered as one of the project’s main goals.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=2YXnBxZg7c4C&pg=PA174</ref> (It was only due to its staggering costs and the negative public opinion in the R.S.F.S.R. that the federal authorities unfortunately relinquished the project by 1986. It may also be worth noting that, curiously, the worst effects of the sea’s desiccation manifested '''after''' the short twentieth century:<ref>https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/file:AralSea1989_2014.jpg</ref> when a market economy was well in place.) Socialists have also massively benefited the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria’s environment<ref>https://unicornriot.ninja/?p=22542</ref> in many ways,<ref>https://climateandcapitalism.com/?p=29242</ref> and the Republic of ‘''Cuba’s successful models of sustainable development — in areas of food, housing and health — are now being widely replicated throughout Latin America.''’<ref>https://www.greenleft.org.au/content/cubas-green-revolution-—-achieving-sustainability</ref> Over 73% of the DPRK’s electricity comes from clean sources<ref>https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis.php?iso=PRK</ref> and the Republic of Cuba is slowly catching up with them.<ref>https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis.php?iso=CUB</ref> (In contrast, only about 2% of South Korea’s energy comes from renewable sources.)<ref>https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis.php?iso=KOR</ref> ''Reuters'' did a report (in their typical, obnoxious antisocialist fashion) on solar panels in the DPRK.<ref>https://www.reuters.com/article/northkorea-solar/in-north-korea-solar-panel-boom-gives-power-to-the-people-idUSL4N0XC2O620150421</ref> P.R.C. officials have planted scores of thousands of trees in response to climate change.<ref>https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/china-tree-plant-soldiers-reassign-climate-change-global-warming-deforestation-a8208836.html</ref> A modern planned economy<ref>https://www.leftvoice.org/?p=7258</ref> would strain the earth’s climate far less than another market economy.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/-U4CZ92ftE4</ref>
  
 
Soon after the evacuation of Pripyat in 1986 the Soviets extended the exclusion zone to 30 km radius from the site. It is estimated that they evacuated some 116,000 inhabitants from this zone. In later years they extended the evacuations to the Belarusan and Ukrainian regions that suffered the highest amount of radioactive fallout. As the region was abandoned it also became vulnerable to forest fires, which could have lead to dispersion of radioactive materials, so the Soviets extended the cleanup operation to cover the entire exclusion zone in order to prevent this. They carried out the operation in 1986–1990 and the total number of workers involved is estimated to have been around 600,000 (about half of whom were soldiers). The Soviets also imposed radiation dose limits and made an effort to follow them: in 1987 they set the annual dose limit for civilian workers to 250 mSv, which in later years they first lowered to 100 mSv and then to 50 mSv. They subjected military personnel to a higher wartime limit of 500 mSv for the first month but later they matched the limit with that of the civilian workers. (For comparison, the current Western safety limits for radiation workers are usually based on 100 mSv accumulated dose over a period of five years but somebody can temporarily raise the limits for emergency operations.)<ref>https://wp.me/P9CN80-7i</ref>
 
Soon after the evacuation of Pripyat in 1986 the Soviets extended the exclusion zone to 30 km radius from the site. It is estimated that they evacuated some 116,000 inhabitants from this zone. In later years they extended the evacuations to the Belarusan and Ukrainian regions that suffered the highest amount of radioactive fallout. As the region was abandoned it also became vulnerable to forest fires, which could have lead to dispersion of radioactive materials, so the Soviets extended the cleanup operation to cover the entire exclusion zone in order to prevent this. They carried out the operation in 1986–1990 and the total number of workers involved is estimated to have been around 600,000 (about half of whom were soldiers). The Soviets also imposed radiation dose limits and made an effort to follow them: in 1987 they set the annual dose limit for civilian workers to 250 mSv, which in later years they first lowered to 100 mSv and then to 50 mSv. They subjected military personnel to a higher wartime limit of 500 mSv for the first month but later they matched the limit with that of the civilian workers. (For comparison, the current Western safety limits for radiation workers are usually based on 100 mSv accumulated dose over a period of five years but somebody can temporarily raise the limits for emergency operations.)<ref>https://wp.me/P9CN80-7i</ref>
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<blockquote>‘Prior to the revolution, land was concentrated in the hands of an astonishingly small [Imperial] élite. The Worker’s Party undertook a gradual but steady process of converting private land ownership into cooperative organizations. Beginning with the process of post‐war reconstruction in 1953, only 1.2% of peasant households were organized as cooperatives, which encompassed a mere .6% of total acreage. By August of 1958, 100% of peasant households were converted into cooperatives, encompassing 100% of total acreage.’</blockquote>
 
<blockquote>‘Prior to the revolution, land was concentrated in the hands of an astonishingly small [Imperial] élite. The Worker’s Party undertook a gradual but steady process of converting private land ownership into cooperative organizations. Beginning with the process of post‐war reconstruction in 1953, only 1.2% of peasant households were organized as cooperatives, which encompassed a mere .6% of total acreage. By August of 1958, 100% of peasant households were converted into cooperatives, encompassing 100% of total acreage.’</blockquote>
  
For more information: a very exhaustive reading list.<ref>https://docs.google.com/document/d/1we5OEdteZFfAh11v0s_RVh3LWAkVICGrFnvksVynGxw</ref> See here,<ref>https://redd.it/cc41yz</ref> here,<ref>https://redd.it/cc42bl</ref> and here for more.<ref>http://bannedthought.net/Korea-DPRK/index.htm</ref> Also worth noting is that the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea abolished taxation in the 1970s<ref>https://www.google.com/search?tbo=p&tbm=bks&q=“no+taxes”+“People’s+Republic+of+Korea”</ref> and they have experienced respectable economic growth even despite droughts and sanctions.<ref>http://english.hani.co.kr/arti/english_edition/e_northkorea/825246.html</ref>
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For more information: a very exhaustive reading list.<ref>https://marxist.space/dprk-reading-guide.html</ref> See here,<ref>https://redd.it/cc41yz</ref> here,<ref>https://redd.it/cc42bl</ref> and here for more.<ref>http://bannedthought.net/Korea-DPRK/index.htm</ref> Also worth noting is that the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea abolished taxation in the 1970s<ref>https://www.google.com/search?tbo=p&tbm=bks&q=“no+taxes”+“People’s+Republic+of+Korea”</ref> and they have experienced respectable economic growth even despite droughts and sanctions.<ref>http://english.hani.co.kr/arti/english_edition/e_northkorea/825246.html</ref>
  
 
A 2016 analysis of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela,<ref>https://www.thenation.com/?p=221853</ref> which notes that both ‘inflation and unemployment were both considerably lower during’ the first years of the Chávez administration. Among other features:
 
A 2016 analysis of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela,<ref>https://www.thenation.com/?p=221853</ref> which notes that both ‘inflation and unemployment were both considerably lower during’ the first years of the Chávez administration. Among other features:
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To paraphrase Michael Parenti:
 
To paraphrase Michael Parenti:
  
<blockquote>‘[Socialist movements] in Eastern Europe, Russia, China, Mongolia, North Korea, and Cuba, brought land reform, and human services; a dramatic bettering of the living conditions of hundreds of millions of people on a scale never before or never since witnessed in human history[.] [Socialist movements] transformed desperately poor countries into societies in which everyone had adequate food, shelter, medical care, and education… and some of us who come from poor families, who carry around the hidden injuries of class, are very impressed—are very, very impressed by these achievements, and are not willing to dismiss them as ‘economistic’. To say that socialism doesn’t ‘work’ is to overlook the fact that it '''did''' work and that it worked for hundreds of millions of people.’<ref>https://www.youtube.com/embed/6Tmi7JN3LkA</ref></blockquote>
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<blockquote>‘[Socialist movements] in Eastern Europe, Russia, China, Mongolia, North Korea, and Cuba, brought land reform, and human services; a dramatic bettering of the living conditions of hundreds of millions of people on a scale never before or never since witnessed in human history[.] [Socialist movements] transformed desperately poor countries into societies in which everyone had adequate food, shelter, medical care, and education… and some of us who come from poor families, who carry around the hidden injuries of class, are very impressed—are very, very impressed by these achievements, and are not willing to dismiss them as ‘economistic’. To say that socialism doesn’t ‘work’ is to overlook the fact that it '''did''' work and that it worked for hundreds of millions of people.’<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/6Tmi7JN3LkA</ref></blockquote>
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==

Revision as of 16:38, 9 October 2019

A compendium serving to provide quick access to resources and responses that refute typical liberal bullshit.

Communism killed 100–600 million

The claim usually comes in part from a shitpiece called The Black Book of Communism,[1] a work of sensationalist and apparently profascist[2] tripe originally slapped together by professing ‘leftists’ to promote the status quo. The statistic was made using loose qualifications, such as millions of nonexistent Chinese babies[3] being considered ‘victims’, relinquished households probably being considered ‘deaths’ (partially due to bureaucratic technicalities, most likely), and some automobile accidents being considered the fault of socialism. Many of the subtotals are not widely accepted by historians.[4] The statistic also includes many socialists, such as Soviet soldiers and civilians who, of course, learnt about socialism in either schools or on their own. Add this to the fact that most of the victims weren’t straight white cismen either, and normally the statistic would become almost worthless for white anticommunists, which is why they don’t care about millions of Africans, Asians,[5] indigenous Americans,[6] or aboriginal Australians dying. Here is what two of the authors said of the work:

‘Jean‐Louis Margolin and Nicolas Werth reproach Stéphane Courtois considering ‘the criminal dimension as one of the proper ones of the communist system’s set’, he writes in his text. ‘This results in taking away the phenomenon’s historic character’, claims Jean‐Louis Margolin. ‘Even if the communist breeding ground can lead to mass crimes, the line between theory and practice is inevident, contrary to what Stéphane Courtois says.’ Disputing the ‘approximations’, ‘contradictions’, and ‘clumsinesses that make sense’, the two authors reproach Stéphane Courtois’s ‘obsession to reach one hundred million deaths’.[7]

Margolin and Werth furthermore rebuked Courtois in an article published in Le Monde,[8] stating that they disagreed with his vitriolic introduction and its obvious political agenda. Margolin and Werth both rightfully disavowed the book, recognizing that Courtois was obsessed with reaching a body count of a hundred million and consequently leading to careless and biased ‘scholarship’. Courtois also composed the book’s introduction in secret, refusing to regurgitate it for his other contributors. They both rejected Courtois’s equivalence of German Fascism with Communism, with Werth correctly telling Le Monde that ‘death camps did not exist in the Soviet Union.’[9]

Maybe somebody should arrest them for ‘genocide denial’. Indeed, the book itself technically listed 94 million rather than 100 million as popularly claimed. In addition, a group of people’s warriors have refuted Black Book to the point where[10] Harvard University Press’ Mark Kramer in particular had to admit that it contained remedial mathematic errors.[11] (Note though that they are needlessly sectarian and overly skeptical of some famines.)[12]

Morgan Visser’s own take on the book.[13] Peter’s own take on the matter[14] (who has since become a rightist). One response from the Soviet Union critic Noam Chomsky:

‘[S]uppose [that] we now apply the methodology of the Black Book and its reviewers to the full story, not just the doctrinally acceptable half. We therefore conclude that in India the ‘democratic capitalist experiment’ since 1947 has caused more deaths than in the entire history of the ‘colossal, wholly failed…experiment’ of ‘Communism’ everywhere since 1917[.]’[15]

A very common variation of this claim is that Stalin or Máo killed more people than Adolf Shitler. Independent investigation indicates otherwise.[16] For example, an Attorney General’s 1954 report to the Stalin critic Nikita Khrushchev indicated that the Soviets had by that time imprisoned only 2.5 million people, and sentenced only about 600,000 to death.[17] Similarly, Dr. Victor Zemskov had studied activities of the state security bodies from 1921 to 1954, and discovered that during this period only about 650,000 people had received death sentences (not all of which were enacted) and only 2.3 million suffered prison terms.[18] Worrisome numbers indeed, but clearly not anywhere nearly as high as antisocialists would like (and only 12–33% suffered imprisonment for unambiguously political reasons).[19] The University of Melbourne analysed the excess mortality under the U.S.S.R. and the Reich, finding that only about three million ‘repression deaths’ (either executions or deaths in prison) occurred in the Soviet Union from 1930–1945 (far lower than the common claims of 20–50 million). They concluded that these ‘are clearly much lower figures than those for [which the Reich] was responsible.[20] (The author of this paper, Professor Stephen Wheatcroft, also wrote two other[21] excellent articles[22] describing the exaggeration of the Soviet death toll.) In comparison, the Mouvement contre le Racisme, l’Antisemitisme, et pour la Paix attributed at least fifty million deaths to German Fascism alone[23] (Morgan Visser argued that it’s much higher). As for the infamous Khmer Rouge,[24] there has been debate over whether they were communist at all,[25] and few socialists of any type have any praise for them, but regardless the loss of life that they inflicted was probably closer to 90,000–300,000 than anything over one million; most of the other deaths in the region were far more due to the U.S.’s incessant bombings and other imperialist activity than anything that the Khmer Rouge committed.[26]

A more accurate number is difficult to ascertain, in no small part due to the subjectivity of what constitutes a ‘victim of communism’. Nevertheless, using updated statistics on many of the tragedies discussed, the actual number is probably far closer to something under forty million[27] than anything over ninety million. If that is an accurate estimate then obviously it’s still nothing to boast about, but neither would the death toll of anticommunism, which is in the range of 66–111 million lives.

The Nazis were socialists, communists or leftists

Antisocialists typically make two claims in support of their accusation, namely: the fact that ‘Nazi’ is an abbreviation of ‘National Socialist’ and, to a less extent, that these other anticommunists were somehow against private property or against business. The first claim can be easily nullified by reminding them of misnomers: Rhode Island is not an island (it is a state on a continent), the Italian Social Republic was not a republic (it was a collaborationist state; republican only in that there was no king), the Revolutionary Government Junta was not revolutionary (it was conservative), and anarchocapitalists are not anarchists[28] (they are neofeudalists), for example. As Lenin correctly concluded, ‘In order to understand the real significance of parties one must examine, not their labels, but their class character and the historical conditions of each separate country.[29] As for why the Fascists chose such a misnomer at all, the book Why Hitler? explains:

‘Meanwhile on February 20, 1920, the German Workers’ Party switched its name to the [more euphemistic] National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeitpartei, called the N.S.D.A.P. for short). [The Führer] did not like the addition of the term ‘Socialist’ but acquiesced because the executive committee thought that it might be helpful in attracting workers from the left‐wing.’[30]

Antisocialists’ next claim, however, requires citations. But these shall all conclusively demonstrate that Fascism, far from being anticapitalist, was itself a form of class rule that concentrated all its efforts into defending and increasing capital.

Academic paper documenting privatization in the Third Reich.[31] Indeed, the term ‘privatization’ itself[32] was coined to refer to their economic reforms,[33] which were almost the modern’s world first, even predating Chile’s and Britain’s, and postdating only the Kingdom of Italy’s.[34] (Capitalist economist Mark Thoma conceded as much.)[35] Consequently, income from capital and business increased from 17.4% of the national income to 26.6%,[36] and the rate of return on capital increased in the Reich’s industry.[37] Businesses fared well as the Fascist bourgeoisie controlled France.[38] All of this is no surprise since the Fascists themselves explicitly recognised private ownership[39] as a primary economic factor:

‘The corporate State considers that private enterprise in the sphere of production is the most effective and useful instrument in the interest of the nation. In view of the fact that private organisation of production is a function of national concern, the organizer of the enterprise is responsible to the State for the direction given to production.’[40]

There are yet more cases of Fascist privatization: as,

‘In 1936/37 the anticommunists’ capital of the Deutsche Bank, Commerzbank and Dresdner Bank was resold to private shareholders; consequently the state representatives withdrew from the boards of these banks. Likewise in 1936 the anticommunists vended their shares of Vereinigte Stahlwerke, and the armed conflict changed nothing with regard to this attitude. In 1940 the anticommunists privatized the Genshagen aeroplane engine plant that Daimler‐Benz operated; Daimler‐Benz bought the majority of shares that the anticommunists held earlier than they wished to. However Reich Aviation Ministry urged the business and was afraid that the anticommunists might offer the deal to another firm. Later in the armed conflict the anticommunists actively tried to privatize as many Montan GmbH companies as possible (albeit with little success).’[41]

Hans Peter Danielcik, anticommunist lawyer and head of the Hanseatic Federation of Commerce, Trade, and Industry, accurately noted that competition ‘is essential to the [Fascist] economy.’ Other anticommunist leaders likewise defended, both in theory and practice, private property and the profit motive.[42] For example, here is the Führer himself concerning private property,[43] and in May of 1930 he spewed at his neighbour Max Amann:

‘What right do these people have to demand a share of property or even in administration? […] The employer who accepts the responsibility for production also gives the workpeople their means of livelihood. Our greatest industrialists are not concerned with the acquisition of wealth or with good living, but, above all else, with responsibility and power. They have worked their way to the top by their own abilities, and this proof of their capacity — a capacity only displayed by a higher race — gives them the right to lead.’[44]

In 1935, he also spewed:

‘National Socialists [read: Fascists] see in private property a higher level of human economic development that according to the differences in performance controls the management of what has been accomplished enabling and guaranteeing the advantage of a higher standard of living for everyone. Bolshevism destroys not only private property but also private initiative and the readiness to shoulder responsibility.’[45]

In 1938 he would reiterate that he approves of property and rejects scientific socialism.[46] And interestingly, this anticommunist had not one but multiple redefinitions of socialism, none of which anarchists and communists ever touted. For example, an ultranationalist one (unconcerned with economy):

‘Whoever is prepared to make the national cause his own to such an extent that he knows no higher ideal than the welfare of the nation; whoever has understood our great national anthem, “Deutschland über Alles,” to mean that nothing in the wide world surpasses in his eyes this Germany, people and land — that man is a Socialist.’[47]

An almost childlike simplification:

‘Socialism! What does socialism really mean? If people have something to eat and their pleasures, then they have their socialism.’[48]

And this convoluted inaccuracy, wherein he also spewed that he was ‘reclaiming’ socialism:

‘Socialism is the science of dealing with the common weal. Communism is not Socialism. Marxism is not Socialism. The Marxians have stolen the term and confused its meaning. I shall take Socialism away from the Socialists. Socialism is an ancient Aryan, Germanic institution. Our German ancestors held certain lands in common. They cultivated the idea of the common weal. Marxism has no right to disguise itself as socialism. Socialism, unlike Marxism, does not repudiate private property. Unlike Marxism, it involves no negation of personality, and unlike Marxism, it is patriotic.’[49]

(And note how none of these mentions anything about ‘big government’, ‘redistribution of wealth’,[50] ‘state interference’, or some such thing, likewise ahistorical redefinitions that antisocialists give. The somewhat relevant ‘certain lands in common’ bit may imply redistribution, but when they reimplemented this we have no idea; it seems totally arbitrary given the promotion of privatisation anyway. These redefinitions however are consistent with the anticommunist, antianarchist, and class‐collaborationist reconceptions of socialism that the European right invented,[51] one of which called scientific socialism ‘the capitalism of the working class’ and accused Marx of wishing to merely substitute capital’s right to private profit with ‘the worker’s right to private profit.’)

The Chancellor is commonly misquoted as saying[52]We are socialists, we are enemies of today’s capitalistic economic system for the exploitation of the economically weak, with its unfair salaries, with its unseemly evaluation of a human being according to wealth and property instead of responsibility and performance, and we are all determined to destroy this system under all conditions,’ which is in fact a quote by Strasser.[53]

Likewise, Hermann Rauschning has claimed in Hitler Speaks that the German anticommunists adopted methods such as ‘the workers’ sports clubs, the industrial cells, the mass demonstrations, the propaganda leaflets written specially for the comprehension of the masses[54] and others from the scientific socialists. Scholars Ian Kershaw,[55] Eckhard Jesse, Fritz Tobias, and Richard Steigmann‐Gall,[56] however, have reason to believe that Rauschning is an unreliable source. There are likewise no extra sources to support these presumed quotations.

As Leon Trotsky correctly observed,[57] the N.S.D.A.P. was directed and financed by big capitalist powers.[58] While the party itself initially had limited support directly from corporations,[59] they did not have to wait too long for Anglo businessmen to support them.[60] Ford,[61] IBM,[62] the Carnegie Institution, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Harriman railroad fortune,[63] Wall Street financiers,[64] and others were happy to do business with them,[65] even if it meant exterminating entire ethnicities. Indeed, much of the Reich’s rearmament was only thanks to the Anglo‐American capitalists.[66] Sweden’s upper classes built some of their wealth[67] on supplying the anticommunists’ war effort with scarce essential resources (such as iron ore) for weapons, arguably prolonging the conflict by one year[68] [69] [70] (and since 2009 they still haven’t learned their lesson).[71] Likewise, social capital was crucial to the anticommunists’ success.[72] One particularly influential capitalist, Gustav Krupp, strongly supported these anticommunists throughout his life.[73]

Some have asserted that, even though private property wasn’t abolished, their economic regulations alone suffice as proof of their socialism. The fact of the matter however is that the regulations were never intended to appease or empower the lower classes; rather, the upper classes instituted them for the sake of their militarily driven economy,[74] much like the U.K. and the U.S.A. did during wartime: they had to maximize efficiency with a central authority. The argument furthermore overlooks the fact that while regulatory activity was extensive, firms still preserved a good deal of their autonomy even under the Third Reich; they valued freedom of contract and opposed any bureaucratic management of the economy.[75] Historian Carrol Quigley, in Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time,[76] chapter IX, goes to great lengths to demonstrate how Fascism always assumed the form of what he calls ‘dictatorial capitalism’, in which ‘society is organized so that everything was subject to the benefit of capitalism.’ This is done through ‘removing all dangers to the profit system’ (that is, organized labor, foreign competition, business losses and alternative forms of economic production). Specifically though, the reason why Fascists meddled in the state and the economy is something that Quigley explains at length:

‘The danger to the profit system from the state has always existed because the state is not essentially organized on a for profit basis. In Germany this danger from the state was averted by the industrialists taking over the state, not directly, but through an agent, the [N.S.D.A.P.] The threat from public ownership, as well as a bevy of far less radical policies, was henceforth eliminated for capitalists. […] The United Steel Works, as well as three of the largest banks in Germany, which had been taken over during the crisis of 1931, were restored to private ownership. […] Throughout [Fascist] Italy, the so‐called Labor Fronts had no economic or political functions and had nothing to do with wages or labor conditions. Their chief functions were (1) to propagandize; (2) to dominate workers’ leisure time ‘Strength Through Joy’; (3) tax workers for profit; (4) to provide jobs for reliable party members within the Labor Front itself; (5) to disrupt working-class solidarity.

[…]

Business hates competition; Businessmen prefer to get together with competitors so that they can cooperate to boost rather than injure profits. […] Fascists allow the Businessmen to get together and cooperate. […] Under this system there were no collective bargaining, no way in which any group defended the worker in the face of the great power of the employer. Under this control there was a steady downward reduction of working conditions. Employers got the labor, wage, and working conditions they wanted, and abolished labor unions and collective bargaining. In this way competition was largely eliminated, not by the state but by industrial self‐regulation in the form of (1) cartels (Kartelle) (2) trade associations (Fackverbände) (3) employers’ associations (Spitzen‐verbände); the privately run cartels regulated prices, production, and markets.’

Even the anti‐Soviet George Orwell[77] acknowledged Fascism to be capitalist ideology, or rather, the means by which capitalists co‐opt a state in decline:

‘When one thinks of all the people who support or have supported Fascism, one stands amazed at their diversity. What a crew! […] But the clue is really very simple. They are all people with something to lose, or people who long for a hierarchical society and dread the prospect of a world of free and equal human beings. Behind all the ballyhoo that is talked about ‘godless’ Russia and the ‘materialism’ of the working class lies the simple intention of those with money or privileges to cling to them.’

Considering that no socialists advocate any kind of business regulations as a primary or long‐term strategy—if in any term at all—such an argument is and should be irrelevant anyway. To quote Friedrich Engels himself, ‘if the taking over by the State of the tobacco industry is socialistic, then Napoleon and Metternich must be numbered among the founders of Socialism.[78]

Even the ‘nationalisations’ that they introduced were limited. They were only of ‘Jewish’ businesses and lands to soon be vended to private investors:[79]

‘Since the N.S.D.A.P. stands on the platform of private ownership it happens that the passage ‘gratuitous expropriation’ concerns only the creation of legal opportunities to expropriate (if needed) land which has been illegally acquired or is not administered from the viewpoint of the national welfare. This is aimed mostly against the Jewish land‐speculation businesses.’[80]

Some claim that the German Fascists were positively influenced by scientific socialism. This is false.[81] Some claim that they were friendly with the far‐left. That is false too;[82] socialists were the first sent to die in the Fascist concentration camps,[83] such as Dachau.[84] The Strasserists,[85] perhaps the closest that the party had to a ‘leftist’ faction, [were soon purged.] (https://books.google.com/books?id=CmjBW3lsA84C&pg=PT304) Röhm was another moderate member who was constantly trying to get the party to live up to its supposedly socialist objectives, but the other anticommunists did not want that since they saw it as causing problems for the status quo; they wanted their takeover to be seen as legitimate. With the military getting nervous about the other demands that he was making them (merging the military with the SA), they consequently ended him and anybody else deemed too socialist in one night. An unknown minority of K.P.D. members and other socialists (‘beefsteaks’) did join the N.S.D.A.P. at first, but in most cases their goal was purely subversive, and they too would suffer in the Reich’s Red Scare of the 1930s;[86] over two hundred thousand German socialists would die at the hands of the Reich.[87] (There were a few survivors nonetheless, such as Alfred Liskow: a closet communist who deserted the Reich’s army to relay important strategic information to the Soviets.) The K.P.D. itself referred only to the N.S.D.A.P.’s proletariat, not anybody else (as some have suggested), as ‘working people’s comrades’ during their 1931 attempt to terminate the Prussian social democracy by means of referendum.[88] The first books that the German Fascists burned were those of the scientific socialists Karl Marx and Karl Kautsky. (See Hans‐Wolfgang Strätz, Die studentische „Aktion wider den undeutschen Geist“ im Frühjahr 1933, pages 347–353.)[89] Throughout the Reich, some Fascists sported banners declaring Der Marxismus muß sterben damit die Nation wieder auferstehe[90] (‘Marxism must perish so that Germany may rise up again’). The anticommunist Giovanni Gentile’s most influential work, The Doctrine of Fascism (which he co‐authored with Reich ally Mussolini), is rich with explicit denunciations of socialism: as,

Fascism is therefore opposed to socialism, to which unity within the State (which amalgamates classes into a single economic and ethical reality) is unknown, and which sees in history nothing but the class struggle. Fascism is likewise opposed to trade unionism as a class weapon.’[91] (He then goes on to talk about how Fascism is going to supposedly make socialism and trade unions obsolete, since the Fascist state will presumably unify the classes and alleviate the need for struggle.)

The Fascists hated the Soviets[92] and the Spanish Republicans.[93] Far from having a leftist support base, most of Fascism’s supporters were ultranationalists, conservatives, industrialists, and other influential antisocialists,[94] including Winston Churchill, the United Kingdom’s future Prime Minister;[95] Franz von Papen, a wealthy antisocialist politician;[96] Ludvig von Mises,[97] cofounder of the so‐called Austrian school of economics (though he did denounce the Reich’s anti‐Semitism[98] and claimed Fascism as merely an ‘emergency makeshift’);[99] Harry S. Truman, U.S. senator (though he disliked the Chancellor regardless);[100] Alfred Hugenberg,[101] cofounder of the ultranationalist General German League and its successor the Pan‐German League;[102] the Italian Liberal Party,[103] a group of capitalists headed by former Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti;[104] and the Whites, a horde of anticommunists[105] who fought ferociously[106] against socialists and Jews during the Russian Civil War. Antebellum data indicate that 65% of N.S.D.A.P. members joined because of their anticommunism (whereas only 12% did so citing their anti‐Semitism);[107] Oxford scholar Neil Gregor likewise noted the party’s antisocialist support base.[108] Before the assault on Pearl Harbor most Yankees were opposed to having another conflict with the Reich, in part no doubt because of their diuturnal fatigue from World War I, but capitalist propaganda[109] had a widespread effect as well.[110] While it is true that the White House finally tried persecuting some Fascists during the war years, generally these misleaders and sympathizers fared reasonably well (especially in comparison to Japanese‐Americans then and the socialists shortly thereafter)[111] regardless, and even after 1945 anticommunist states would consciously and willingly hire thousands of Fascists[112] anyway, such as Adolf Heusinger and Hans Speidel, who soon became important NATO officials.[113] A private bulletin by the Union of German Industry (an organization for the Reich’s big industrialists) in 1932 explained very honestly their reasons for supporting Fascism:

‘The problem of consolidating the capitalist régime in post‐war Germany is governed by the fact that the leading section, that is, the capitalists controlling industry, has become too small to maintain its rule alone. Unless recourse is to be had to the extremely dangerous weapon of purely military force, it is necessary for it to link itself with sections which do not belong to it from a social standpoint, but which can render it the essential service of anchoring its rule among the people, and thereby becoming its special or last defender. This last or ‘outermost’ defender of bourgeois rule, in the first period after the war, was Social Democracy.[114] [Fascism] has to succeed Social Democracy in providing a mass support for capitalist rule in Germany[.] Social Democracy had a special qualification for this task, which up to the present [Fascism] lacks[.] Thanks to its character as the original party of the workers, Social Democracy […] also had the much more valuable and permanent advantage of control over organized labor, and by paralyzing its revolutionary energies chained it firmly to the capitalist State[.] […] The process of this transition […] has to pass through the acutely dangerous stage, when, with the wiping out of these gains, the mechanism for the creation of divisions in the working class which depended on them also ceases to function, the working class moves in the direction of Communism, and the capitalist rule approaches the emergency stage of military dictatorship[.] The only safeguard from this acute stage is if the division and holding back of the working class, which the former mechanism can no longer adequately maintain, is carried out by other and more direct methods. In this lie the positive opportunities and tasks of [Fascism]. […] If [Fascism] succeeds in bringing the trade unions into a social policy of constraint […] then [it] would become the bearer of one of the functions essential to the future of capitalist rule, and must necessarily find its place in the State and social system. The danger of a State capitalist or even socialistic development […] will in fact be avoided precisely by these means[.] There is no third course between a reconsolidation of capitalist rule and the Communist revolution.’[115]

To quote Richard J. Evans:

‘To many readers of the newspapers that reported the Führer’s appointment, the jubilation of the brownshirts must have appeared exaggerated. The key feature of the new government […] was surely the conservatives’ heavy numerical domination. ‘No nationalistic, no revolutionary government, although it [the Führer’s] name’, confided a Czech diplomat based in Berlin to his diary: ‘No Third Reich, hardly even a 2½.’ French ambassador André François‐Poncet sounded a more alarmist note. The perceptive diplomat noted that the conservatives were right to expect the Führer to agree to their programme of ‘the crushing of the left, the purging of the bureaucracy, the assimilation of Prussia and the Reich, the reorganization of the army, the re‐establishment of military service’. They had put him into the Chancellery in order to discredit him, he observed; ‘they have believed themselves to be very ingenious, ridding themselves of the wolf by introducing him into the sheepfold.[116]

[…]

The conservatives who levered the Führer into power shared a good deal of this vision. They truly did look back with nostalgia to the past, and yearned for the restoration of the Hohenzollern monarchy and the Bismarckian Reich, but these were to be restored in a form purged of what they saw as the unwise concessions that had been made to democracy. In their vision of the future, everyone was to know their place, and the working classes especially were to be kept where they belonged: out of the political decision‐making process altogether. This vision […] was shared in large measure, for one thing, by many of the big industrialists […] and by many modern, technocratic military officers whose ambition was to launch a modern war with the kind of advanced military equipment that the Treaty of Versailles forbade them to deploy. Like other people at other times and in other places, the conservatives […] manipulated and rearranged the past to suit their own present purposes. One cannot reduce this to expressions of ‘preindustrial’ social groups. Many of them, from capitalist Junker landlords looking for new markets, to small retailers and white‐collar workers whose means of support had not even existed before industrialization, were as much modern as they were traditional. It was these congruities in vision that persuaded blokes like Papen, Schleicher and Hindenburg that it would be worth legitimizing their rule by co‐opting the mass movement of the N.S.D.A.P. into a coalition government whose aim was to erect an authoritarian state on the ruins of the Weimar Republic.’[117]

Antisocialists sometimes insinuate that the Fascists’ own violent antisocialism is unimportant or irrelevant since sectarianism between socialists has sometimes been violent too. This is a false equivalence. For starters, there is no record of the Bolsheviki issuing mass arrests or executions of all other socialists, let alone just because they were socialists.[118] Nobody arrested the critics of Lenin during or after their attendance of Kropotkin’s funeral,[119] nor did any of the Soviets treat the disillusioned Emma Goldman worse than the U.S. did.[120] The Black Army and similar anarchists eventually faced persecution not because of their anarchist tendencies but because of their aggressive anti‐Bolshevism and other controversial decisions.[121] (Beforehand they were on good terms.[122] In fact, it would be an exaggeration to categorize either Lenin or Trotsky as ‘antianarchist’;[123] in August 1919 for example Lenin recognised very many anarchist workers as ‘the most sincere supporters of Soviet power.’)[124] No doubt some socialists who suffered sectarian persecution during the Russian Civil War turned out to be harmless,[125] but such unfortunate measures were the natural byproducts of the material conditions rather than ‘ideology’,[126] and in any case these socialists were to be treated leniently (at least in comparison to the capitalists); their ephemeral detentions were to have an impunitive character,[127] capital punishment was usually strongly discouraged,[128] and sometimes the arrested were let go (almost) immediately.[129] The permanent revolutionaries faced persecution far more due to the anticommunists’ meddling at that time rather than due to simply having alternative socialist theories.[130] (Beforehand the Soviet government tolerated them up until about the eve of the Second World War[131] and Stalin sometimes praised Trotsky;[132] it was Trotsky hisself who later suggested that it ‘is possible that some of these minor saboteurs and the ones […] mentioned were actually [Eurofascist] and [Imperial] agents[133] than fellow permanent revolutionaries at all.) Even in the worst of times, executions were mostly rare, reserved normally for those already of great political influence,[134] and imprisonment was relatively brief.[135] This is all in stark contrast to the Fascists, who, shortly after having won institutional power, had all socialists either imprisoned for long periods (Antonio Gramsci) or executed (Pietro Ferrero) because of their socialism.

Some (e.g. Ben Shapiro) have falsely asserted that the main, if not only, disagreement between the communists and the Fascists was that the former were internationalist, whereas the latter were ultranationalist. Not only is there no historical evidence to support this, but it is pretty clear from the quotations above that there were far more disagreements, and far more serious ones, than a geopolitical contention. It is furthermore absurd to imagine that these two sides would have been driven to mutual, violent hatred over this difference alone. For example, consider the case of Antonio Gramsci, who was sympathetic to the idea of national liberation,[136] finding it perfectly compatible with internationalism, and Amadeo Bordiga, who likely would have considered the very concept of ‘national liberation’ to be almost oxymoronic, insisting instead on a more immediate and overwhelming internationalism. These were both socialists who were divided on a geopolitical issue, and yet they remained good friends regardless.[137] The German anticommunists and the Italian anticommunists incidentally were theirselves divided on the importance of race, yet as we all know they would remain faithful allies during wartime and elsewhen.

Some (e.g. Richard Pipes)[138] have unconvincingly claimed that the N.S.D.A.P. took their inspiration for concentration camps from the GULAG, but there is no documented evidence to support this unlikely tabloid rumour. On the other hand, there is evidence that the N.S.D.A.P.[139] borrowed their practices from the European‐Americans and other colonists.[140] Even the notorious antisocialist hack Hannah Arendt[141] admitted as much:

‘Not even concentration camps are an invention of totalitarian movements. They emerge for the first time during the Boer War, at the beginning of the century, and continued to be used in South Africa as well as India for “undesirable elements”; here, too, we first find the term “protective custody” which was later adopted by the Third Reich. These camps correspond in many respects to the concentration camps at the beginning of totalitarian rule; they were used for “suspects” whose offenses could not be proved and who could not be sentenced by ordinary process of law.’[142]

In contrast, recently declassified documents show that the GULAG functioned quite differently from a concentration camp,[143] and would have been an inefficient model[144] for the anticommunists to copy. (There was indeed a spike in the 1930s, but the prisoner executions were the major cause of this. According to Getty’s landmark 1993 paper Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-War Years,[145] 160,084 deaths occurred in the penal system from 1936–1938, which was far higher than the previous and following years. Given that overall mortality among the general population was actually at a record low in 1938 thanks to industrialization and higher living standards, prisoner executions being the cause of this spike is the most likely conclusion.)

Another point that antisocialists refer to is quoting this passage that the propagandist Joseph Goebbels wrote in his diary during the 1920s:

‘It would be better for us to go down with Bolshevism than live in eternal slavery under capitalism.’

Similarly in 1925 (at least according to the New York Times):

‘Lenin is the greatest man, second only to Hitler, and that the difference between Communism and the Hitler faith is very slight.’[146]

These ignore the fact that Goebbels had different political opinions back then. For example:

‘[He] simply records in this private and unedited diary his disgust at the Führer’s reactionary views on every major point of policy—restitution to the German princes, the sacrality of private property, the destruction of Bolshevism, Italy & Britain as Germany’s allies, the old twenty‐five‐point programme still the best, and so on. ‘I am flabbergasted,’ he writes. ‘What a Hitler! A reactionary! Astonishingly clumsy and unsure of himself… Brief answer by Strasser. Ach Gott, can we cope with these folks down here? A mere half‐hour’s discussion after this four‐hour speech and summarizing. I cannot get out a word. I am quite flabbergasted. We drove to the station. Strasser is almost demented with rage… I feel like crying… That was one of the greatest disappointments of my life. I can no longer believe in Hitler! This is the most terrific thing. My faith is shattered and I feel shattered.’’[147]

And now, here are quotes that he spewed when they were later in power:

‘The details about the murder of priests and rape of nuns that we received are totally incredible and indescribable. It is the Führer’s historical merit that is acknowledged to him by the whole world, to have erected a wall against the onrush of Bolshevism on German’s eastern borders, and thus clearly to have risen as a terminator of this craze in Europe in its conflict with the subversive forces of destruction, of anarchy.’

Source (at the 5:29 mark).[148] Further proof is this transcription,[149] where Goebbels said that he was actually ‘defending’ the West from Bolshevism. In addition:

‘That is a direct threat to the existence of every European power. No one should believe that Bolshevism would stop at the borders of the Reich, were it to be victorious. The goal of its aggressive policies and wars is the Bolshevization of every land and people in the world. In the face of such undeniable intentions, we are not impressed by paper declarations from the Kremlin or guarantees from London or Washington. We know that we are dealing in the East with an infernal political devilishness that does not recognize the norms governing relations between people and nations. When for example the English Lord Beaverbrook says that Europe must be given over to the Soviets or when the leading American Jewish journalist Brown cynically adds that a Bolshevization of Europe might solve all of the continent’s problems, we know what they have in mind. The European powers are facing the most critical question. The West is in danger. It makes no difference whether or not their governments and intellectuals realize it or not.’[150]

Goebbels is also recorded as having released a wealthy capitalist by the name of Günther Quandt[151] after he was imprisoned for tax evasion (like the Chancellor should have been).[152] The anticommunists were reluctant to increase taxes on individual German citizens to pay for the conflict, so the top personal income tax rate in 1941 was 13.7% in the Reich (as opposed to 23.7% in Great Britain). These anticommunists primarily funded their bellicism by means of neoslavery and by plundering assets from ethnic minorities.[153] Indeed, the Fascists in general practised policies of terrific wealth accumulation:[154]

‘SS commanders and other anticommunist officials amassed personal fortunes by plundering conquered territories and stealing from concentration camp inmates and other political victims. Huge amounts were made from secretly owned, well connected businesses, and from contracting out camp slave labour to industrial firms like I.G. Farben and Krupp. […] [The Führer] expropriated art works from the public domain, stole enormous sums from Fascist party coffers, and invented a new concept, the ‘personality right,’ that enabled him to charge a small fee for every postage stamp with his picture on it, a venture that made him hundreds of millions of marks. […] During his entire tenure in office he got special rulings from the German tax office that allowed him to avoid paying income or property taxes. He had a motor pool of limousines, private apartments, country homes, a vast staff of servants, and a majestic estate in the Alps.’[155]

Further evidence.[156][157]

Arguably the least uncompelling evidence is that the Fascists and Soviets temporarily agreed not to assault each other,[158] which unfortunately disrupted the antifascism of all the parties (especially the German one) loyal to the Comintern.[159] But this ignores the facts that the Soviets agreed to this only after failing to secure an alliance with Britain and France,[160] that the Fascist bourgeoisie signed agreements with other countries earlier than the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics[161] (including Imperial Japan early on),[162] and that there were Fascists (Alfred Rosenberg)[163] and socialists (Trotsky) who opposed such measures even at the time.[164] Whether the agreement and the conditions therein (e.g. Basis Nord, a farewell parade,[165] &c.) were necessary is still a matter of dispute, but if nothing else, a far less irrational interpretation is that it was a necessary evil[166] in order for the Soviets to defend and rearm themselves[167] since they were catching up with modernity and could not risk returning to war so early and without the help that they requested,[168] as opposed to implicit conclusions such as ‘they were evil’ or ‘they didn’t care.’ Contrary to popular belief, the anticommunists did not even have any agreement with the Soviets to “partition” Poland,[169] nor did the U.S.S.R. exactly “invade” Poland[170] (or at least no more than the Anglo‐Americans ‘invaded’ the Kingdom of Iceland).[171] The Polish government itself declared martial law against the Reich when they reinvaded in September 1st, 1939, but it did not do the same for the U.S.S.R. In fact the Polish marshal E. Rydz‐Smigly ordered Poles not to engage the Soviets in military actions (only in the event of disarming Polish units by them)![172] Another frequently ignored inconvenience is that, as mentioned earlier, the Soviets were actually interested in allying with the British and the French early on, but both rejected them.[173] On the eve of the Second World War, foreign minister of the Soviet Union, Maxim Litvinov, went to the Western powers and called for an alliance with England, the United States, and France against the Reich; that should the Fascists assault Czechoslovakia or any other state, these powers would unite to contain them. The liberal bourgeoisie refused these overtures from the Soviet Union. As Herman Wouk said:

‘Lord, how the British have been asking for this! An alliance with Russia was their one chance to stop Germany. They had years in which to do it. All of Stalin’s fear of Germany and the [Fascists] was on their side. And what did they do? Dawdle, fuss, flirt with [the Führer], and give away Czechoslovakia. Finally, finally, they sent some minor politicians on a slow boat to see Stalin. When [the Führer] decided to gamble on this alliance, he shot his foreign minister to Moscow on a special plane with powers to sign a deal. And that’s why we’re within inches of a world war.’[174]

Even this passage is a bit of an understatement. Britain’s ruling class in particular was initially happy to work with the Fascist bourgeoisie and even cooperated in imperializing Czechoslovakia. To paraphrase Michael Parenti’s Make‐Believe Media:

‘[T]he U.S.S.R. [had] strenuous opposition to Munich, […] willingness to stand by Czechoslovakia, and […] Moscow was repeatedly rebuffed by Great Britain and France when it tried to form an antifascist alliance with them. […] The British [upper classes] did more than dawdle and flirt with [the Führer]. They actively allied themselves with him in the dismantling of Czechoslovakia. They ignored Stalin and strung him along, hoping ultimately to isolate the Soviet Union and set them up for a reinvasion by the Reich—which indeed happened.[175] Having witnessed how anticommunism wiped out the socialist left within Germany, Chamberlain and the other western collaborators hoped that [the Führer] might do the same to Russia. Indeed, the plan almost worked. At least 85% of the fighting in the European war took place on the Eastern front. The Soviets emerged victorious only after suffering horrendous losses.’

In the book Molotov Remembers, there is a section about Molotov’s tenure as head diplomat of the U.S.S.R., and he talks about how after they had signed the nonaggression pact with the Reich, they instantly started preparing for the conflict that they knew was coming between them. He also talks about how after returning to Moscow from Berlin, he and Stalin would spend time behind closed doors mocking or insulting the Chancellor and other Fascists. See also: a discussion of the events that led up to the Molotov‐Ribbentrop Pact.[176]

Occasionally antisocialists accuse the Soviets of having considered joining the Axis. There are no primary sources to confirm this improbable rumour. One author referenced Akten zur deutschen auswärtigen Politik, D, ii, but this is merely an internal note from a member of a German delegation dated September 3, 1938. (In fact the entire volume is about 1937–1938, not 1940.) Another writer referenced AMVnR, PRETI/ 1 / 3 pap.1 op.2sh pop.1 l.7, report by D. Shishmanov, general secretary of the Bulgarian FM, 25 Nov. 1940: a report by a Bulgarian diplomat, available only in an archive, and without further source. Another (presumably) made reference to The Incompatible Allies, page 323:[177] no relevant information here either. (The closest is Stalin sending Molotov to Berlin ‘so that further development of the relationship between the two countries could be discussed.’) Another reference that a few authors use is Nazi-Soviet Relations: the closest line that supports this is presumably ‘[…] the Italian Ambassador to Matsuoka as to whether at the conversation between Matsuoka and Stalin the relations of the Soviet Union with the Axis had been taken up, Matsuoka answered that Stalin had told him that he was a convinced adherent of the Axis and an opponent [Gegner] of England and America.’ If this is verifiable then it appears to be no more than a third‐party source; worth little more than hearsay.

And as we all know, the anticommunists would soon break their agreement with the Soviet Union[178] and launch the largest invasion ever recorded: against them.[179] The anticommunist military commanders were caught up in the ideological character of this conflict and were involved in its implementation as willing participants.[180] For example, before and during the reinvasion, the Reich’s troops were heavily indoctrinated with anti‐Bolshevik, anti‐Semitic, and anti‐Slavic ideology through many forms of media.[181] Following this reinvasion the Wehrmacht officers told their soldiers to target folks whom they described as ‘Jewish Bolshevik subhumans’,[182] the ‘Red beast’,[183] the ‘Mongol hordes’,[184] and the ‘Asiatic flood’. Anticommunist propaganda portrayed the conflict as an ideological one between German Fascism and ‘Jewish Bolshevism’.[185] The Chancellor ordered the Einsatzgruppen to execute all Soviet functionaries who were ‘less valuable Asiatics, [Roma] and Jews’.[186] Anticommunist army commanders cast the Jews as the major cause behind the ‘partisan struggle’.[187] The main guideline for anticommunist troops was ‘Where there’s a partisan, there’s a Jew, and where there’s a Jew, there’s a partisan,[188] or more succinctly ‘The partisan is where the Jew is.[189] Simply put, many anticommunist troops viewed the warfare in Fascist terms and regarded their Soviet enemies as less than human.[190] Seven out of every ten of the Reich’s soldiers who died in the Second World War died on the Eastern Front. The scale of fighting was enormous; the battles of Kursk, Stalingrad, that of Berlin (featuring two million anticommunist soldiers against 3.5 million Soviets)—there was simply nothing like it that occurred on the Western Front. The losses were stupendous: the Soviet Union emerged victorious but only after being critically weakened; only after losing not only most of its industries west of the Urals but well over twenty million people.

With the overwhelming evidence in the way, it is reasonable to conclude that any anticapitalism was just empty popularism.[191][192] In other words, the word ‘Socialist’ was nothing more than a marketing tactic.[193] To quote Engels, ‘these reactionary socialists show their true colors by immediately making common cause with the bourgeoisie against the proletarians.[194] The antisocialists who continue to promote this myth today do so almost certainly not in the interest of historical accuracy, but to destigmatize ultranationalism and strong conservative values: phenomena that they both preach and crave.

See also: this German’s video response to Steven Crowder and other capitalists concerning this subject[195] (which shares about half of the content here, almost sufficing as an audiobook). ‘Everyone who says this nonsense that the Nazis were socialist or that fascism is somehow socialist because big government, needs to read this book.[196]

All humans are naturally lazy, greedy, violent, blah blah blah

‘A cumulation of scientific evidence shows that their societies were not characterized by competition, inequality and oppression. These things are, rather, the product of history, and of rather recent history. The evidence comes from archaeological findings about patterns of human behaviour worldwide until only about five millennia ago, and from anthropological studies of societies in different parts of the world which remained organized along similar lines until the 19th and earlier part of the 20th century. […] Lee echoes the phrase used by Friedrich Engels in the 1880s to describe this state of affairs, ‘primitive communism’. The point is of enormous importance. Our species (modern humans, or Homo sapiens sapiens) is over one hundred millennia old. For 95% of this time it has not been characterized at all by many of the forms of behaviour ascribed to ‘human nature’ today. We have nothing built into our biology that makes present‐day societies the way that they are and our predicament as we face a new millennium cannot be blamed on it.’[197]

The tendency to hoard is a reaction to insufficiency. The tendency towards laziness is a reaction to too much work, too plightful work, and generally people lacking control over their work. Capitalist apologists typically claim that without money or at least some other form of material reward, few if any would labour. This is false, and contrary to modern research.[198] For instance, one of their most overused examples is janitorial labour; cleaning up disgusting messes,[199] and sewer work specifically.[200] Nonetheless, the reward, while not an object, should be obvious: the environment becomes cleaner and easier to use. The task is sometimes neglected under capitalism because some guests assume that they are disallowed from doing so, or they lack the instruments to solve it. Under world socialism, even if cleanup tasks could somehow not be automated, they could still be the responsibility of any or all folks rather than a few specialists.

Besides, with all of the troubles that capitalism causes, are a few dirty jobs truly good enough reasons to keep it?[201]

See also:

https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secA2.html#seca215 https://github.com/dessalines/essays/blob/master/crash_course_socialism.md https://www.reddit.com/r/communism101/wiki/faq/marxism/human-nature https://invidio.us/embed/jytf-5St8WU

Socialists want to force everybody to be the same

‘But once equality has triumphed and is well established, will there be no longer any difference in the talents and degree of application of the various individuals? There will be a difference, not so many as exist today, perhaps, but there will always be differences. Of that there can be no doubt. This is a proverbial truth which will probably never cease to be true — that no tree ever brings forth two leaves that are exactly identical. How much more will this be true of men, men being much more complicated creatures than leaves. But such diversity, far from constituting an affliction is, as the German philosopher Feuerbach has forcefully noted, one of the assets of mankind. Thanks to it, the human race is a collective whole wherein each human being complements the rest and has need of them; so that this infinite variation in human beings is the very cause and chief basis of their solidarity — an important argument in favour of equality.’[202] — M. Bakunin, 1869

‘“The elimination of all social and political inequality,” rather than “the abolition of all class distinctions,” is similarly a most dubious expression. As between one country, one province and even one place and another, living conditions will always evince a certain inequality which may be reduced to a minimum but never wholly eliminated. The living conditions of Alpine dwellers will always be different from those of the plainsmen. The concept of a socialist society as a realm of equality is a one-sided French concept deriving from the old “liberty, equality, fraternity,” a concept which was justified in that, in its own time and place, it signified a phase of development, but which, like all the one-sided ideas of earlier socialist schools, ought now to be superseded, since they produce nothing but mental confusion, and more accurate ways of presenting the matter have been discovered.’[203] — Friedrich Engels, 1875

‘When we say that experience and reason prove that men are not equal, we mean by equality, equality in abilities or similarity in physical strength and mental ability. It goes without saying that in this respect men are not equal. No sensible person and no socialist forgets this. But this kind of equality has nothing whatever to do with socialism.’[204] — V.I. Lenin, 1914

‘“But will not life under Anarchy, in economic and social equality mean general leveling?” you ask. No, my friend, quite the contrary. Because equality does not mean an equal amount but equal opportunity. It does not mean, for instance, that if Smith needs five meals a day, Johnson also must have as many. If Johnson wants only three meals while Smith requires five, the quantity each consumes may be unequal, but both men are perfectly equal in the opportunity each has to consume as much as he needs, as much as his particular nature demands. Do not make the mistake of identifying equality in liberty with the forced equality of the convict camp. True Anarchist equality implies freedom, not quantity. It does not mean that every one must eat, drink, or wear the same things, do the same work, or live in the same manner. Far from it; the very reverse, in fact. Individual needs and tastes differ, as appetites differ. It is equal opportunity to satisfy them that constitutes true equality.’[205] — Alexander Berkman, 1929

The kind of socialism under which everybody would get the same pay, an equal quantity of meat and an equal quantity of bread, would wear the same clothes and receive the same goods in the same quantities—such a socialism is unknown to Marxism. All that Marxism says is that until classes have been finally abolished and until labor has been transformed from a means of subsistence into the prime want of man, into voluntary labor for society, people will be paid for their labor according to the work performed. “From each according to his ability, to each according to his work.” Such is the Marxist formula of socialism, i.e., the formula of the first stage of communism, the first stage of communist society. Only at the higher stage of communism, only in its higher phase, will each one, working according to his ability, be recompensed for his work according to his needs. “From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs.” It is quite clear that people’s needs vary and will continue to vary under socialism. Socialism has never denied that people differ in their tastes, and in the quantity and quality of their needs. Read how Marx criticized Stirner for his leaning towards equalitarianism; read Marx’s criticism of the Gotha Programme of 1875; read the subsequent works of Marx, Engels and Lenin, and you will see how sharply they attack equalitarianism. Equalitarianism owes its origin to the individual peasant type of mentality, the psychology of share and share alike, the psychology of primitive peasant “communism.” Equalitarianism has nothing in common with Marxist socialism. Only people who are unacquainted with Marxism can have the primitive notion that the Russian Bolsheviks want to pool all wealth and then share it out equally. That is the notion of people who have nothing in common with Marxism. That is how such people as the primitive “Communists” of the time of Cromwell and the French Revolution pictured communism to themselves. But Marxism and the Russian Bolsheviks have nothing in common with such equalitarian “Communists.”’[206] — J.V. Stalin, 1931

See here for more information.[207]

Communists are just as vile, if not worse, than fascists and white nationalists

Long‐time Jewish antifascist Efraim Zuroff stated that “There are two major components of Holocaust distortion. One is to hide or minimize the role of local collaborators. The other one is to claim that Communism is just as bad as [Fascism], and that Communism should be categorized as genocide.” He argues that this is anti‐Semitic “because if Communism is categorized as genocide, it means that Jews committed genocide. Jewish communists were among those who committed the crimes of the [people’s republic]. If Jews committed genocide, how can we complain about their committing genocide,[208]” he said. Holocaust scholar Dovid Katz likewise condemned the comparison, and stated that the ‘Holocaust cannot, must not, be subsumed — but that is precisely what the Double Genocide theory seeks to do. It is the primary new mainstream form of Holocaust Denial, and should be treated with at least as much outrage as [King] Trump’s invocation of supposed moral equivalence between people who came to Charlottesville, Virginia in [neofascist] torch-lit processions […] and those who came to protest them.[209] Associate Professor Daniel Ben‐Moshe likewise agreed: ‘Jewish organizations have for the most part failed to act in response to the emergence of double genocide in Lithuania. If they don’t want Hungary to be part of a spreading of this form of Holocaust denial they must act now. It is now time for all individuals and organizations to add their names to the declaration, which they can do at www.seventyyearsdeclation.org.[210] With two exceptions, ‘most Ukrainian Jewish leaders do not support recognizing the Holodomor as genocide. Jewish leaders say [that] it is unfair to link the Holodomor and the Holocaust[.] “We regret the tragedy of the Ukrainian people, but [Ukraine’s President] can’t equate the Holocaust and the tragedy […] in Ukraine,” said Rabbi Yaakov Dov Bleich, one of Ukraine’s chief rabbis.[211] President of the World Zionist Organization, Nahum Goldmann, acknowledged that to ‘compare in any way the policy of the Soviet government with the [Fascists] is not only a hideous distortion, but highly unfair to Soviet Russia, which has saved hundred of thousands of Jews when they escaped from the [Fascists] at the beginning of the Second World War.[212] Recently the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum issued an advisory against Holocaust analogies in general.[213]

But briefly put: neither white supremacy,[214] nor misogyny,[215] nor heterosexism,[216][217] nor cissexism,[218] nor any other form of discrimination is central to the establishment of socialism. Most socialists (but not all—more on that later) reject such discriminations, in fact recognising them as obstacles to world revolution.[219] Certainly there are few socialists, especially today, who make such nuisances primary components of their politics. Nonetheless, many socialists[220]—it is true—have argued that it can be acceptable to use violence or even lethal force against their small but powerful minority of oppressors:[221] the upper classes and their loyalest henchmen, but it is also possible (if improbable) to have a bloodless revolution:[222] the upper classes could surrender or allow their wealth to be seized, since class is merely a societal trait into which one is born, rather than a trait that is biologically inherited.[223] Indeed, this reflects the October Revolution, which had surprisingly little violence,[224] and so did the February events in Czechoslovakia.[225]

Many notable socialists were women, humans of colour, or both,[226] and they frequently spoke out against both white supremacy and misogyny. Similarly, many socialists both historically and presently[227] have been nonheterosexual;[228] as, Emma Goldman, Oscar Wilde, Magnus Hirschfeld, Harry Whyte,[229] Bayard Rustin, James Baldwin, Harry Hay,[230] Judith Butler, TQILA,[231] and others. Indeed, the connexion between minorities and socialism is an old one.[232] Engels explicitly opposed anti‐Semitism,[233] Lenin openly spoke out against anti‐Semitism,[234] and perhaps to the surprise of some, Joseph Stalin did as well and acted accordingly![235] The Soviets helped evacuate over one million Jews from Axis territory.[236] There have also been many Ukrainian anarchists[237] (not all[238] of course but still many) who fought aggressively against anti‐Semitism, as likewise have Spanish Republicans.[239][240] (Concerning Marx’s own relation with other Jews, see here.[241] For their relations with Slavs, see here.)[242] The Soviets created a national intelligentsia in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, and in the mid‐1930s Leningrad directed the K.S.S.R. and trained thousands of cadres for the republic’s economy.[243] The Soviet Union critic Amadeo Bordiga helped push for the establishment of a trade union front with the unions and other various proletarian groups associated to the Communist Party of Italy, standing against the Fascist police, military and of course the Blackshirts.[244]

Karl Marx strongly opposed both slavery and the Southern Confederacy[245] just like Peter Kropotkin did,[246] and he told us that labor ‘cannot emancipate itself in the white skin where in the black it is branded.[247] (Marx hisself may have used a racial slur several times, but the correspondence was in German.)[248] Leon Trotsky opposed white supremacy and stated that we ‘do not compel [black humans] to separate from the [United] States, but they have the full right to self‐determination when they so desire and we will support and defend them with all the means at our disposal in the [conquest] of this right, the same as we defend all oppressed peoples.[249] On June 15, 1940, he observed that the ‘white slaveholders accustom [black humans] not to speak first. But on the picket line they show more courage. That is true of all oppressed nationalities’, and boldly suggested that we ‘must approach them everywhere by advocating that for every lynching they should lynch ten or twenty lynchers.’ He also wisely recommended that we ‘should pay more attention to the Latin American workers in relation to [Yankee] imperialism. We should turn in the direction of Latin America.[250] He was likewise fiercely opposed to violence against the lower‐class Cossacks.[251] Similarly, Bordiga recognised racism as ‘the petit bourgeois reaction to the pressures of big capital[252] and was an advocate ‘not only for the mobilisation of the world proletariat for the defence of soviet power and to direct the assault on the western, bourgeois powers, but for the extension of the revolutionary struggle to continents inhabited by [humans of colour], in short the mobilisation of all forces able to carry on an armed fight against white capitalist metropoles.[253] The democialist Salvador Allende condemned anti‐Semitism and the Third Reich in particular.[254] In 1989, Kim Jong‐Il correctly stated that we ‘do not assert that the Koreans’ biological constitution is more developed than those of other races. Defining the superiority of a nation according to biological or ethnic characteristics is the practice of reactionary, bourgeois ethnology.[255] (In many cases, the accusations of racial chauvinism in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea are based on mistranslations.)[256] The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia valued diversity and unity, and attempted to suppress its unauthorized paramilitary forces, arresting the irregular, self‐appointed leaders (some of whom were tried and sentenced to two decades in prison).[257] Despite the repetitive accusations, the little evidence used against them does not support the conclusion that they were ethnonationalists (quite the contrary).[258] Similar to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,[259] the People’s Republic of China is accepting towards most Muslims. (The Muslims that they are persecuting are a minority of violent antisocialists.)[260] Likewise, the United Nations did not report any ‘internment camps’ for Muslims.[261] The minority of them are simply undergoing rehabilitation.[262] [263] [264]

The Eastern Bloc and its allies were the forerunners in opposing African colonisation and specifically the South African Apartheid.[265] The Soviets were outspoken against child abuse[266] and sexual harassment.[267] Largely as planned,[268] the status of women improved greatly[269] (even if imperfectly);[270] the proportion of Soviet women engineers in 1980 was 58%,[271] they achieved suffrage before the U.S. did,[272] they could retire five years earlier than men,[273] they were more present in STEM than their U.S. equivalents,[274] and they could serve in the frontlines as well,[275] for instance. The People’s Republic of China made similar progress.[276] In 2011 they liberated twenty‐four thousand abducted women and children.[277]

Unfortunately, not all socialists have spotless records.[278] For example, after anticommunists incited ethnic tensions in the East and manipulated the nations into collaboration,[279] the Kremlin was unfortunately forced to relocate[280] most of them (except for the veterans) elsewhere, and at least a thousand of them (unintentionally) perished[281] (it was either this or leaving them at the hands of the Reich), but even so these actions would not fit the official criteria for genocide; documented evidence shows that Soviet authorities themselves allowed these people to return home[282] in the mid‐1950s.[283] Likewise, the Red Army’s men carnally abused thousands of people, but the other Soviets shot many of the abusers.[284] Sometimes the Allies expelled the (upper‐class) German families from Eastern Europe, but it was either this or leaving them with the thousands of disgruntled civilians,[285] who were theirselves responsible for many of the expulsions such as those in Sudetenland. Guevara[286] in his youth was a white supremacist,[287] but he became more antiracist in the later decades of his life.[288][289] Castro’s administration also discriminated against gay men and incarcerated them for a couple decades, but he later felt deep regret over his misdeeds[290] and tried to make reparations for them in later decades. Gay rights in the P.R.C. have always been lacklustre, but they are steadily making progress now.[291] Some, such as Stalin[292] and Durruti,[293] unfortunately never had such awakenings, and certain early socialist theorists in particular exhibited at least a few indisputable prejudices: Bakunin’s anti‐Semitism and Engels’s heterosexism for example. But many serious socialists still feel that they erred tremendously there and would not force anybody to forgive them for those injustices.[294] When antisocialists stress this point though, they commit the exact same mistake that evolution‐deniers do when they stress Darwin’s (supposed)[295] white supremacy: even if their prejudices were relevant to their findings, somebody would simply have arrived at the nondiscriminatory conclusions, as most socialists now already do; if a nondiscriminatory tendency somehow did not exist, then it would have been necessary to invent it, and people would have supported socialism even if they knew (or thought) that some other socialist theorists were prejudiced against them. Most tellingly however is how little influence that their prejudices had: many Ukrainian anarchists and Spanish Republicans fought aggressively against antisemitism in spite of Bakunin’s and Proudhon’s own prejudices; gay communists[296] fought aggressively against heterosexism in spite of Engels’s prejudices; communist Africans, Mexicans, and Yugoslavians[297] fought aggressively against white supremacy and colonialism in spite of Marx’s or Engels’s (disputed) prejudices against them, & cetera. Were we to take the ‘theory, not practice’ cliché to its logical conclusion, then these criticisms would be utterly meaningless, by antisocialists’ own argumentation.

Nonetheless, there is still a minority of socialists who play down the importance of inherited traits and characteristics, and tend to shrug off accusations of discrimination. Such individuals are formally called ‘class reductionists’ due to their frequent emphasis on class in defence of their misbehaviour. Less politely, they’re also called ‘brocialists’ or specifically ‘manarchists’. The extreme end of the spectrum contains so‐called third‐positionists, who explicitly attempt to connect their anticapitalism to their disgusting prejudices. Another camp is the trans‐exclusionists or so‐called ‘gender critics’ who sometimes appeal to anticapitalism in favour of their cissexism. These groups are normally despised by intersectionalists (that’s us!) and sometimes considered little better than the alt‐right.

Notable socialists include but are not limited to: Albert Einstein, H.G. Wells,[298] Alexandra Kollontai, Angela Davis, Bill Haywood, Charlie Chaplin, David Rovics, Eugene V. Debs, Frida Kahlo, He Zhen,[299] Helen Keller, Howard Zinn, Hélder Câmara, Jean‐Paul Sartre, Leila Kahled, Malala Yousafzai, Martin Luther King,[300] Nelson Mandela, Pablo Picasso, Paul Robeson, Pete Seeger, Rosa Luxemburg, Stephen William Bragg, Thomas Sankara,[301] Víctor Jara, Woody Guthrie, CNT[302]‐FAI,[303] the IWW,[304] and the other socialists mentioned in this section. In addition, the labour & civil rights activist César Chávez, whilst he did deny being communist,[305] still advocated a movement that resembles perhaps most closely (libertarian) communism:[306]

‘I guess that I have an ideology, but it probably cannot be described in terms of any political or economic system. But I think that some power has to come to farm workers and the poor so that they can manage their lives. I don’t care what system that it be; it is not going to work if they don’t have power.’[307] (Paraphrased; emphasis added. It may also be worth mentioning that Chávez was influenced by the socialist Eugene V. Debs.)[308]

Aside from our interest in equity, some of us (such as Mandela) have also campaigned for prison reform, and some of us have been fixing up streets,[309] giving away food[310] and medicine[311] to people,[312] making the streets safer for the homeless,[313] healing people gratis,[314] providing[315] abortions gratis,[316][317] establishing housing cooperatives,[318] organizing thousands of landless peasants,[319] empowering agriculturalists,[320] supporting miners,[321] creating entertainment and luxuries for others, constructing shelters for others,[322] and more. There is an Argentinian factory called FaSinPat[323] which is managed and operated by the proletariat, subsequently improving conditions there. They have provided a tile floor for a café in Hotel Bauen,[324] likewise proletarian‐controlled. In the 1980s, 784 Cubans travelled to Grenada, some being construction workers, medical personnel, diplomatic personnel, teachers, and a little military personnel. They constructed a new, all‐weather, 24‐hour aeroport with a 10,000 foot runway for jumbo jets carrying tourists; they constructed new port facilities for banana boats; and they opened many free health clinics. Fidel Castro said this in Monthly Review’s June 1995 issue:

‘The [Cuban] revolution[325] has sent teachers, doctors, and workers to dozens of Third World countries without charging a penny. It shed its own blood fighting colonialism, fighting apartheid, and fascism. […] At one point we had 25,000 Third World students studying on scholarships. We still have many scholarship students from Africa and other countries. In addition, our [republic] has treated[326] more children [13,000] who were victims[327] of the Chernobyl tragedy[328] than all other countries put together. […] [We are] the country with the most teachers per capita of all countries in the world, including developed countries. The country with the most doctors per capita of all countries [one for every 214 inhabitants]. The country with the most art instructors per capita of all countries in the world. The country with the most sports instructors in the world. That gives you an idea of the effort involved. A country where life expectancy is more than 75 years.’

Similarly over a decade later, they would become the most important supporter to the Haitians after the 2010 earthquake,[329] assisted Mozambicans after they suffered a hurricane,[330] and provided the most important medical support to western Africa during the Ebola outbreak.[331]

The psycho‐endocrinologist Aron Belkin, a pioneer of Soviet research into sexual reassignment, carried out operations without conducting any psychological testing or employing any other type of psychological expertise (not because he didn’t will it; the republic simply lacked literate psychologists or approved tests to assist him at that time).[332] Similarly, today the Republic of Cuba offers genital reconstructions gratis,[333] and in 2017 the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela officially recognised people’s right to change their names and correct their genders.[334] Earlier during the same year, the Bolivarian Republic also legally recognised a youth with two mothers.[335]

A significant number of Africans came to the Soviet Union[336] and they were generally well treated there,[337] especially in comparison to the pre‐Soviet era, the post‐Soviet one,[338] and North America (as even the obnoxiously antisocialist Radio Free Europe admits,[339] and as the anti‐Bolshevik Russia Beyond has confirmed[340] repeatedly).[341] The Soviets theirselves were frequently outspoken against both colonialism and white supremacy.[342] That is not to say that things couldn’t have been better though; in particular depictions of Africans theirselves could sometimes be rather exotified or primitive (sometimes thanks to naïvely using the West for research);[343] representation needed improvement. But overall, they still treated Africans much better in comparison to other industrialised countries.

The Red Army liberated the Roma from Fascist concentration camps,[344] and in many people’s democracies (such as the Hungarian P. Rep.,[345] the P. Rep. of Bulgaria,[346] the Soc. Rep. of Romania) living conditions for the Roma improved; they gained housing, welfare, healthcare, employment, and gradually certain social rights.[347] Nonetheless, things still could have been much better: the nomadic lifestyles were (still) not tolerated and sometimes the Roma and their culture were overlooked or neglected. The locals’ prejudices against them most likely never fully faded away either; Czechoslovakian doctors unconsensually sterilised hundreds of Roma women in the 1970s and later.[348] Yet in spite of all this, one could argue that this era was still the least unpleasant one for the Roma (since the introduction of neoliberalism didn’t exactly help with their problems;[349] the xenophobic doctors continued their sterilisations after the short twentieth century and remain unpunished today, and in Kosovo it was the anticommunist reinvasion and reoccupation, not the Serbian presence, that destroyed over twelve thousand Romani homes and reduced Kosovo’s Romani population by over 75%).[350]

Each of the planned economies endeavoured to establish a system of social insurance benefits on a very broad base (far beyond what would ordinarily be considered corresponding to its level of economic development generally). They provided a closely integrated and complete single system for the provision of succour for all disabilities (Transitional Economic Systems,[351] page 237). The cost of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic’s system in particular were to be high, nearly 18% of payroll, contribution rates being 10% for old age and disability, 1% for accidents and 6.8% for illness (Ibid., page 241). The Soviet Union acknowledged deaf‐blind humans and provided them with education.[352] While some market economies equalled or even exceeded the Soviet Union in certain social security rights, as medical care and disability and retirement benefits, none matched them overall.[353] In fact, the Soviet retirement and disability system (especially for disabilities unrelated to employment) was generous by U.S. standards, especially taking taking into consideration the heavily subsidised basics of life.[354] Similarly today, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea accommodates people with mobility impairments.[355]

See also user:Anarcho-Bolshevik/compendium#Socialism_has_not_and_never_will_work for our further contributions in people’s republics and territories. For an exhaustive response to accusations of Soviet ‘self‐colonization’, ‘neocolonialism’, ‘Russification’, and so forth… read Human Rights in the Soviet Union.[356] All of this may seem a trivial point, but remember that this is a response to the antisocialists who repetitively equate us with the Fascists.

Capitalism has brought hundreds of millions out of poverty

The claim is supported only thanks to repeatedly redefining ‘poverty’[357] and diminishing the methods for reducing it.[358] Not only has global poverty not been shrinking,[359] but by some measures, poverty has actually become worse.[360] (Further data.)[361] Oxfam for example has discovered that in many nations wage inequality has increased and that the share of labour compensation in GDP has declined because profits have increased more rapidly than wages.[362] Anarchists in particular have likewise responded thoroughly to the claim that neoliberalism has been decreasing poverty.[363] An academic at the University of London has done likewise.[364] Only by using a variety of rhetorical tricks, strange economic logic (adding a millionaire to a homeless family would mean that their ‘average income’ increased), and outright distortions, can capitalist intellectuals claim that their economy has reduced poverty. It has not.[365] Some of the capitalists’ citations are just pseudoscientific: this entire source,[366] for example, is based in the World Bank’s flawed methodology (the flaws explained already in the video link earlier in this paragraph). Their first source is simply an unfinished working paper that was not peer reviewed and was not published in any scientific journal (it was instead released by the Peterson Institute for International Economics, which is a capitalist think tank), and their second source is just another working paper from the same source. (Curiously, this one source takes 40% of its funding from corporations, as they theirselves admitted in the report;[367] it seems that they are not only ideologically invested in claiming that capitalism is saving everyone, but are financially invested as well.) Unsurprisingly, several other sources contradict their conclusion.[368]

Closely related to this myth is that capitalism or specifically neoliberalism has lifted hundreds of millions of Chinese out of poverty: credible only if merely adding more millionaires counts as ‘poverty reduction’; as the anarchist FAQ previously linked stated: Chinese (and Indian) inequality actually increased during the 1990s. As of 2015, Hong Kong in particular has a rather interesting way of showing their prosperity: massive income disparity, low wages, hundreds of thousands of citizens living on rooftop slums and subdivided flats, and Oxfam has estimated that the poverty rate amongst those 65 years and older is at 40%.[369] Contrary to popular misbelief, Hong Kong does not have an ungoverned economy, but it certainly doesn’t have a socialist one either.[370] Their business sector has always been highly influential, and the local government has collaborated with them frequently. The profit‐cutting concessions to the masses there, such as public healthcare, were granted only on behalf of the lower classes; they were not the demands of ‘generous’ or ‘ingenious’ entrepreneurs. Likewise, when the bourgeoisie imposed neoliberalism on Easterners we saw only increases in poverty. For example, in the former Yugoslavia’s ‘two regions that were the main supposed beneficiaries of [so‐called] humanitarian intervention, the result in one — Bosnia — has been a failed ministate and NATO‐power neocolony, administered by a “High Representative” appointed by the European Union, with official unemployment around 45% and ¼ of the population living in poverty, [which the bourgeoisie] splintered ethnically into two statelets that are held in place by coercion only, and with much corruption and crime.[371] Since the 2010s, almost 60% of the Ukrainian population lives below the poverty line (according to data of the M.V. Ptukha Institute of Demography and Social Surveys, the National Academy of Science of Ukraine). While Ukrainian wages did increase, so did the prices, and the population became poorer by over a third.[372]

See also:

‘Development practitioners and economists alike have been severely criticised the international poverty line, as the current line of $1.90 is absurdly low for anybody to subsist on and is unlinked to any wellbeing outcomes. Perhaps more damning is the fact that the narrative that poverty has halved only works if you include the People’s Republic of China, where virtually all the economic growth that created the new global middle class in the 1990s took place, and one of the few places the Western model of market driven development interventions was unapplied. The international poverty line is calculated by simply taking an average of the poverty lines of the ten countries at the bottom of the Human Development Index: the poorest in the world. Despite the fact that there is massive variance in how much is needed to have something resembling a life in different countries, the line is applied everywhere. Congratulating ourselves and considering our model vindicated if someone is earning slightly more than $1.90 per day, glossing over the human misery that undoubtedly still persists is both immoral and inaccurate.’[373]

For erudite socialists, it ought to be clear that such apologisms were insincere anyway: ‘the periods in which capitalist production exerts all its forces regularly turn out to be periods of overproduction, because production potentials can never be utilised to such an extent that more value may not only be produced but also realised; but the sale of commodities, the realisation of commodity‐capital and thus of surplus‐value, is limited, not by the consumer requirements of society in general, but by the consumer requirements of a society in which the vast majority are always poor and must always remain poor[374] or more succinctly ‘[t]he rich could not be rich without their employés to live on. Being robbed of the bulk of their produce to swell the fortunes of the employer, the wage workers must remain poor.[375] We see this as the white bourgeoisie imposes tariffs on the superexploited countries, creating a cycle of dependence on the purchasing power of the privileged nations[376] while driving uneven development and preventing the superexploited’s own industry from taking off.[377][378] For centuries (e.g. ‘poverty is in their eyes merely the pang which accompanies every childbirth, in nature as in industry[379] and ‘the economists have been proving for five decades and more that socialism cannot abolish poverty, which has its basis in nature’)[380] capitalists have been claiming that poverty is merely a ‘natural’ phenomenon, but the truth is that subsistence was the rule for most of our unrecorded history, not poverty. The overwhelming majority of our unrecorded history consisted of us living in hunter‐gatherer tribes, but famine was less frequent compared to agricultural civilisation;[381] in Africa’s preindustrial communalism for example the situation was such that nobody starved while others either stuffed theirselves or threw away anything uneaten.[382] The commencement of private property allowed a wealthy minority to claim arable land as theirs and consequently increase poverty and famine. Capitalism, like the hierarchies that preceded it, is only a transhistorical mode of production and thus sees poverty as eternal, when in truth poverty is only necessary for capitalism, which we know to be a transitory mode of production.

Liberal, capitalist governments do not (intentionally) harm their own citizens

Even ignoring the most obvious exception of the death penalty, this is incorrect. There are many examples of the U.S. government in particular intentionally killing[383] folks at home.[384] Decades ago they tested stimulants (biological weapons) on citizens who were unwittingly exposed.[385] They also tested them on military applicants (such as Rollins Edwards) based on their ethnicity.[386] (Aside from being unrequested, drafts were the law back then, making any evasion almost impossible.) The practice is actually quite old and is almost certainly occurring to this day.[387] Further examples.[388] More.[389] (Courtesy of this NSFW(!)[390] resource.)

In addition, there is evidence of the feds consciously targeting racial, sexual, and gender minorities.[391] Oft‐times, while officials may not have explicitly ordered abuse, they are aware that it is happening yet do nothing about it. (If they somehow haven’t learnt about them already, they could certainly look at reports about the poisoning in Flint, Michigan, or the abuses under the prison system.)[392] But why would they ignore the abuses occurring? The answer is that addressing them would be unprofitable in both the short term and the long term: that is how it is relevant to capitalism.

Another common target for state‐sanctioned abuse is the homeless.[393] For example, the city of Manteca has enforced laws that prevent the poor from sitting or lying on the sidewalk, having any possessions with them, sleeping in public, and having encampments.[394] In Fort Lauderdale it is illegal to even feed the homeless.[395] The police have even been abusing and threatening poor children.[396]

Finally, there is the issue of political liberty, which was historically[397] denied to socialists[398] (as during the 1970s in Illinois),[399][400] and continues to this[401] day.[402] Arrests are not simply limited to damaging (cheap) property, but other ‘offences’ such as obstructing a shitty pipeline,[403] protesting police brutality,[404] being a vocal Cuban communist,[405][406] being a prominent, effective charity organizer for Palestine,[407] protesting the President at the wrong place at the wrong time[408] in the wrong way,[409] and more![410] Even the antisocialist Human Rights Watch has documented numerous domestic offences for which the White House is responsible.[411] For a comprehensive timeline of the civil rights violations that American officials have committed, see Human Rights in the Soviet Union, chapter 6.[412]

The U.K. government in particular has a history of abusing segments of its own population;[413] as, abusing the protesters of an unpopular tax reform, abusing miners who went on strike, and in 1985 abusing hundreds of attendants (including pregnant ones and ones holding infants) at a harmless festival that violated a high court order. The liberal state of Great Britain deliberately massacred dozens of Irelanders (NSFL),[414] including two eleven‐year‐olds[415] and an adolescent;[416] during the short twentieth century in particular they invoked emergency laws to quash unionist, socialist, and other anticolonialist movements in Northern Ireland.[417] Until the late 1970s, the bourgeois state also coerced gay men (most famously Alan Turing) into suffering emetics, electric shocks,[418] and chemical castrations (and they did not offer any apology until the 2010s). In 2015, they admitted that nearly 10,000 people have died after they denied them their full sickness benefits (with almost one in four of them dead within two weeks of ordering them to get a job).[419] [420] Their Department for Work and Pensions drew up plans to charge disabled humans for appeals against benefit decisions.[421] The bourgeois state even prevented disabled conservatives from obtaining their welfare.[422]

In 1916, the Commonwealth of Australia suspended socialists Siebenhaar and H. M. Leighton (a clerk in the Registrar‐General’s Department who was president of the Anti‐Conscription League),[423] and in the late 1970s the bourgeois state also used the Prevention of Terrorism Act to raid eighty anarchist homes and arrest several anarchist ‘conspirators’ (Persons Unknown) on the unsupported grounds that they were going to commit crimes.[424] In 1940, the Commonwealth of Australia forcibly dissolved the Communist Party and prohibited nine leftist publications. Government officers raided Party premises, seized papers and documents, and subjected socialists to surveillance. In 1950 the state reprohibited and subsequently raided the Party again[425] (though they did undo the act in March of 1951). In 2006 forty people peacefully protested the state‐sanctioned funeral of a tax cheat, and the police arrested six of the nonviolent protesters.[426] These unambiguously political examples aside, the bourgeois state has also been abducting aboriginal children even as late as the 2010s.[427]

In 1918, the Dominion of Canada outlawed labour organizations[428] (most notably the IWW)[429] and imprisoned their members, often in internment camps. From 1937 to 1957, the Québécois state criminalized promotion of communism and anything perceived as such.[430] In late 1945, the Prime Minister referred to a supposed Soviet spy ring as an excuse to suspend citizens’ civil liberties, and the oppression lasted for the rest of the 1940s.[431] Outside of the outright political repression, Canadian officials have been coercing indigenous humans into undergoing sterilisations even as late as the 2010s.[432] [433] [434]

Since about 1906, the Swedish state forcibly sterilized dozens of thousands of people—most of them women and girls,[435] sometimes on grounds that they were ‘loose’, too poor, had ‘mental defects’, or simply because they were multiracial. The practice declined in the 1970s, but it was not fully abolished until the 2010s; they pressured scores of transpeople into undergoing the process as well.[436] The government has expressed regret for their programme and has tried to compensate the surviving victims, but with limited success,[437] and in any case Sweden remained a ‘model democracy’ for that entire period. Likewise, from the 1940s to the 1960s, the Swedish social democracy committed thousands of lobotomies[438] (all without the victims’ permission of course). In the 1920s (when the famous social democrat, Hjalmar Branting, was still in power) the social democracy established the SIFR, the first ‘racial science’ institute of that decade, which up until WWII published propaganda claiming that the Finns and Sámi were inferior to Swedes. Until the 1950s the social democracy also prohibited Roma from coming to Sweden, and refused them schooling until the late 1960s. In both Norway and Sweden, the Sámi populations have suffered state‐sanctioned theft of their resources,[439] forced assimilations, sterilizations, segregations, evictions, denial of advanced education, and other nuisances.[440] In recent decades the governments have likewise tried to compensate them somewhat, but these compensations have been inadequately enforced.[441] During the 1940s, Prime Minister Per Albin Hansson and other Swedish social democrats forcibly imprisoned thousands of communists, other antifascists, and certain foreigners in internment camps.[442] (Unsurprisingly, Hansson spewed ‘Sweden for Swedes! Swedes for Sweden!’ back in 1924.)[443] In 1941, Prime Minister Erik Scavenius and other Danish social liberals agreed to cooperate with the Fascist bourgeoisie. They prohibited communist parties, imprisoned hundreds of socialists and suspected communists,[444] and signed the Anti‐Comintern Pact.[445] Today, Danish police injure and occasionally kill anarchists in Copenhagen.[446] The bourgeois state also persecutes people for being homeless.[447] In 2009, the Swedish state undid many of their concessions to the lower classes,[448] and today they overlook companies (like H&M) who still employ child labour in Eurasia.[449] Since the 2010s Swedish officials have been oppressing people infected with HIV.[450] Similarly, Norwegian officials have been fining, evicting, and forcibly deporting sex workers, often without warning,[451] just like Swedish officials have.[452]

According to Blackshirts and Reds, the Yeltsin régime—which helped impose neoliberalism on Russia[453]—forcibly dissolved the Russian parliament along with the Federation’s every other elected representative body, including both municipal and regional councils. They discontinued Russia’s Constitutional Court and launched an armed assault upon the parliament, executing hundreds resisters and demonstrators.[454] (Thousands more were jailed sans charges or trials, and hundreds of elected officials were placed under investigation.) The neoliberal bourgeoisie’s Omon troops repeatedly assaulted leftist demonstrators and pickets in Moscow as well as other Russian cities.[455] Parliamentary deputy Andrei Aidzerdzis (an Independent) and deputy Valentin Martemyanov (a Communist), who both vigorously opposed the neoliberal state, became victims of political homicides, as did the journalist Dmitri Kholodov,[456] whom somebody killed in 1994 for probing corruption in ‘high places’. Further information.[457]

The State of Israel has willingly abused Ethiopian Jews in numerous ways; as, subjecting them to disproportionately more police abuse (including lethal force), coercing hundreds of women into undergoing sterilisation, concentrating Ethiopians into ghetti, segregating entire schools, treating natives as immigrants (i.e. poorly), and more.[458] In 2011, the neocolony’s Ministry of Transportation instructed its security guards to assault anti‐Zionist Judaists who were peacefully protesting the desecration of graves by a highway construction project. Several rabbis and even children required hospital care.[459]

Socialism has no popular support

Over half of youths have a positive view of socialism,[460] and a poll from September 2018 found similar results.[461] Now, within the left there have been pessimistic interpretations, namely that by ‘socialism’ they probably mean reformism,[462] and by capitalism they merely mean neoliberalism. Nonetheless, others feel that this is still an improvement; the reformists could readily be driven to the far‐left, as was the case for some supporters of the reformist Bernard Sanders.

A poll from 2017 indicated that 75% of Venezuelans support socialism.[463] Support for PSUV itself increased in 2017 from 27% to 35%, a humble number but also the highest one among the electoral options.[464] The Bolivarian project remains popular even in spite of the current crisis.[465]

The overwhelming majority of Soviets were against the dissolution of the Soviet Union,[466] and today many ex‐Soviets miss both the U.S.S.R. and Joseph Stalin and feel that the dissolution did more harm than good,[467][468] a view that has remained fairly consistent over the decades[469] (such as in 2016[470] and 2019).[471] (Why?)[472]

As reported (and predictably explained away by) the antisocialist New York Times[473] in 2009, many Bulgarians still feel nostalgic for the Soviet era and are dissatisfied with the neoliberal one.[474] Likewise the majority of East Germans do not prefer capitalism.[475] (Even sexual relations were better.)[476] Many Romanians like communism and miss the Socialist Republic of Romania.[477] This was true in 1999,[478] true again in 2013,[479] and even supported by direct interviews with some modern Romanians.[480] (No surprise since capitalism had not been kind to lower class Romanians.)[481] Westerners found almost no dissidence anywhere in Soviet Asia, and the few dissidents that they did find were a minority of foreigners.[482] And similarly today, many Tajikistanis miss the U.S.S.R.[483]

There was very little anti‐Soviet sentiment in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, with the exception of an unpopular minority of ultranationalists.[484] (The Ukrainians who greeted the anticommunist invaders as ‘liberators’ were likely ultranationalists themselves rather than ordinary citizens, many of whom retreated into the R.S.F.S.R. around this time. Therefore, we would advise against referring to these greeters as representative.) Since at least the Cold War, Soviet dissidents constituted only a small minority (less than 1%) of the population, and they knew that they were unpopular! The dissidents were so unpopular, in fact, that reaching out for recruits would sometimes only provoke their fellow citizens into contacting the authorities.[485] Likewise, a summary of attitude surveys by Polish sociologists, reported in The Scientific American in 1981, concluded that ‘[o]ur surveys in the late 1950s and early 1960s showed that “the experiment in social learning on a national scale” conducted by the [republic] had succeeded to a certain degree. The great changes in the social and economic organization of the society—the nationalization of industry, land reform, economic planning, the abolition of the antebellum class structure—were accepted by the people.[486]

Philip Farr noted that during the 1910s, the Bolsheviki were popular among the lower classes in Estonia, Latvia, and probably Lithuania as well (Lithuania is less clear given that it was under severe imperialist reoccupation at that time). For example, Baron Wrangel (the official historian of the Estonian German‐Balt unit) recorded that during the Russian Civil War, 60–70% of Tallinn’s population supported the Bolsheviki. Their popularity decreased almost entirely due to the decades of antisocialist indoctrination (in rural Lithuania’s case it was partially the ill‐conceived land reforms),[487] but the Soviets steadily won back their support:[488] During the short twentieth century, Jerome Davis visited the Baltics and found that most, if not all of the workers and peasants there preferred being part of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics[489] (whereas the middle and upper classes freely voiced their objections to him), and everybody that he met (even the upper classes) still preferred the Soviet Republics over the anticommunist reoccupation.[490] (It should also be mentioned that all three of the Baltic folks had briefly formed pro‐Bolshevist governments during the Russian Civil War until they were overrun by antisocialists;[491] one could reasonably argue that the Soviets were simply restoring what had existed before the anticommunists’ coups.) It is true that the two Soviet Republics with the most anti‐Russian sentiment were Estonia and (to a greater extent) Lithuania, but even then Westerners noted that antisocialism itself was still rare.[492]

Concerning the Red Army’s presence in Poland during the mid‐1940s:

‘Unsurprisingly, given the devastation that the anticommunists wrought and the preceding decade and a half of military dictatorship, the Polish working class enthusiastically welcomed the Red Army’s liberation of Poland of the mid‐1940s. In most cases factories had been managed during the reoccupation by anticommunists who were evacuated with the retreating anticommunist army. As that army left, the workers generally continued on their own, forming workers’ councils and electing their own supervisors. As was the case throughout almost all of occupied Europe, a spontaneous people’s transformation of the economy took place, with workers taking over production. The principal difference between Eastern and Western Europe in this regard was that the Red Army did not restore the factories to private ownership, instead (at least at first!) allowing the workers to carry on.[493] […] The old wealthy bourgeoisie and aristocracy had been rightfully discredited by their misleadership of the interbellum state and then decimated during the anticommunist reoccupation. There was no popular support for a return to the old economic system. Economic planning was in the air and had, in fact, been spontaneously put in place by the workers immediately upon liberation. In a popular referendum held in April 1946, 77% of the population declared that they were in favour of the recent economic reforms.’[494]

In Saigon during 1975, the North Vietnamese VPA finally arrived. Although many (upper‐class) civilians were unhappy and wanted to leave, and one officer committed suicide, nobody met the VPA with resistance; hundreds of people welcomed them and felt relieved; everything was returning to normalcy. The VPA consoled the concerned citizens, and many now freely carried socialist flags and banners. The civilians also gladly participated in the destruction of a neoimperialist monument that was never popular with them. Of the thousands of soldiers who arrived, there wasn’t a single reported case of drunkenness, theft, rape, or shooting.[495] Similarly, General Krivoshein described the great joy with which Brest’s Belorussian proletariat greeted the Soviet forces as they approached the city.[496]

A poll from 2009 found many supporters from outside the Eastern Bloc.[497] While the West mostly considered the dissolution to be positive, they also found that many Egyptians, Pakistanis, Indians, and even Indonesians felt that the dissolution was more harmful than anything else. Similarly, many Indonesians have respect for the DPRK.[498] Amongst North Korean defectors, approval for Chairperson Kim Jong‐Un is actually above fifty percent.[499] Concerning the Republic of Cuba in particular,[500] here is what some antisocialist officials had to say (in private, and see page 7):[501]

‘A political vulnerability of the [government] lies in the person of Castro himself. It is not clear whether [it] could continue to operate for long without him. There is no question that the bureaucracy operates relatively freely and probably makes decisions without consulting Castro. However, it is equally certain that the Castro personality and his appeal to the Cuban people is an important element in maintaining popular support for the [government].’

Page 5 of this document states[502] that Pres. Jimmy Carter was interested in clandestinely supplying explosives to Cubans in order to commit terrorist attacks against the government, saying that it is not a difficult technical operation, but ‘the people have shown no inclination to use such materials despite many exile claims to the contrary.’ Another example from a State Department memo in 1960, which admits that anticommunists shouldn’t really intervene militarily (something proven practically shortly thereafter thanks to the Bay of Pigs invasion) but rather by economic means, as ‘The majority of Cubans support Castro.[503]

Examples of prosocialist politicians gaining popularity even in the 1990s.[504] Further statistics here[505] and here.[506] (On a minor note, while it doesn’t exactly count as ‘support’, most British citizens would at least prefer communism over fascism.[507] On another minor note, Ethiopian communists were popular in the 1970s, but admittedly they did lose much of their popularity later due to their ill sought out policies and excessive force.)[508]

Is it simply misplaced nostalgia? Perhaps, but in any event the preference does not look good for liberalism: where the people’s republics, even with their flaws, are still preferable to the neoliberalism dominant today.

Most or all socialists strongly oppose democracy

It is true to state that all socialists without exception oppose a phenomenon[509] that we variably call ‘bourgeois democracy’,[510] ‘capitalist democracy’, or ‘(neo)liberal democracy’: where the handful of parties with any chance of winning elections are both almost identical functionally and are invariably dominated by the upper classes. However, with the exceptions of Amadeo Bordiga[511] and similar left communists, most socialists never say that they are opposed to democracy as such. For example, many socialists argue that the state democratically reflecting the people’s will is in fact intrinsic to the proletarian state as proposed by Engels.[512] Similarly, most anarchists, such as Errico Malatesta, support directly democratic collectives, based on ‘one person; one vote’.[513] We, in fact, would argue that it is ‘capitalist democracy’ that is oxymoronic, and that no liberal state was any more democratic than the people’s republics and other socialist organizations.

Some people may think that most of the people’s republics (with a few exceptions like the German Dem. Rep.) being unipartisan states proves conclusively that there was no democracy, but a people are not powerless simply because only one party is legal. In the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics[514] for example, the electoral process that decided the representatives of the Central Committee (the Soviets’ largest governing and legislative body, later named the Supreme Soviet) was chosen via participatory democracy; worker groups and other mass organizations elected candidates before the 1950s and elsewhen; both historians[515] and laborers[516] noted as much. The same applies in the Republic of Cuba,[517] where the party does not select candidates, nor does it decide elections, nor does it track voters, nor does it participate in the elections at all; individuals directly nominate any adults whom they think should be candidates.[518] In fact the Republic of Cuba has demonstrated that it is possible to abolish corruption through the semidirect democracy of electing people to the National Assembly of Peoples Power[519] [520] ineluctably indicating that corruption is not ‘intrinsic’ to socialism.

Of course almost all antisocialists shall rationalize these elections, from the DPRK[521] to elsewhere, as being transparent ceremonies and that there is clearly an unpopular autocracy beneath the surface. Why then do we have records of ‘omnipotent’ politicians like Joseph Stalin trying unsuccessfully to resign four times?[522] Why do Western scholars like Daniel Pinkston report that the DPRK elected 443 new members (including 107 active military members)?[523] Why did the Association of Secretaries General of Parliaments determine that the DPRK’s voters cast ballots personally to a deputy in candidacy and in a place where a secret ballot is thoroughly maintained?[524] Why did dozens of international observers[525] judge the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela’s elections to be fair? The standard explanation is simply that all of these otherwise competent and reputable reporters gullibly fell for ‘state propaganda’, allowing antisocialists to relax, confident that their ideology infalsifiable. But the narrative of ‘a totalitarian dictatorship forcing political hegemony through terror’ is simply ahistorical. The Soviets themselves said it best:

‘Do you really believe that we could have retained power and have had the backing of the vast masses for 14 years by methods of intimidation and terrorization? No, that is impossible. The tsarist government excelled all others in knowing how to intimidate. It had long and vast experience in that sphere. The European bourgeoisie, particularly the French, gave tsarism every assistance in this matter and taught it to terrorize the people. Yet, in spite of that experience and in spite of the help of the European bourgeoisie, the policy of intimidation led to the downfall of Tsarism.’[526]

Some accuse us of overthrowing democracies. The phrase ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’[527] is often cited as the original sin in these regards, but the careful reader shall note that the phrase refers to a class,[528] not an individual. And with the arguable exception of Czechoslovakia, there are no instances of socialists overthrowing what could be meaningfully categorized as a democracy. One example sometimes given is Russia’s provisional government, but this was a deeply unpopular and unelected entity; the duma that assigned it did not even hold elections since 1913.[529] Another is the Republic of Chile on grounds that the electoral victor was a minority president, hardly an unusual occurrence in the Americas.[530] All other overthrows were likewise not against popular governments but against upper‐class dictatorships, such as colonial territories (Angola, China, Guinea‐Bissau, Korea, Mozambique, Poland), neocolonial states (Cuba, Vietnam), Fascist occupations (Albania, Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, Yugoslavia), decaying monarchies (Ethiopia, Romania), parafascist states (the Baltics, the Bourbon Restoration, Nicaragua), and similar.

Most or all socialists are strongly in favour of gun control

Karl Marx, Eugene Debs, Malcolm X, and Huey Newton on the topic of firearm ownership.[531] In the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the manufacture, possession, and trade of explosives or ammunition, in addition to the storage of most firearms, could all be done so long as the user had a permit.[532]

‘Other people’s republics like the former Yugoslavia and nationalist states like Libya guaranteed widespread gun ownership. In the Soviet Union and the other Warsaw Pact republics, military‐grade education that included the assembly and use of guns was mandatory for all students in middle school onward, according to Joseph S. Roucek’s October 1960 article, ‘Special Features of USSR’s Secondary Education’.’[533]

Not only did the Soviets have gun rights, but they also gave all students, regardless of gender,[534] premilitary training in a class (simply named Basic Military Training) for grades nine and ten.[535] The educator would usually be a retired military officer. Among other things, one would have to take apart an AK (model depending on the military standard of the current year) and reassemble it, learning to do so within thirty seconds at least. They also taught students to fire small caliber rifles, either semiautomatic or bolt action on a range that could be 25–100 meters. They also taught the basics of strategy, tactics and other necessary knowledge. There were almost no school shootings in the U.S.S.R. with the exceptions of one at the Lyamino School during 1958 and one in the Leningrad higher military political school of Ministry of Internal Affairs during 1977[536] (which caused seven and six deaths plus six and two injuries, respectively); it also appears that accidental deaths by firearm were quite rare.

The Soviet Republics encouraged civilian gun use and awarded good sharpshooting, for example the paramilitary award (before 1953) Voroshilov’s Sharpshooter:[537] awarded to over several million people, civilian and military alike. The DOSAAF[538] managed sports use, which is why Soviet snipers were some of the world’s best.

In 1953 the Soviet of Ministers promulgated the ‘On Hunting’ law, postulating that one should vend hunting arms and ammunition with no licensing requirements whatsoever and that the Ministry of Defence should ‘improve the production of guns for the benefit of gun‐owners, develop and manufacture new better and cheaper guns.’ Additionally there were organizations such as OSOVIAKHIM that provided free training in sharpshooting and education in gun culture. According to the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. of May 11, 1959 № 478 ‘On measures to improve the management of hunting’, they cancelled the free sale of smoothbore hunting rifles. They granted the right to hunt with hunting firearms to all Soviet citizens who were members of the hunter’s society; people who passed tests on the hunting minimum and paid the state fee in the prescribed amount. To purchase a smoothbore hunting rifle, it was necessary to present a member’s hunting ticket of the hunter's society; in the industrial hunting areas (for furs) they established a different procedure. Hunting was commonplace and they regulated it only within the prevention of harming animal populations. (Compare this now with the Russian Federation and its extensive poaching.) To quote one article on the subject, ‘perhaps 90% of the people in isolated regions (of the USSR) hunt for pleasure or profit.[539]

Extant Armed Peasant‐Worker Organizations include the Territorial Troops Militia[540] and the Worker‐Peasant Red Guards.[541] During the short twentieth century you also had the Albanian People’s Army,[542] the Combat Groups of the Working Class,[543] the Patriotic Guards,[544] the People’s Militia,[545] and the Workers’ Milita.[546]

Concerning the Soviet poster, ‘Citizens! Hand in your arms!’: This was a wartime measure in 1918–1921 due to the critical lack of weapons available to the Red Army in the middle of the conflict. It is no different to U.S. WWII posters encouraging people hand in their metal, paper and silk to their imperialist army. The confiscation of weapons from those resisting or involved in sabotage is no different to any other revolution in which the counterrevolutionary elements are disarmed.

(There are no sources about gun control beginning in 1924 and 1929; only decrees from 1918 and 1920 when technically the U.S.S.R. was not even in existence yet. One source of these claims is a scurrilous monarchist webshite that makes fallacious claims that gun ownership, and that everything was far ‘better’ under the Tsar. It also fails to actually quote any of the degrees from 1924 onward, only describing its supposed contents.)

Starting from 1926 the Soviets declared personal ownership of shotguns and smoothbore guns (with less than 6mm caliber) legal. ‘Policemen were responsible for gun control,’ writes Katherine Bliss Eaton in Daily Life in the Soviet Union (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004): ‘Private citizens and institutions could own hunting weapons if they had police permission and registered their guns at the local station house. The militia could confiscate weapons and ammunition from people who showed signs of dangerously irresponsible behavior.’ (You decide whether or not that’s unreasonable.)

The penalties for not observing these were first surprisingly moderate. Before 1935, noncompliants either risked prison terms of less than one year or fines. They introduced a five year prison term was in the run‐up to the Yezhovschina of 1937, unless somebody brought in more serious charges. Up until the 1960s, lots of people carried around lots of different guns. If the police asked questions about these, all that anybody needed was some kind of documentation that proved that the government handed out the weapon to them. This changed at the end of 1960s only after the first incidents of aeroplane hijacking with the use of firearms occurred.

They drastically cut the number of non‐military government officials entitled to service weapons. Use of firearms for self‐defense outside of the home could result indictment for ‘excessive use of force’ until further investigation (something no different to the U.S.A. which has tightened its aeroports further and further, and has been placing ‘excessive use of force’ charges regularly). The Criminal Code of the R.S.F.S.R. 1960, Article 218, details imprisonment or fines for illegally owned or produced weapons; certain firearms, explosives, &c.

In the 1960s, socialist Prime Minister Enver Hoxha stated this:

‘All our people are armed in the full meaning of the word. Every Albanian city‐dweller or villager, has his weapon at home. Our army itself, the army of a soldier people, is ready at any moment to strike at any enemy or coalition of enemies. The youth, too, have risen to their feet. Combat readiness does not in any way interfere with our work of socialist construction. On the contrary, it has given a greater boost to the development of the economy and culture in our country.’[547]

The socialist chairperson Máo Zédōng famously stated that ‘Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun.’ This has sometimes been cited as his impetus for supposedly disarming the public, but the People’s Republic of China had no firearm regulations.[548] He was praising firearms.

Hundreds of thousands of Cubans own firearms. The Republic of Cuba’s constitution itself states that all citizens have the right to struggle through all means, included armed ones, against anybody who tries to overthrow the political, social, and economic order. Indeed, Castro ordered that all proletarians (including women) be armed for the defence of their home. The government began a programme of armament to the entire Cuban populace and training it in basic military tactics.[549]

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea’s constitution states that ‘The State shall implement the line of self‐reliant defense, the import of which is to train the army to be a cadre army, modernize the army, arm all the people and fortify the country on the basis of equipping the army and the people politically and ideologically.[550] As of 2017, the DPRK is nevertheless the people’s republic with the lowest gun ownership rate: 0.3, but this rate is still higher than that of South Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, and a few other capitalist states! Similarly, the gun ownership rate in the BRV is 18.5, which is actually much higher than that of Colombia (10.1).[551]

Possibly the only otherwise prosocialist administrations to legislate firearms prohibitions are the Republic of Chile in the early ’70s and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela in 2012. It’s unlikely that these troublesome regulations existed to defend the governments, though. In the former case, it’s likely that the Chilean Presidency thought that they could rely on the army’s loyalty and viewed René Schneider and Carlos Prats as representatives of the attitude of the armed forces, or the Presidency thought that disarmament would help stop violent antisocialists like Patria y Libertad. In the latter case, it was in response to rising crime rates: the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela’s attitude about the crime and homicide rates in the country up to that point was ‘crime is the result of poverty’, but after nearly a decade of skyrocketing murder rates despite significant reductions in poverty in the country, they prohibited firearms. (Obviously not particularly effective, given what has happened since then.)

Most people in socialist states are constantly starving or are malnourished, and it’s because of socialism

It is true that many illiberal republics experienced famines, but rarely are all of the causes closely examined. For example, the Ukrainian one of the 1930s probably cannot be traced to any single cause, but overall it was neither exclusively nor even fundamentally induced by artificial means:[552] awful weather[553] and pestilence[554] were a few factors, as they were in the People’s Republic of China,[555] but it didn’t help that many of the landowners were protesting Soviet collectivization by destroying their crops [556] [557] and generally making a mess of the place; the Western sanctions on Soviet gold (yet not on their grain) contributed[558] as well.[559] Nonetheless, like the one in the People’s Republic of China,[560] perhaps some responsibility should be given to—yes—the authorities or central planners (though these flaws are amendable within the socialist context).[561][562] What is remarkable about these places however is that although they did experience some famines after they were revolutionized, the socialists also stopped the series of famines that the countries were experiencing long before they were revolutionized,[563] with little or no thanks to the capitalists. For example, after 1947 the Soviet Union experienced no more famines, but even before then they distributed famine relief to the Uk.S.S.R. in the 1920s[564] and[565] the 1930s,[566] including to hundreds of thousands of their Ukrainian youths.[567] Even the anti‐Bolshevist historians R. W. Davies and Stephen G. Wheatcroft (who claim that Soviet officials were still partially responsible for the crisis) admitted that the Soviets at least responded to the Uk.S.S.R.’s famine by reducing food exports, reducing food quotas, and sending food aid.[568] Respected scholars Alexander Dallin, J. Arch Getty, Lynne Viola, Moshe Lewin, and Roberta Manning likewise all reject the ‘famine‐genocide’ conspiracy theory; even the notorious antisocialist Robert Conquest later renounced it.[569] (And our much referenced Professor Tauger, for those unaware, has argued elsewhen that the British Empire had little to do with the Bengal famine:[570] this wouldn’t exactly support somebody’s suspicion that he’s simply a ‘biased’ writer.) All of this should be little surprise since Stalin was consistently very sympathetic to the landless and poor peasants,[571] and many landless peasants supported his administration.[572] Likewise, China saw no more famines after 1961. (And even this last one was not[573] their worst.[574] Recent[575] research[576] indicates that the toll was almost certainly closer to four million or five million: worrisome statistics regardless, but clearly not ones that antisocialists would like.) Finally, the People’s Socialist Republic of Albania, the People’s Republic of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Hungarian People’s Republic, the Polish People’s Republic, the Romanian Socialist Republic, and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, simply never experienced any famines at all.

Evidence elsewhere reconfirms that it is usually (though not always)[577] imperialists rather than socialists who cause food deficiencies. The Republic of Chile experienced resistance from the bourgeoisie, who withheld food in protest of the democratically elected socialist Salvador Allende; they even paid truckers to simply stop labouring.[578] The case[579] is[580] similar[581] in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.[582][583] In Korea, antisocialists intentionally destroyed as much land as they could[584] to impede people’s agricultural efforts. In Malaysia, anticommunists deliberately poisoned socialists’ crops.[585] In the German Democratic Republic,[586] antisocialists deliberately poisoned people’s livestock.[587] Anticommunists consciously initiated famines in the invaded Soviet regions.[588] In Vietnam, antisocialists deliberately targeted people’s cultivated lands and poisoned their crops.[589] In the 1980s, the Western ruling classes imposed sanctions on the Polish People’s Republic,[590] worsening their food situation. In the Socialist Republic of Romania’s case, part of the reason for insufficient food was that the government spent much of its money on paying all of their foreign debts; trying to become independent. The Republic of Cuba[591] and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea[592] experienced food crises in part only after antisocialism destroyed their allies[593] (in the DPRK’s case natural disasters were also major contributors). Rather than donating the food that they waste constantly,[594] antisocialists sought to punish these republics for their lack of ideological conformity, so they obstructed them and their imports. We must not overlook, however, the factors that cannot be blamed on capitalism: the natural and climatic conditions of agriculture of the Soviet Union in particular were both severe and unstable; no other major country faced such serious issues in overcoming the negative influence on agricultural production. For example, agroclimatologists estimated that on average the conditions were 2–2.5 times worse than those in the U.S.A. Generally over sixty percent of the country’s territory was periodically plagued with droughts and other unfavourable weather influences. At the same time that zone normally accounted for approximately seventy‐five per cent of grain deliveries.[595]

Ultimately however, the people’s democracies were not in a perpetual state of famine as antisocialists tiresomely imply.[596] For example, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has their own cuisine[597] like the Soviet Union[598] did; many illustrations of foods exist from the Soviet era,[599] and so do recordings from the People’s Republic of China during the short twentieth century.[600] In the 1930s the Soviets sent large amounts of foodstuffs and other goods to the Spanish Republicans.[601] In May 1945 the Soviets distributed scores of tons of food to the Berlin populace.[602] In 1947 the Soviets also successfully prevented a famine from occurring in Poland.[603] They as well as their allies also prevented one in Czechoslovakia[604] ,[605] and later would do the same for North Korea too.[606] In the 1950s the C.I.A. wrote that, although a planned increase of the area sown to fodder crops was unfulfilled, and their fodder production (still) lagged behind animal husbandry’s increasing demands, the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic’s Sovkhozes considerably increased their sown areas and crop yields during the Fourth Five‐Year Plan; they increased livestock as well.[607]

Concerning the U.S.S.R. and the Indians:

“Soon after Indian independence in 1947, the country was faced with an alarming shortage of food grain. The Indian government urgently requested both USA and USSR to send in food aid. While, the American officials were working on the modalities for food grain aid, working out its terms and conditions, when the Indian request reached Kremlin, USSR, Stalin immediately ordered a food‐grain laden ship that was already on its way to a different destination, to change course and go to India. A top Kremlin official intervened saying that documents are yet to be completed and signed, to which Stalin said ‘Documents can wait, hunger cannot.’[608]” (Indian diplomat, P. Ratnam disclosed the above conversation to a group of journalists at the Indian Embassy in Moscow in 1950. See Mazdoor Bigul archive, December, 2005.)[609]

Unsurprisingly,[610][611] annual grain production in the Kwangtung Province increased.[612] In the 1970s, the People’s Republic of China exported food aid to Cambodians after imperialists devastated their agriculture.[613] By 1976 the average caloric intake of the Soviet population was 3,300.[614] Similarly, a 1983 report discovered that Soviets and U.S. citizens ate about the same amount of food quotidianly, but the Soviet diet may have be more eutrophic; they put the daily caloric intake at 3,280.[615] A lengthier report can be found here.[616] (If the C.I.A. is writing something positive about their enemies, then it was likely never meant for public announcements.) The Republic of Cuba has been a world leader in organic farming[617] for a while now.[618] All Cuban citizens are legally entitled to food;[619] the FAO concluded that the Republic of Cuba’s ‘remarkably low percentages of child malnutrition put [them] at the forefront of developing countries[620] and World Food Program USA has likewise concluded that their ‘comprehensive social protection programs’ have ‘largely eliminated hunger and poverty.[621] The German Democratic Republic had their own foods, such as Spreewald pickles, Mocha Fix, Schnittchen, and Schnitzel, among others. Albanians ate mutton, garlic soup, sea trout, salami, shish qebab, apricots, &c. Quote:

‘[The People’s Socialist Republic of] Albania is among the European countries with least arable land per head of population. Nevertheless, by relying on the cooperativist order, the ever increasing needs of consumption, industry and export for bread grain and other agricultural and livestock products are ever better fulfilled in conformity with the requirements of the socio‐economic development of the country.’[622]

Soviet cooperatives in the 1920s were quite important to the economy; they produced butter, sugar beets, eggs, grain, and other goods for the people; agricultural cooperatives had millions of members.[623] After World War II ended, the Soviet Union had a positive population growth for the remainder of their existence. From 1949 to the late 1960s the consumption of meat, dairy, eggs, fish, sugar, tea, and alcohol all rose in the Polish People’s Republic, the German Democratic Republic, and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.[624] The Republic of Chile’s beef and bread consumption increased by 15% from 1971 to 1972. They also initiated a programme to provide every Chilean child with a half‐litre of milk daily. (See Roger Morris’s Through the Looking Glass in Chile.) In 1973 Chilean socialists went out on the street, loading goods with their bare hands, struggling so that the their towns did not go short on food. Some of the carriers (who supported Salvador Allende) organized convoys to distribute food in the provinces. The population also developed a family supply system that they called ‘the people’s basket’.[625] The People’s Republic of China became food‐sufficient by the late 1970s,[626] and today they are the second least food‐wasting country in existence;[627] they are making good progress in addressing the malnutrition issues that do exist in some rural areas.[628] During the short twentieth century the Nicaraguan socialists initiated a food programme: every Nicaraguan child had a ration of beans and rice so that the entire republic, no matter how poor that it was, was being fed; the Republic of Nicaragua’s staple foods consumption increased 30%. (See Alexander Sukhostat, Nicaragua—Defending the Revolution, Political Affairs, December 1981, pages 28–35; Collins, What Difference Could a Revolution Make?) In both the Polish People’s Republic and the Soviet Union, the states refused to raise bread prices, thus a loaf cost only a few pennies, even less than animal feed (which amusingly encouraged farmers to purchase bread over the feed). Grenada’s New JEWEL Movement distributed free milk and other foodstuffs to the needy; they leased unused land in order to establish farm cooperatives and sought to turn agriculture away from their cash‐crop exports in exchange for self‐sufficient food production instead (as documented by Michael Massing in February of 1984).

A report published by the UNDP indicated a steep increase in the number of calories available for Venezuelans between the late 1990s and 2010.[629] The Food and Agriculture Organization gave the republic a special commendation in 2013 for the socialists’ exemplary work reducing malnourishment. The same organization also noted that the number of undernourished Venezuelans was 2.8 million between 1990 and 1992, rose to 3.8 million between 2000 and 2002, but fell to a statistically insignificant number by 2010 to 2012. They likewise calculated that there were 3,020 calories available per person daily in Venezuela, a figure much larger than the 1,800 per person daily that it recommends as a minimum and far larger than the one of under 1,800 available in 1999.[630] (This achievement is admittedly due in some part to their sale of oil,[631] but it is a fine example of rational distribution nonetheless.) Venezuelan communes are expanding small‐scale urban agriculture[632] to help with their homeland’s current food situation,[633] and 70% of the food consumed in Venezuelan houses today is a product of small‐scale family agriculture.[634] Families in Caracas collectively purchase tons of produce directly from a cooperative in Lara state five hours away, because if they had to buy these items in the market or in the street they would be almost impossible to afford.[635] Havana has a good number of food providers,[636] and many of them have their organic urban agriculture to thank for that.[637] In 1947 the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea’s grain output was one hundred and seventy thousand tons larger than yesteryear and agricultural production continued to increase until, at the time of the Korean War’s outbreak, basic self‐sufficiency in food had become possible.[638] They reachieved self‐sufficiency in food by the 1960s,[639] and recent U.N. statistics (pgs. 79–102) note that the DPRK vastly outperforms the Republic of Korea’s production of corn, wheat, soybeans, potatoes, apples, cotton, and hemp.[640] Unsurprisingly,[641] they have been reducing malnourishment consistently this century.[642]

Concerning the Ukrainian Free Territory (written from an anarchocommunist perspective):

‘By late 1917, in the area around Hulyai Pole ‘the toiling masses proceeded […] to consolidate their revolution. The little factories functioned […] under the control of the workers. The estates were split up […] among the peasants […] a certain number of agricultural communes were formed.’ […] agricultural communes ‘were in most cases organised by peasants, though sometimes their composition was a mixture of peasants and work[ers]. Their organisation was based on equality and solidarity of the members. All members of these communes — both men and women — applied themselves willingly to their tasks, whether in the field or the household.’ […] [P]eople were given the personal space [that] they desired, so ‘any members of the commune who wanted to cook separately for themselves and their children, or to take food from the communal kitchens and eat it in their own quarters, met with no objection from the other members.’ The management of each commune ‘was conducted by a general meeting of all its members.’’[643]

Concerning the Spanish revolution of the 1930s:

‘Many of these peasants, together with the C.N.T., organised collectives, pooling their land, animals, tools, chickens, grain, fertiliser, and even their harvested crops. […] In Montblanc the collective dug up the old useless vines and planted new vineyards. The land, improved by modern cultivation with tractors, yielded much bigger and better crops. […] In many places I observed plants growing in the shade of the orange trees. ‘What is this?,’ I asked. I learned that the Levant peasants (famous for their ingenuity) have abundantly planted potatoes among the orange groves. The peasants demonstrate more intelligence than all the bureaucrats in the Ministry of Agriculture combined. They do more than just plant potatoes. Throughout the whole region of the Levant, wherever the soil is suitable, they grow crops. They take advantage of the four month fallow period in the rice fields. Had the Minister of Agriculture followed the example of these peasants throughout the Republican zone, the bread shortage problem would have been overcome in a few months.’[644] (These rural collectives also supplied food to front‐line troops!)

Emma Goldman adds:

‘I learned that they work eight hours a day, that the richness of the soil had been increased; that before the 19th the crops realized 400,000 pesetas; now they exceeded a million. The entire agricultural production of 1937 consisted of the following: 300 loads of melons; 2 50,000 kilos. of potatoes; 1 28,000 kilos. of barley; 175,000 kilos. of wheat; part of it had been sent to the Centre Federation of Peasants in Madrid, part to the front and the surplus for the needs of the collective. Of the crop in 1936, 125,000 pesetas worth of produce was contributed free of charge to the needs of Madrid. The comrade also spoke of the increase in livestock and in the quality of it. Among others, one of the members from Ganiz, a peasant who formerly tilled his own bit of ground, had contributed 8 milking cows of the finest quality. The collective also has built its own bakery, rabbit hutches and chicken coops.’[645]

Paraphrasing Michael Parenti, Inventing Reality had this to say about the U.S.S.R. of the early 1980s:

‘The corporate media has made U.S. grain exports to the Soviet Union the most highly publicized international sales agreement in history. Western Europe annually imports far more grain than does the U.S.S.R., but of course no one in the corporate media or the government accuses West Germany or Benilux countries of being unable to feed their own populace. In contrast, every Soviet grain deal with the United States is front page news, a [tiresome] reminder to the Yankee public of the allegedly superior productivity of Yankee agribusiness & the ‘failure’ of collectivism. The truth is something else.

Today the Soviets produce more than enough grain to feed theirselves. They import foreign grain to help feed their livestock & thereby increase their meat & dairy consumption.[646] (This is seen in both the East & West as an ‘improved’ diet, even though there is evidence suggesting that a high meat & dairy intake is not necessarily the best diet.) It takes between seven & fourteen pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. And that is the cause of the Soviet ‘grain shortage.’ In actuality, per capita meat consumption in the U.S.S.R. has doubled in the last two decades & exceeds such nations as Norway, Italy, Greece, Spain,[647] Japan, & Israel. Milk production has jumped almost sixty percent in two decades so that today the U.S.S.R. is by far the largest milk‐producing country in the world. According to the 1982 C.I.A. report on the Soviet economy, ‘The

Soviet Union remains basically self‐sufficient with respect to food.’[648] These are the accomplishments of an agrarian labour force that decreased from 42% in 1960 to 20% in 1980, working in a country where over 90% of the land is either too arid or too frigid for farming.’ (Source.)[649]

A detailed Western report from 1985 concerning agricultural output.[650] Pages 100–106 deal specifically with the agriculture in the Eastern Bloc. Quote:

‘In the past two decades gains in crop and livestock production and meat consumption have been impressive. […] The Eastern Bloc accounts for a significant share of world production of wheat, rye, barley, oats, potatoes, sunflowerseed, and sugar beets. The U.S.S.R. is the world’s largest producer of potatoes, barley, rye, oats, sunflowerseed and sugar beets. It is second in wheat production and roughly equal with the United States in second place in cotton production.’

Data from the World Health Organization as of 2017 indicate that the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the People’s Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam all have a malnutrition rate of less than 2.00.[651] This was also true in 2016.[652] Similarly, as of 2018[653] the Global Hunger Index has rated the Republic of Cuba and the People’s Republic of China as ‘low’ on their index, and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, the Republic of Nicaragua, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam scored ‘moderate’. (Admittedly, they did confusingly score the DPRK as ‘serious’, but the reasons for this are probably complicated…)[654]

Concerning the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea as of 2017:

‘International sanctions on the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea appear to be biting their civilian economy more than in the past, arousing concerns that the country’s historically precarious food supply, which has also been adversely affected by dry weather this spring, is jeopardised. However, the context matters. Food production in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has grown remarkably over the past few years; even if food production declines a bit, it may not be disastrous. Moreover, estimates by U.N. agencies, which are generally regarded as authoritative, tend to overstate how much food distribution by the state really matters. Although the evidence is far from conclusive, current market prices do not indicate that a food crisis or emergency is presently at hand.[655]

So were there food deficiencies or empty shelves in the Eastern Bloc & alibi? There were empty shelves there and then, yes, but that does not necessarily mean that the citizens were all famished; refrigerators were often well stocked even if the stores theirselves were not.[656] The Soviet breadlines came from their system of food distribution: basically all food was freshly made and trucked out to the stores every morning, therefore every morning people would queue up at the stores to wait for those trucks to arrive, often with the youths doing this for their families. The lines cleared in approximately one hour (two on busy days) and since at least the late 1940s everyone got their share sooner or later. Hunger had not been, and was not in later decades, a part of the Soviet scene. As Dr. Kenneth Gray, the White House’s top expert on Soviet agriculture, said in his testimony to the Joint Economic Committee of Congress ‘…the food shortages in the USSR are occurring at fairly respectable levels of consumption.[657] The causes for empty shelves furthermore are fairly complex and cannot simply be reduced to a lack of capitalism. For example, many managers made the seemingly logical but ultimately erroneously assumption that productive labourers ought to be given grander workloads while relatively unproductive labourers should receive lighter workloads, unintentionally encouraging many to work lightly. Another instance is the Polish People’s Republic during the 1970s, where the prices of food were artificially reduced to low prices, partially in commitment to egalitarian principles but also by worker demand. Both consumption and production rose, but in disequilibrium. The Polish People’s Republic’s main exports were food[658] and coal, but later the balance turned negative; cash stopped flowing in, the debt became overwhelming, the Polish People’s Republic’s economy was obliged to export even more for payments, and then food deficiencies and rationing occurred. A black market and extra civil unrest naturally followed, though neither helped with the problem.[659] In the end though, these territories were not constantly suffering severe levels of malnutrition. (One has to wonder how the citizens maintained their high lifespans and average physiques as they waited in long queues only to presumably receive absolutely nothing.)

Socialism has not and never will work

The response depends on whom you ask, as many of us define socialism differently,[660] but we’ll touch on each argument.

Firstly, some socialists insist that socialism must, by definition, abolish the law of value[661] (‘the mutual exchangeability of products of equal social labour’),[662] abolish (generalised) commodity[663] production, and extinguish capital[664] (in other words, negate capitalism); arguably many of the communes, republics, and other projects fall short of those qualifications, making them merely presocialist. There are furthermore some who insist that it be a global phenomenon like capitalism is today,[665] a criterion under which they’d all certainly fall short. But world socialism is possible[666] because[667] the dominant economic model has been replaced numerous times: for a while it was chattel slavery, and then it was feudalism, something which has actually persisted longer than capitalism has. While it is difficult to accurately predict when we have all finally had enough of capitalism, the fact of the matter is that society does mutate, both on small scales and sometimes on large ones. Other sceptics insist that capitalism is eternal due to our ‘biology’, in which case, see objection three again. There are furthermore arguments that planned economics would be far too cumbersome for individuals or collectives to handle, but it is highly disputable that such blissfully unaware arguments would apply at all[668] (more information);[669] they furthermore ignore the immense use that modern technology already offers to a planning process.[670] It has more‐or‐less already been tested in a people’s republic but with primitive computers, e.g.:

‘What Soviet economic planners resorted to was running smaller spreadsheets. They handled only a few thousand key products and ran these through their mainframe computers as linear programmes: for these the equations [could] be solved. This explains one of the strengths of the Soviet economy: it did well on certain key projects like the space programme which can be given priority in the planning process, but there [was] just not the computer power available to apply the same techniques more widely.’

Secondly, a more relaxed definition of socialism[671] is that it can exist on a smaller scale, in which case, there are plenty of examples: from Burkina Faso[672] to Grenada[673] to Revolutionary Catalonia[674] to the Paris Commune[675] to the Hungarian Commune[676] to Seychelles to FEJUVE[677] [678] to the Shinmin Prefecture[679] to the Neozapatistas[680] and their Autonomous Municipalities[681] to the Socialist[682] Federal Republic of Yugoslavia[683] to the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria[684] or to Free Territory.[685] The brief lifespans of many of these is not, as antisocialists typically imply, purely the result of internal collapse, but[686] from capitalist corruption.[687] In addition, worker cooperatives, while not necessarily threatening to capital, have nevertheless been demonstrated[688] as being not only viable but also superior to the standard business model in many ways.[689] [690] [691] ,[692] ^[4][693]

The Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria[694]—even in spite of the embargoes and other nuisances that neoimperialists have imposed on them, and their (limited) tolerance for privatization and Yankee assistance—has massively increased gender equality, ethnic equality, healthcare access, education access, autonomy, political democracy,[695] harnessed the local resources largely for use rather than profit,[696] and more.[697] They have greatly improved and modernized their region in many ways.[698] They have the support of state socialists both at home[699] and from the Turkish Communist Party.

Grenada’s New JEWEL Movement[700] made grade school and secondary education gratis for all, a first in the territory’s history. They also distributed materials for home improvement to the needy, saw unemployment dropped dramatically from 49% to 14% in three years, took measures in support of equal pay and equal legal status for women, and saw cultural and sports programmes set up for youths, all of this in addition to the healthcare and food mentioned earlier. (See Michael Massing’s Grenada Before and After written in Atlantic Monthly, February 1984.)

Spain improved dramatically from the socialist revolution of the 1930s.[701] The benefits are numerous: labourers in both agricultural and industrial sectors continued production effectively and devoid of any hierarchy involved; working conditions and output were both improved; healthcare became gratis; education was increased; gender equality started to flourish in part thanks to Mujeres Libres; and living standards in general improved, all done in spite of the anticommunist aggression.[702] Catalonia’s anarchist movement created not only a defence industry from almost nothing, but also improved working conditions and innovated with new techniques and processes. They demonstrated that self‐management is possible, that it allows a massive increase in innovation and new ideas, and that the constructive powers of people inspired by an ideal can transform society.[703] In Barcelona for example, the labourers ran the trains, cinemas, factories, department stores, and even greyhound tracks. The trades unions managed food supplies; union lorries drove out to the villages with goods to trade for food. Barter (rather than purchasing) sustained the region for the first weeks of the Civil War. In some cases money successfully fell into disuse; people could do shopping with vouchers that local committees issued.[704] (Decentral planners operated in some areas where influence of the CNT and UGT was most extensive, particularly the rural regions.)

The Indian state Kerala, where the actions of popular organizations and mass movements have gained important victories over the last four or so decades against political and economic oppression, has generated a level of social development better than that found in most of the other superexploited (‘third world’) countries and accomplished without any external investments. As of the 1990s the literacy there is widespread, the birth and death rates are lower than those in the rest of India, the public health services are superior, the under‐age labourers are fewer, the nutritional levels are higher with thanks to a publicly subsidized food rationing programme, women have more enlightened legal support and educational programmes, and finally some social security protections for the proletariat and for the destitute and physically disabled. The Kerala proletariat radically altered a complex and exploitative economy of agrarian relations and gained important victories against the more horrid forms of caste oppression; they have had some success with their decentral planning (and some difficulties, but it is doubtful that these were structural).[705] All of this was accomplished in spite of low income, low resources, some persistent poverty, and no special sources of wealth; it is with thanks to socialist organization and political struggle that has affected large numbers of citizens that the state’s democracy was electrified. [706] [707] Also in India are the Naxalites, a movement that has distributed land to the poor, defeated the exploitations of indigenous, sexual, and rural labor, issued fairer wages, improved local healthcare, prevented the antisocialists’ forced eviction and seizure of natural resources, and more.[708]

The Neozapatistas, in addition to their new and improved healthcare and education, have constructed an economic infrastructure designed to address the high level of poverty in their communities. This autonomous economy offers a grassroots alternative to global capitalism. Economic cooperatives generate resources that are invested back into the community. Cooperative stores provide merchandise for community members at reasonable prices while also generating income. Money raised by the cooperatives is used to cover shared expenses, for example when the community’s representatives travel to a regional meeting. The EZLN has also greatly improved hygiene and sanitation infrastructure in the territory under their control, and have even managed to (almost) eliminate alcohol consumption in their communities, which has had a massively positive impact on public health. Another important advance that the EZLN made is the improvement in gender relations in their communities and have taken an active approach to fighting neopatriarchy. In 2018 for example, they organized an event entirely by, and for, women.[709] While it would be an exaggeration to classify either them or their social existence as anarchist, their relatively decentralized or libertarian model has nevertheless been an important inspiration to anarchists and other socialists.

Parenti’s To Kill a Nation indicates that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia[710] had one of the most vigorous growth rates between 1960 and 1980, along with medical care and education gratis, a guaranteed right to an income, mensual vacations with pay, a literacy rate of over 90%, a life expectancy of 7.2 decades, in addition to its inexpensive public transport, housing, and utilities—in a mostly publicly owned, semiplanned economy—for its multiethnic citizenry.[711] As late as 1990, better than 60% of the total labour force was in the public sector, much of it self‐managed. Croats, Serbs, and others lived together in relative contentment, experiencing quotidian friendships throughout the regions before May 1991.[712]

Finally, there are places such as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics[713] and the People’s Republic of China,[714] repetitively referenced as ‘failures of socialism’. The reality,[715] is that[716] even these homelands were still vast improvements compared to the previous states of[717] affairs:[718] the People’s Republic of China[719] achieved[720] briefer working hours[721] (especially compared to the ’00s),[722] higher literacy rates,[723] more accessible medicine, lower mortality rates[724] (in fact better healthcare than that in the U.S.),[725] higher and better life expectancies,[726] their own advances in space flight,[727] democratic communes,[728] strong laws against poor working conditions,[729] wages increasing when productivity rises[730] (in fact wages steadily increasing by 12% yearly from 2001 to now),[731] a significant rate at which they arrest shifty businessmen,[732] and a[733] greater population[734] (so much so that experts Amartya Sen and Jean Drèze[735] have postdicted that India would have benefited far more from adopting the P.R.C.’s route).[736] The Unknown Cultural Revolution,[737] written by somebody who lived in the People’s Republic of China at the time, goes into detail about the positive effects of education reform, agricultural and industrial progress, and political empowerment brought by the Cultural Revolution (especially in rural areas). Much of the same is true for the Soviet Union[738] (which even antisocialists[739] have acknowledged as a superpower), and there were other accomplishments:[740] the numerous achievements in the space race (which influenced U.S. science,[741] to the point where some U.S. rockets still use Soviet‐era engines)[742] including the first, albeit unmanned, mission to the moon,[743] the world’s first direct‐to‐home television service,[744] the first and so far only Pole in space (that being Mirosław Hermaszewski),[745] the first modern mobile telephone[746] (that being LK‐1; previous mobiles were usually restricted to vehicles and occasionally some suitcases), rapid industrialization thanks to their prioritization of use‐value[747] (an important socialist principle), an elaborate system of underground transit, the world’s first facility acting as a blood bank,[748] the Bezostaia crop,[749] the prototypes of the domesticated foxes,[750] a very efficient cane‐harvesting combine,[751] the Tupolev Tu‐114[752] (a rarity, but it was the fastest ever record speed[753] for a propeller‐driven aircraft[754] of any type even to this day), the tokamak reactor (which may be the key to harnessing nuclear fusion for energy),[755] a distributed decision support system (made with some British assistance) to aid in a national economy’s management[756] (lessening the potential damage caused by forty thousand truckers[757] whom antisocialists bribed into striking) established in only four months,[758] the first proposal anywhere in the world to create a national computer network for civilians, that being the OGAS[759] (which was naïvely unfunded, but at least it demonstrates the Soviets’ technological capability), other inventions,[760] the highest number of doctors[761] per capita in the world (in fact the world’s highest physician‐patient ratio),[762] and all historians concur that nobody but the Soviet Union deserves most of the credit for ending the Third Reich.[763] Soviet Colonel Georgi Mosolov helped break the record for the world’s fastest aircraft twice, first during 1959 as the Ye‐6/3 (see MiG, pgs. 274–275) and again during 1962 as the Ye‐166 (ibid., pgs. 298–300, or Jane’s All The World’s Aircraft 1965–66, p. 346), respectively. Fritz Todt (in an exchange with an anti‐Soviet hack) said that there was even an anticommunist Chancellor who noted in November 1941 ‘How is it possible that such a primitive people can reach such technical objectives in such a short period of time?’ This is evidenced almost a year later with the said anticommunist’s admission that ‘With respect to Russia, it is incontestable that Stalin raised the standard of living. The Russian people don’t go hungry [at the moment when Operation Barbarossa was launched]. In general, it’s necessary to recognize that they have built factories of similar importance to Hermann Goering Reichswerke where two years ago nothing but unknown villages existed. We come across railway lines that aren’t on the maps.[764]

The Soviets provided housing, education, and healthcare as basic rights:[765] Healthcare,[766] shelter, transport,[767] water, education,[768][769] and many foods were either very cheap or decommodified.[770] Education improved.[771] Economic equality, while imperfect, was still much better,[772] including for single mothers.[773] Unemployment decreased severely and economic growth continued for seven decades[774] (statistically unemployment is often put at 0%, but this is likely a slight exaggeration reliant on the Soviets’ definition). They recognised overtime as a potential threat to the health of workers and permitted it only under special circumstances and on agreement with the trades union.[775] The populaces in general were happier. During the Great Depression, many people consciously sought refuge in the U.S.S.R. (at least for a while!).[776] Comparing any planned economy to the United States would indeed make the market seem much more efficient (especially by means of Eurocentric methods like the GDP[777] or the HDI[778]). But when adjusting for material circumstances, trying to compare the United States, one of the most prosperous nations in modern history with an immense amount of access to global markets and a variety of neocolonies to superexploit, and Russia, a land that just escaped feudalism and preindustrialization only by the 1920s and suffered countless sanctions throughout the short twentieth century,[779] is almost meaningless. Many studies that adjust for material conditions have demonstrated that planned economies have historically performed better in growing a society: the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was fit and incentivized to cater to the needs and wants of its people without markets.[780]

Contrary to popular belief, dissent was not overwhelmingly restricted,[781] not even during the 1930s[782] and 1940s.[783] Professor Robert W. Thurston discovered that ‘Stalin, the press, and the Stakhanovite movement all regularly encouraged ordinary people to criticize those in authority.’ He pointed out that many arrests in the 1930s were actually late punishments for genuine offenses such as serving in the White Army. He asks us, ‘If the citizenry was supposed to be terrorized and stop thinking, why encourage criticism and input from below on a large scale?’ and concluded that ‘my evidence suggests that widespread fear did not exist in the case at hand [the Soviet ‘Great Terror’ period]’.[784] Soviet trades unions were allowed to criticize and participate in state policies;[785] Soviet workers could openly criticize management, the result of which often ended in favour of the critic.[786] [787] To quote Anglo scholar David Granick:

‘One factory director […] implied that production meetings were a real ordeal for him. But at a question as to whether workers dared to criticize openly, he said, “any director who suppressed criticism would be severely punished. he would not only be removed, he would be tried.”’[788]

The Soviet trades unions theirselves were incredibly empowered since at least the 1950s; they held management accountable if they broke collective agreements or created unsafe working conditions. The Soviet trades unions also issued welfare benefits, operated recreational facilities, took care of vacation subsidies, oversaw the construction of houses and factories, highly subsidized other leisure industries, and so on. They were in collaboration with the state, but not wholly dependent on them; Soviet trades unions were famously able to get doctors to work illegal hours without prosecution even before the 1950s.[789] The Soviet Union’s planning system was both rational and participatory: it had the consultation of workers at every level of planning, with Trade Union leaders being consulted at the top, elected delegates in the middle, all the way down to the workstead or collective farm.[790] Earlier they organized large scale participation in eliminating illiteracy.[791] Factory directors were unable to take surplus; they had a fixed wage, comparable to that of a teacher.[792] Similarly, the People’s Republic of China has tolerance and support for nearly all strikers;[793] state‐socialist publications typically cite the impressively large number of protests as a victory for communism, demonstrating how laborers in the P.R.C. feel more comfortable to demand their rights than those in the U.S.A. or other neoliberal states.[794] The Chinese Communist Party typically take the workers’ side in most demonstrations[795] (even when workers terrorize management, potentially causing less investment in the P.R.C.).[796] If the All‐China Federation of Trade Unions fails to represent workers in a particular region, the P.R.C. allows workers to build a grassroots unofficial one to put pressure on the national union.[797]

Poverty decreased massively.[798] In the 1950s the Soviets expanded their economy at the rate of six to seven percent yearly (whereas the U.S.’s slowed to 2.7% yearly). Dulles, the director of the C.I.A., declared ‘that rapid Soviet economic progress posed the most serious peacetime challenge [that] the United States had ever faced.[799] In research published after the twentieth century, Elizabeth Brainerd used archival and anthropometric data to provide a detailed analysis of living standards in the U.S.S.R., admitting that for all their faults the Soviets achieved ‘Remarkably large and rapid improvements in child height, adult stature and infant mortality’ and ‘significant improvements likely occurred in the nutrition, sanitary practices, and public health infrastructure.’ She also states that ‘the physical growth record of the Soviet population compares favorably with that of other European countries at a similar level of development in this period.’ And finally, ‘The conventional measures of GNP growth and household consumption indicate a long, uninterrupted upward climb in the Soviet standard of living from 1928 to 1985; even Western estimates of these measures support this view, albeit at a slower rate of growth than the Soviet measures.[800]

In 1920, when the first plan of electrification was drawn up, there were ten district power stations in the Soviet Union with a total power production of 253,000 kilowatts. In 1935, there were already ninety‐five of these stations with a total power of 4,345,000 kilowatts. A decade earlier, the Soviet Union stood eleventh in the production of electro‐energy; she was second only to Germany and the United States.[801] During the fiscal year 1927–1928 production of electrical energy in the Soviet Union amounted to 3,000,000,000 kilowatt hours, triple the antebellum figure.[802] (Lenin hisself noted that ‘Communism = Soviet power + electrification.’)[803] The Soviets prioritised nuclear power (which strained the environment less than conventional power).[804] In their key goal of electricity the Soviets were already doing better by 1990 than the leading European capitalist nations a quarter century later.[805]

On December 22, 1982, both the Supreme Soviet and the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party unanimously approved a nuclear arms freeze resolution[806] (almost identical to the version that had been passed by numerous municipalities and states throughout the United States). They also (unsuccessfully) plead to the U.S.A. for a prohibition on nuclear testing,[807] and for damn good reason too.[808] The Soviets did not ‘cheat’ on their nuclear weapons testing agreements (as some antisocialists have claimed),[809] and they still had less of a military arms buildup than the U.S.A.,[810] which antisocialists theirselves reconfirmed in the twenty‐first century.[811]

Howard M. Leichter noted that the quality of Russian medical care had improved substantially during the short twentieth century;[812] at the Cold War’s height the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics had a lower general mortality rate than Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States.[813] Professor Vicente Navarro agreed, concluding that ‘socialism and socialist forces have been, for the most part, better able to improve health conditions than have capitalism and capitalist forces’ and that ‘the evidence presented in this article shows that the historical experience of socialism has not been one of failure. To the contrary: it has been, for the most part, more successful than capitalism in improving the health conditions of the world’s populations.[814] Anthropometric data indicate that for decades Soviet life expectancy grew faster than any other homeland recorded at the time.[815] By the 1970s Soviet life expectancy was higher than that of Finland, Portugal, South America, and even Eastern Europe (and only marginally lower than that in Britain, Japan, and W. Germany). In the German Democratic Republic it was likewise higher than that in Austria, Australia, Belgium, the British Empire, Canada, Italy, Switzerland, and W. Germany.[816] As in the DPRK,[817] abortions were freely permitted (with a few exceptions: the R.S.F.S.R. from 1936–1955, the P. Soc. Rep. of Albania, the Soc. Rep. of Romania, and the Rep. of Nicaragua); in fact the R.S.F.S.R. was the first country to fully deregulate the procedure.[818] Lobotomy was prohibited as early as 1950 in the Soviet Union.[819] Soviet physicians vaccinated millions of people (against cholera) in the early 1920s alone; they likewise made improvements in public services such as waterworks and sanitation. They not only vaccinated their citizens but also fed them, educated them about hygiene, and maintained the (prerevolutionary) administrative structure and system of emergency response.[820] Since 1955, the Soviets used a lyophilized rabies vaccine extensively; Likhachev developed the vaccine.[821] They vaccinated millions of people against measles in the 1970s.[822] Antirabies aid was fully decentralized and inoculation against rabies was carried out by a wide network of institutions for prevention and treatment.[823] Soviet scientist Mikhail Chumakov organized the first industrial production and mass use of oral poliovirus vaccine from Dr. Albert Sabin’s strains. [824] [825] After successful clinical trials conducted in the Soviet Union that left polio virtually wiped out with no safety issues, it soon became the vaccine of choice in the West.[826] In 1958 the Soviet Union proposed to the World Health Assembly that the World Health Organization undertake a global eradication programme of smallpox,[827] which was approved in 1959. Within a decade a number of countries embarked on mass vaccination campaigns, and the People’s Republic of China (among several other countries) successfully eliminated the disease.[828] The Soviets likewise gladly participated in the eradication of smallpox,[829] including in the Aral.[830] The Scientific Research Institute of Oncology and Medical Radiology of the Ministry of Health of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic pioneered the operation involving the transplantation of the left adrenal with the right adrenalectomy in people with advanced breast carcinoma. They demonstrated that objective remission in 70% of patients.[831] The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has immunized theirselves from diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis.[832] During the short twentieth century (and since at least the 1970s), the People’s Republic of China prioritised not profit but the working masses’ welfare.[833]

A Difficult Road: The Transition to Socialism in Mozambique indicates that the People’s Republic of Mozambique enjoyed higher literacy rates, mass vaccinations, a more democratic education, agricultural advancements, a (much) less hierarchal administration, and more. The Republic of Cuba,[834] which benefited in many ways from the revolution[835] (including great education,[836] a solid democracy,[837] higher lifespans, lower infant mortality, less poverty,[838] full electrification,[839] a body of elected delegates who direct the economy away from the established framework and into one that successfully allows for workers’ self‐management[840] [841] and more (see Huberman & Sweezy’s Socialism in Cuba), all despite[842] suffering decades of antisocialist aggression),[843] is famous for its number of medical professionals, causing some people to return there[844] or seek their medical training there.[845] In 2006 the International Journal of Epidemiology stated that the Republic of ‘Cuba represents an important alternative example where modest infrastructure investments combined with a well-developed public health strategy have generated health status measures comparable with those of industrialized countries.[846] (Some have speculated that Cuban physicians are simply given ‘health outcome targets’ to meet or face penalties, encouraging them to manipulate their data, but we have yet to see documented evidence for this.) Unsurprisingly, their scientists were the first to introduce a vaccine for lung cancer,[847] an anti‐AIDS contagion pill,[848] and they designed new[849] hepatitis B vaccines;[850] Time reported that the Republic of Cuba has eliminated the transmission of HIV through pregnancies,[851] making them the world’s first country to do so,[852] and since 2019 they have been distributing PrEP gratis to those who need it,[853] reducing the chance of HIV infection by as much as 90%.[854] (Even the antisocialist Bloomberg placed the Republic of Cuba’s healthcare above the U.S.’s,[855] and the antisocialist New York Times has confirmed that U.S. students do travel there to seek medical training.)[856] Both they and the People’s Republic of China have distributed 933 tons of medicine to the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.[857] In a rare move, some Western antisocialists established a programme in the 1960s to provide economic growth, employment, agrarian reform, education, housing, healthcare, more equitable distributions of national income, and other benefits to the people of Central and South America in order to discourage their interest in communism. But in 1970, researchers Jerome Levinson and Juan de Onis[858] discovered that the Republic of Cuba actually came closer to these goals than most of the programme’s members.[859] UNICEF statistics indicate that the Republic of Cuba achieved higher rates of literacy, life expectancy, and prenatal care than the United States did.[860] So did[861] the[862] World Bank’s.[863] Bolivian permanent revolutionaries have supported and positively influenced the local miners, landless peasants, and strikers,[864] and today the Plurinational State of Bolivia has increased workers’ rights, social welfare, public pensions, minimum wages, and more. They have also reduced poverty, deprivation, child mortality, illiteracy, gender inequality, and related burdens.[865] The Republic of Nicaragua’s socialist movement did the same.[866]

The People’s Socialist[867] Republic[868] of[869] Albania[870] increased literacy, electricity, gender equality, employment, healthcare access,[871] abolished taxation,[872] and supported Indonesian socialists. The People’s Republic of Bulgaria likewise severely reduced poverty, illiteracy, unhealthiness, unemployment, inflation, homelessness, slums, and backwardness generally.[873] Even the social democrat Kristen Ghodsee admitted that the People’s Republic of Bulgaria brought people accessible healthcare, education, more employment, literacy, housing, gender equality, and technological modernization. (She also concedes that many of “communism’s victims” were specifically oppressors.)[874] By the 1980s the Hungarian People’s Republic had achieved a very high standard of living compared to the prerevolutionary era.[875] The Socialist Republic of Romania,[876] in spite of their tolerance for neoimperialism and prioritization of Western debts (which they eventually paid off,[877] possibly making them the first country in history to pay off its external debt entirely), transitioned from a monarchofascist state to a people’s republic, which strongly improved healthcare, eradicated illiteracy, and employed more educators.[878] (A liberal and less flattering analysis is available,[879] if one insists on that.) The People’s Republic of China abolished serfdom in Tibet, the many crushing taxes, the compulsory religious observance, in addition to severely reducing the unemployment, beggary, and hierarchy, while constructing new projects such as secular schools, running water and electrical systems[880] in the region.

Ethiopian socialists emancipated serfs after defeating an anticommunist monarch in the 1970s. They dug wells, purchased machinery for the people, constructed schools and health clinics, provided women and others with the means of self‐defence, formed massive peasant organizations that assumed the tasks of dividing the land, constructed dams and irrigation ditches, distributed both fertilizer and improved seeds, established marketing cooperatives, and rose farm production by 10%. Due to the National Work Campaign for Development Through Cooperation, some 4,377,900 functional literacy books were published in various regions; over two hundred medical clinics were established; peasants were taught the elementary rules of hygiene, diet and child care; mass vaccinations were carried out against tuberculosis and small pox; and nearly half a million cattle were inoculated against animal disease. (See The Ethiopian Revolution and the Struggle against U.S. Imperialism.) They also implemented a programme to preserve Ethiopia’s biodiversity in response to a famine that they suffered in the mid‐1980s.[881] The German Democratic Republic compared better to West Germany in many respects.[882] The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia taxed the interest earned on foreign currency accounts, a policy which was popular amongst the lower‐class Yugoslavs. This republic was also the only remaining multiethnic society among the various former Yugoslav territories; the only spot where Albanians, Croats, Egyptians, Gorani, Hungarians, Jews, Roma, Serbs, and numerous other ethnicities could live together with some measure of security and tolerance.[883] In the 2010s the Syrian Arab Republic initiated benefits for the proletariat such as a salary increase for public workers; greater freedom for the press and political parties; a reconsideration of the emergency rule; security against sickness, disability and old age; access to health care; and free education at all levels, among other features.[884] The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has benefited greatly from its socialist movement;[885] their[886] communes have been and continue to be very successful[887] for example (see Building the Commune: Radical Democracy in Venezuela),[888] and over 1,500 international observers evaluated their elections as fair.[889] The list goes on. Even the number of famines was decreasing; the Uk.S.S.R.’s one from the early 1930s was Ukraine’s last famine, and it, like the Chinese famine, was stopped with no thanks to the capitalists. The disasters were not intentional as anticommunists tiresomely insist and never substantiate; Máo,[890] Stalin,[891] and others were not in denial that they made mistakes.

Some antisocialists assert that a socialist economy would be just as pollutive—if not worse—than a capitalist one. Indeed, pollution and irresponsible use of the environment were very significant issues in the late U.S.S.R.; for example, a series of dry years in the 1970s (particularly 1974–1975) and low flows between 1982 and 1986 contributed to the Aral Sea’s desiccation, but overconsumption of the water for irrigation was another factor. The discontinuation of many Soviet industries has lead to a temporary reduction in CO₂ emissions.[892] Is the Red Flag Flying? also mentions internal disputes over other environmental issues in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.[893] But such difficulties can sometimes be traced back to the immense pressure to compete and defend against capitalist aggression; they are by no means structural to socialist theory.[894] For example, as early as 1845 Marx would recognise the damage that capitalist industry was causing the earth’s rivers,[895] and later Vladimir Lenin would inspire many ecosocialists in the U.S.S.R.[896] Song of the Forest[897] documents how the Soviet environment was treated during Stalin’s lifetime, and mentions specifically the Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature[898] that he spearheaded. Starting in the 1960s, the Soviets proposed a large‐scale project to redirect part of the flow of the Ob basin’s rivers to Central Asia over a gigantic canal system; replenishing the Aral Sea was considered as one of the project’s main goals.[899] (It was only due to its staggering costs and the negative public opinion in the R.S.F.S.R. that the federal authorities unfortunately relinquished the project by 1986. It may also be worth noting that, curiously, the worst effects of the sea’s desiccation manifested after the short twentieth century:[900] when a market economy was well in place.) Socialists have also massively benefited the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria’s environment[901] in many ways,[902] and the Republic of ‘Cuba’s successful models of sustainable development — in areas of food, housing and health — are now being widely replicated throughout Latin America.[903] Over 73% of the DPRK’s electricity comes from clean sources[904] and the Republic of Cuba is slowly catching up with them.[905] (In contrast, only about 2% of South Korea’s energy comes from renewable sources.)[906] Reuters did a report (in their typical, obnoxious antisocialist fashion) on solar panels in the DPRK.[907] P.R.C. officials have planted scores of thousands of trees in response to climate change.[908] A modern planned economy[909] would strain the earth’s climate far less than another market economy.[910]

Soon after the evacuation of Pripyat in 1986 the Soviets extended the exclusion zone to 30 km radius from the site. It is estimated that they evacuated some 116,000 inhabitants from this zone. In later years they extended the evacuations to the Belarusan and Ukrainian regions that suffered the highest amount of radioactive fallout. As the region was abandoned it also became vulnerable to forest fires, which could have lead to dispersion of radioactive materials, so the Soviets extended the cleanup operation to cover the entire exclusion zone in order to prevent this. They carried out the operation in 1986–1990 and the total number of workers involved is estimated to have been around 600,000 (about half of whom were soldiers). The Soviets also imposed radiation dose limits and made an effort to follow them: in 1987 they set the annual dose limit for civilian workers to 250 mSv, which in later years they first lowered to 100 mSv and then to 50 mSv. They subjected military personnel to a higher wartime limit of 500 mSv for the first month but later they matched the limit with that of the civilian workers. (For comparison, the current Western safety limits for radiation workers are usually based on 100 mSv accumulated dose over a period of five years but somebody can temporarily raise the limits for emergency operations.)[911]

The Republic of Cuba also has the best response system in the Caribbean,[912] with less than a hundred deaths in the past decade or so. They have successfully evacuated up to 1.5 million people and weathered the most catastrophic hurricanes to date.[913]Each residential block has somebody assigned to take a census on who is being evacuated to which shelter, with special attention paid to the elderly and pregnant people, and as efforts are organized locally, compliance is increased.’ A big part of the Cuban resilience to hurricanes and similar extreme weather (compared to other Caribbean nations) is also that they have not cut down all their forests; it is a conscious decision to keep forests up as that keeps the force of winds down. (Comparatively: other islands get devastated as they have done more deforestation.) The Global Footprint Network has likewise evaluated the Republic of Cuba as being ecologically sustainable (in contrast to the U.S.A.),[914] in fact the Republic of Cuba is the only country in the world that meets WWF conditions of sustainable development, for both the Human Development Index and Ecological Footprint.[915] They have 30.6% forest coverage due to their reforestation programme[916] for example.

A complex 2017 analysis of politics and economics in the DPRK.[917] Quote:

‘Prior to the revolution, land was concentrated in the hands of an astonishingly small [Imperial] élite. The Worker’s Party undertook a gradual but steady process of converting private land ownership into cooperative organizations. Beginning with the process of post‐war reconstruction in 1953, only 1.2% of peasant households were organized as cooperatives, which encompassed a mere .6% of total acreage. By August of 1958, 100% of peasant households were converted into cooperatives, encompassing 100% of total acreage.’

For more information: a very exhaustive reading list.[918] See here,[919] here,[920] and here for more.[921] Also worth noting is that the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea abolished taxation in the 1970s[922] and they have experienced respectable economic growth even despite droughts and sanctions.[923]

A 2016 analysis of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela,[924] which notes that both ‘inflation and unemployment were both considerably lower during’ the first years of the Chávez administration. Among other features:

‘The government has taken a series of actions that could be characterized as “socialistic,” although many of these measures are more accurately described as social democratic. Under Chávez the government significantly increased spending on healthcare, education, and social services. Access to food, housing, and basic utilities was partially decommodified through state subsidies and price controls. This led to dramatic reductions in poverty, inequality, and child malnutrition, major increases in school and university enrollments, and a quadrupling of the number of pensioners.[925]

A complex 2017 analysis of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.[926] Quote:

‘[The Bolivarian Republic of] Venezuela is now the country in the region with the lowest inequality level (measured by the Gini Coefficient) having reduced inequality by 54%, poverty by 44%. Poverty has been reduced from 70.8% in 1996 to 21% in 2010. Extreme poverty was reduced from 40% in 1996 to a very low level of 7.3% in 2010. About 20 million people have benefited from anti‐poverty programs, called Misiones. Up to now, 2.1 million elders have received old‐age pensions — that is 66% of the population while only 387,000 received pensions before the revolution.’

Further sources on the U.S.S.R.[927] See also this exhaustive list of reading materials concerning the U.S.S.R.[928] Finally: a very exhaustive list of resources[929] concerning state socialism in general.

The accomplishments of socialists are rarely mentioned along with their mistakes. Often they are dismissed as either unimportant or uninteresting (they are neither), or sometimes only done in spite of their socialism (which is false). The reason usually given for dismissal is simply that they did not last long enough, but as mentioned earlier, the causes were never entirely internal, as one can see in the German Democratic Republic[930] for one example.

‘[E]very socialist experiment of any significance in the twentieth century — without exception — was either overthrown, invaded, corrupted, perverted, subverted, destabilized, or otherwise had life made impossible for it, by the United States and its allies. Not one socialist government or movement — from the Russian Revolution to the Sandinistas in Nicaragua, from Communist China to the FMLN in El Salvador — not one was permitted to rise or fall solely on its own merits; not one was left secure enough to drop its guard against the all‐powerful enemy abroad and freely and fully relax control at home. It’s as if the Wright brothers’ first experiments with flying machines all failed because the automobile interests sabotaged each test flight. And then the good and god‐fearing folk of the world looked upon these catastrophes, nodded their heads wisely, and intoned solemnly: Humankind shall never fly.’[931]

If anything, it is remarkable that socialists have accomplished so much in spite of their challenges, whereas capitalism’s tendency to erase competition is further proof of its corruption.

To paraphrase Michael Parenti:

‘[Socialist movements] in Eastern Europe, Russia, China, Mongolia, North Korea, and Cuba, brought land reform, and human services; a dramatic bettering of the living conditions of hundreds of millions of people on a scale never before or never since witnessed in human history[.] [Socialist movements] transformed desperately poor countries into societies in which everyone had adequate food, shelter, medical care, and education… and some of us who come from poor families, who carry around the hidden injuries of class, are very impressed—are very, very impressed by these achievements, and are not willing to dismiss them as ‘economistic’. To say that socialism doesn’t ‘work’ is to overlook the fact that it did work and that it worked for hundreds of millions of people.’[932]

References

  1. https://archive.org/details/BlackBookOfCommunism
  2. https://twitter.com/i/moments/923349474390528000
  3. https://redd.it/9iebm6
  4. https://www.reddit.com/comments/7n6ql2/_/dsb6cv6
  5. https://www.reddit.com/comments/39w9w0/_/cs73xn4
  6. https://web.archive.org/web/20160304212731/https://redscans.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/austin-murphy-the-triumph-of-evil.pdf
  7. https://www.lemonde.fr/archives/article/1997/10/31/les-divisions-d-une-equipe-d-historiens-du-communisme_3811179_1819218.html
  8. https://www.lemonde.fr/archives/article/1997/11/14/communisme-retour-a-l-histoire_3810094_1819218.html
  9. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2000/03/the-future-did-not-work/378081
  10. https://maoistrebelnews.com/2011/08/10/the-black-book-of-communism-debunked/amp
  11. https://web.archive.org/web/20080830080456/http://www.etext.org/Politics/MIM/agitation/blackbook/blackb3.html
  12. http://www.melgrosh.unimelb.edu.au/documents/SGW-UkranianFamine_mortality.pdf
  13. https://medium.com/@discomfiting/debunking-communism-killed-more-people-than-naziism-7a9880696f67
  14. https://web.archive.org/web/20141228020530/www.petersaysstuff.com/2014/05/attempting-the-impossible-calculating-capitalisms-death-toll
  15. http://www.spectrezine.org/global/chomsky.html
  16. https://www.reddit.com/comments/85ib6v/_/dvydyz8
  17. https://web.archive.org/web/20180918193732/http://school.rusarchives.ru/bolshoj-terror/dokladnaya-zapiska-generalnogo-prokurora-sssr-ra-rudenko-ministra-vnutrennikh-del-sssr-sn-kruglo
  18. https://www.northstarcompass.org/nsc0901/gulag.htm
  19. http://sovietinfo.tripod.com/GTY-Penal_System.pdf
  20. http://sovietinfo.tripod.com/WCR-German_Soviet.pdf
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