Difference between revisions of "User:Anarcho-Bolshevik/compendium/section 11"

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{{DISPLAYTITLE:Most people in socialist states are constantly starving or are malnourished, and it’s because of socialism}}
 
{{DISPLAYTITLE:Most people in socialist states are constantly starving or are malnourished, and it’s because of socialism}}
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It is true that many illiberal republics experienced famines, but rarely are all of the causes closely examined. For example, [[Holodomor|the Ukrainian one of the 1930s]] probably cannot be traced to any single cause, but overall it was neither exclusively nor even fundamentally induced by artificial means:<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Tauger|first=Mark|title=The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture, 1931-1933|url=http://eh.net/book_reviews/years-hunger-soviet-agriculture-1931-1933|date=2004-11-15|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121127213905/http://eh.net/book_reviews/years-hunger-soviet-agriculture-1931-1933|archivedate=2012-11-27}}</ref> awful weather<ref>{{safesubst:cite journal|last=Tauger|first=Mark|title=Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1933|journal=The Carl Beck Papers in Russian & East European Studies|url=http://www.as.wvu.edu/history/Faculty/Tauger/Tauger,%20Natural%20Disaster%20and%20Human%20Actions.pdf|year=2001|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110718165207/http://www.as.wvu.edu/history/Faculty/Tauger/Tauger,%20Natural%20Disaster%20and%20Human%20Actions.pdf|archivedate=2011-07-18|ISSN=0889-275X}}</ref> and pestilence<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|chapter=1|chapterurl=http://www.readmarxeveryday.org/bloodlies/ch01.html|title=Blood Lies: The Evidence that Every Accusation against Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union in Timothy Snyder’s Bloodlands Is False|url=http://www.readmarxeveryday.org/bloodlies/contents.html|location=New York|publisher=Red Star Publishers|year=2014|ISBN=978-0-692-20099-5|section=Environmental Factors Caused The Famine|sectionurl=http://www.readmarxeveryday.org/bloodlies/ch01.html#enviro|pages=64–7}}</ref> were a few factors, as they were in the [[People’s Republic of China]],<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Ó Gráda|first=Cormac|title=Great Leap into Famine? – Ó Gráda’s review of Dikötter book|url=http://chinastudygroup.net/?p=4466|date=2011-03-15|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150426173949/http://chinastudygroup.net/2011/03/o-grada-review-of-dikotter|archivedate=2015-04-26}}</ref> but it didn’t help that many of the landowners were protesting Soviet collectivization by destroying their crops<ref>{{safesubst:Cite book| last = Schuman| first = Frederick L.| title = Russia Since 1917| date = 1957| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=IX4H0YOlZbQC&q=even+burned}}</ref> <ref>{{safesubst:Cite book| publisher = Rowman & Littlefield Publishers| isbn = 978-1-4616-0841-7| last = Meurs| first = Mieke| title = Many Shades of Red: State Policy and Collective Agriculture| date = 1999-02-18|pageurl = https://books.google.com/books?id=2MpdKsjSn6EC&q=burning}}</ref> and generally making a mess of the place; the Western sanctions on Soviet gold (yet not on their grain) contributed<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/SMBJ_nQ4sTA</ref> as well.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Starikov|first=Nikolay|title=Episode 10. Who Organised the Famine in the USSR in 1932-1933?|url=https://orientalreview.org/?p=4390|date=2012-12-17|accessdate=2020-02-10}}</ref> Nonetheless, like the one in the People’s Republic of China,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/-ZClsTgRz3I</ref> perhaps some responsibility should be given to—yes—the authorities or central planners (though these flaws are amendable within the socialist context).<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/kTl4b0w6mpk</ref> <ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/9d5qb0/_/e5h19az/?context=3</ref> What is remarkable about these places however is that although they did experience some famines after they were revolutionized, the socialists also '''stopped''' the series of famines that the countries were experiencing long '''before''' they were revolutionized,<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|chapter=1|chapterurl=http://www.readmarxeveryday.org/bloodlies/ch01.html|title=Blood Lies: The Evidence that Every Accusation against Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union in Timothy Snyder’s Bloodlands Is False|url=http://www.readmarxeveryday.org/bloodlies/contents.html|location=New York|publisher=Red Star Publishers|year=2014|ISBN=978-0-692-20099-5|section=Collectivization|sectionurl=http://www.readmarxeveryday.org/bloodlies/ch01.html#collect1|pages=58–9}}</ref> with little or no thanks to the capitalists. For example, after 1947 the [[Soviet Union]] experienced no more famines, but even before then they distributed famine relief to the [[Uk.S.S.R.]] in the 1920s<ref>https://communism.lemmy.ml/post/1080</ref> and the 1930s,<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Tauger|first=Mark|title=Retrospective for Yale Agrarian Studies|url=https://agrarianstudies.macmillan.yale.edu/sites/default/files/files/papers/TaugerAgrarianStudies.pdf|year=2014|accessdate=2020-02-10}}</ref> including to hundreds of thousands of their Ukrainian youths.<ref>https://communism.lemmy.ml/post/1045</ref> Even the anti‐Bolshevist historians R. W. Davies and Stephen G. Wheatcroft (who claim that Soviet officials were still partially responsible for the crisis) admitted that the Soviets at least responded to the Uk.S.S.R.’s famine by reducing food exports, reducing food quotas, and sending food aid.<ref>{{safesubst:cite journal|last1=Davies|first1=R. W.|last2=Wheatcroft|first2=Stephen|title=Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932-33: A Reply to Ellman|journal=Europe-Asia Studies|url=https://www.uio.no/studier/emner/hf/iakh/HIS2319/h16/pensumliste/stalin-and-the-soviet-famine-of-1932-33_-a-reply-to-ellman.pdf|publisher=Taylor & Francis, Ltd.|volume=58|number=4|year=2006|pages=625-633|accessdate=2020-02-10|jstor=https://www.jstor.org/stable/20451229}}</ref> Respected scholars Alexander Dallin, J. Arch Getty, Lynne Viola, Moshe Lewin (a Holocaust survivor), and Roberta Manning likewise all reject the ‘famine‐genocide’ conspiracy theory; even the notorious antisocialist Robert Conquest later renounced it.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|chapter=1|chapterurl=http://www.readmarxeveryday.org/bloodlies/ch01.html|title=Blood Lies: The Evidence that Every Accusation against Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union in Timothy Snyder’s Bloodlands Is False|url=http://www.readmarxeveryday.org/bloodlies/contents.html|location=New York|publisher=Red Star Publishers|year=2014|ISBN=978-0-692-20099-5|section=The "Ukrainian Famine" and Post-Soviet Nationaism|sectionurl=http://www.readmarxeveryday.org/bloodlies/ch01.html#ukraine|pages=44–7}}</ref> (And our much referenced Professor Tauger, for those unaware, has argued elsewhen that the British Empire had little to do with the Bengal famine:<ref>{{safesubst:cite journal|last=Tauger|first=Mark|title=The Indian Famine Crises of World War II|journal=British Scholar|url=http://history.wvu.edu/r/download/63811|volume=I|issue=2|year=2009|pages=166–96|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100623111759/http://history.wvu.edu/r/download/63811|archivedate=2010-06-23}}</ref> this wouldn’t exactly support somebody’s suspicion that he’s simply a ‘biased’ writer.) All of this should be little surprise since Stalin was consistently very sympathetic to the landless and poor peasants,<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=Tauger|first=Mark|editors=Frank Trentmann and Flemming Just|chapter=6|title=Food and Conflict in Europe in the Age of the Two World Wars|url=http://history.wvu.edu/r/download/158403|location=Hampshire|publisher=Palgrave MacMillan|volume=I|issue=2|year=2006|pages=109–143|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160507022536/http://history.wvu.edu:80/r/download/158403|archivedate=2016-05-07|ISBN=978-1-4039-8684-9}}</ref> and many landless peasants supported his administration.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=Tauger|first=Mark|editor=Stephen K. Wegren|chapter=3|title=Rural Adaptation in Russia|url=http://www.as.wvu.edu/history/Faculty/Tauger/Tauger,%20Soviet%20Peasants,%20Collectivization,%20Resistance%20and%20Adaptation.pdf|location=Oxon|publisher=Routledge|year=2005|pages=65–94|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110720121735/http://www.as.wvu.edu/history/Faculty/Tauger/Tauger,%20Soviet%20Peasants,%20Collectivization,%20Resistance%20and%20Adaptation.pdf|archivedate=2011-07-20|ISBN=0-415-70155-4}}</ref> Likewise, the Chinese suffered no more famines after 1961. (And even this last one was not<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Ch'ing China: The Taiping Rebellion| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2011-04-14| url = https://web.archive.org/web/20110414025909/http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CHING/TAIPING.HTM}}</ref> their worst.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = FAEC - FEARFUL FAMINES OF THE PAST| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = http://www.mitosyfraudes.org/Polit/Famines.html}}</ref> Recent<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Cheng Enfu, A Study of Unnatural Deaths ... S&S 82,2 (April 2018) (1).pdf| work = Google Docs| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://drive.google.com/file/d/1JiHMNyN2636l6NM1RtgcipDU1ztNJlup}}</ref> research<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Sun Jingxian, Population Change During China's 'Three Years of Hardship' (1959-1961) CCPESR April 2016 (1).pdf| work = Google Docs| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://drive.google.com/file/d/1iLVagufemBYVG4d043mL6XH0auu8V5HE}}</ref> indicates that the toll was almost certainly closer to four million or five million: worrisome statistics regardless, but clearly not ones that antisocialists would like.) Finally, the People’s Socialist Republic of Albania, the People’s Republic of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Hungarian People’s Republic, the Mongolian People’s Republic, the Polish People’s Republic, the Romanian Socialist Republic, and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, simply never experienced any famines at all.
  
It is true that many illiberal republics experienced famines, but rarely are all of the causes closely examined. For example, the Ukrainian one of the 1930s probably cannot be traced to any single cause, but overall it was neither exclusively nor even fundamentally induced by artificial means:<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20121127213905/http://eh.net/book_reviews/years-hunger-soviet-agriculture-1931-1933</ref> awful weather<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20110720121735/http://www.as.wvu.edu/history/Faculty/Tauger/Tauger,%20Natural%20Disaster%20and%20Human%20Actions.pdf</ref> and pestilence<ref>https://rhizzone.net/forum/post/305692</ref> were a few factors, as they were in the People’s Republic of China,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20150426173949/http://chinastudygroup.net/2011/03/o-grada-review-of-dikotter</ref> but it didn’t help that many of the landowners were protesting Soviet collectivization by destroying their crops<ref>{{safesubst:Cite book| last = Schuman| first = Frederick L.| title = Russia Since 1917| date = 1957| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=IX4H0YOlZbQC&q="even+burned"}}</ref> <ref>{{safesubst:Cite book| publisher = Rowman & Littlefield Publishers| isbn = 978-1-4616-0841-7| last = Meurs| first = Mieke| title = Many Shades of Red: State Policy and Collective Agriculture| date = 1999-02-18| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=2MpdKsjSn6EC&q=burning}}</ref> and generally making a mess of the place; the Western sanctions on Soviet gold (yet not on their grain) contributed<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/SMBJ_nQ4sTA</ref> as well.<ref>https://orientalreview.org/?p=4390</ref> Nonetheless, like the one in the People’s Republic of China,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/-ZClsTgRz3I</ref> perhaps some responsibility should be given to—yes—the authorities or central planners (though these flaws are amendable within the socialist context).<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/kTl4b0w6mpk</ref> <ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/9d5qb0/_/e5h19az/?context=3</ref> What is remarkable about these places however is that although they did experience some famines after they were revolutionized, the socialists also '''stopped''' the series of famines that the countries were experiencing long '''before''' they were revolutionized,<ref>https://rhizzone.net/forum/post/308686</ref> with little or no thanks to the capitalists. For example, after 1947 the Soviet Union experienced no more famines, but even before then they distributed famine relief to the Uk.S.S.R. in the 1920s<ref>https://communism.lemmy.ml/post/1080</ref> and the 1930s,<ref>https://agrarianstudies.macmillan.yale.edu/sites/default/files/files/papers/TaugerAgrarianStudies.pdf</ref> including to hundreds of thousands of their Ukrainian youths.<ref>https://communism.lemmy.ml/post/1045</ref> Even the anti‐Bolshevist historians R. W. Davies and Stephen G. Wheatcroft (who claim that Soviet officials were still partially responsible for the crisis) admitted that the Soviets at least responded to the Uk.S.S.R.’s famine by reducing food exports, reducing food quotas, and sending food aid.<ref>https://www.uio.no/studier/emner/hf/iakh/HIS2319/h16/pensumliste/stalin-and-the-soviet-famine-of-1932-33_-a-reply-to-ellman.pdf</ref> Respected scholars Alexander Dallin, J. Arch Getty, Lynne Viola, Moshe Lewin (a Holocaust survivor), and Roberta Manning likewise all reject the ‘famine‐genocide’ conspiracy theory; even the notorious antisocialist Robert Conquest later renounced it.<ref>https://rhizzone.net/forum/post/305692</ref> (And our much referenced Professor Tauger, for those unaware, has argued elsewhen that the British Empire had little to do with the Bengal famine:<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20100623111759/http://history.wvu.edu/r/download/63811</ref> this wouldn’t exactly support somebody’s suspicion that he’s simply a ‘biased’ writer.) All of this should be little surprise since Stalin was consistently very sympathetic to the landless and poor peasants,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20160507022536/http://history.wvu.edu:80/r/download/158403</ref> and many landless peasants supported his administration.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20110720121735/http://www.as.wvu.edu/history/Faculty/Tauger/Tauger,%20Soviet%20Peasants,%20Collectivization,%20Resistance%20and%20Adaptation.pdf</ref> Likewise, the Chinese saw no more famines after 1961. (And even this last one was not<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Ch'ing China: The Taiping Rebellion| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2011-04-14| url = https://web.archive.org/web/20110414025909/http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CHING/TAIPING.HTM}}</ref> their worst.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = FAEC - FEARFUL FAMINES OF THE PAST| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = http://www.mitosyfraudes.org/Polit/Famines.html}}</ref> Recent<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Cheng Enfu, A Study of Unnatural Deaths ... S&S 82,2 (April 2018) (1).pdf| work = Google Docs| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://drive.google.com/file/d/1JiHMNyN2636l6NM1RtgcipDU1ztNJlup}}</ref> research<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Sun Jingxian, Population Change During China's 'Three Years of Hardship' (1959-1961) CCPESR April 2016 (1).pdf| work = Google Docs| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://drive.google.com/file/d/1iLVagufemBYVG4d043mL6XH0auu8V5HE}}</ref> indicates that the toll was almost certainly closer to four million or five million: worrisome statistics regardless, but clearly not ones that antisocialists would like.) Finally, the People’s Socialist Republic of Albania, the People’s Republic of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Hungarian People’s Republic, the Mongolian People’s Republic, the Polish People’s Republic, the Romanian Socialist Republic, and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, simply never experienced any famines at all.
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Evidence elsewhere reconfirms that it is usually (though not always)<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/kTl4b0w6mpk</ref> imperialists rather than socialists who cause food deficiencies. The [[Republic of Chile]] experienced resistance from the bourgeoisie, who withheld food in protest of the democratically elected socialist Salvador Allende; they even paid truckers to simply stop labouring.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/PFDxX2TKZE4</ref> The case<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/_fV-C1Ag5sI</ref> is<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Dutka|first=Z.C.|title=Attacks on Venezuelan Commune and Farmland Reported, Crops Destroyed|url=https://venezuelanalysis.com/N3QX|date=2015-08-19|accessdate=2020-02-10}}</ref> similar<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/YqHzDLSl8U4</ref> in the [[Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela]].<ref name=MR117637>{{safesubst:cite web|last1=Felicien|first1=Ana|last2=Schiavoni|first2=Christina|last3=Romero|first3=Liccia|title=The Politics of Food in Venezuela|url=https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=117637|date=2018-06-01|accessdate=2020-01-12}}</ref> <ref>https://invidio.us/embed/k_JhRVlIR-c</ref> In Korea, antisocialists intentionally destroyed as much land as they could<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/QDJlNQlRbIA</ref> to impede people’s agricultural efforts. In Malaysia, anticommunists deliberately poisoned socialists’ crops.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/80h2f3/_/duvn83q</ref> In the [[German Democratic Republic]], antisocialists deliberately poisoned people’s livestock.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/5kjtdw/_/dbpb418</ref> Anticommunists consciously initiated famines in the invaded Soviet regions.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=-h_Z_KK0MQUC&q=Hunger+Plan</ref> In Vietnam, antisocialists deliberately targeted people’s cultivated lands and poisoned their crops.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Agent Orange, exposed: How U.S. chemical warfare in Vietnam unleashed a slow-moving disaster| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://theconversation.com/amp/agent-orange-exposed-how-u-s-chemical-warfare-in-vietnam-unleashed-a-slow-moving-disaster-84572}}</ref> In the [[People’s Republic of Mozambique]], the antisocialists stole food, devastated farms, figuratively and literally destroyed rural families, prevented food aid from reaching areas suffering from droughts, and more, all in a conscious effort to destabilize the people’s republic.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=Urdang|first=Stephanie|chapter=3|title=And They Still Dance: Women, War, and the Struggle for Change in Mozambique|location=New York|publisher=Monthly Review Press|year=1989|pages=65–89|ISBN=0-85345-772-7}}</ref> In the 1980s, the Western ruling classes imposed sanctions on the [[Polish People’s Republic]],<ref>https://redd.it/cwuhvl</ref> worsening their food situation. In the [[Socialist Republic of Romania]]’s case, part of the reason for insufficient food was that the government spent much of its money on paying all of their foreign debts; trying to become independent. The [[Republic of Cuba]]<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Rutledge|first=Kristen|title=Thousands of Cubans Losing Their Sight Because Of Malnutrition|url=https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=13310|year=1993|accessdate=2020-02-10}}</ref> and the [[Democratic People’s Republic of Korea]]<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last1=Uriarte|first1=Damian|last2=O’Conner|first2=Julie|editor=Les Adler|title=U.S. Media Ignores Humanitarian Aspects of Famine in Korea|url=https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=416|year=1999|accessdate=2020-02-10}}</ref> experienced food crises in part only after antisocialism destroyed their allies<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Gervasi|first=Sean|coauthors=Dennis Riches|title=Video: How the U.S. Caused the Breakup of the Soviet Union|url=https://wp.me/p2vCQD-nzUn|year=1992|accessdate=2020-02-10}}</ref> (in the DPRK’s case natural disasters were also major contributors). Rather than donating the food that they waste constantly,<ref>https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/wasted-food-IP.pdf</ref> antisocialists sought to punish these republics for their lack of ideological conformity, so they obstructed them and their imports. We must not overlook, however, the factors that cannot be blamed on capitalism: the natural and climatic conditions of agriculture of the Soviet Union in particular were both severe and unstable; no other major country faced such serious issues in overcoming the negative influence on agricultural production. For example, agroclimatologists estimated that on average the conditions were 2–2.5 times worse than those in the [[U.S.A.]] Generally over sixty percent of the country’s territory was periodically plagued with droughts and other unfavourable weather influences. At the same time that zone normally accounted for approximately seventy‐five per cent of grain deliveries.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/SovietAgricultureMorozov</ref> Likewise, a prolonged drought forced the P.R.C. to import 112,000,000–186,700,000 bushels of Canadian wheat in 1963 in order to prevent another famine.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=Kominsky|first=Morris|authorlink=Morris Kominsky|chapter=VI|title=The Hoaxers: Plain Liars, Fancy Liars, and Damned Liars|url=https://archive.org/stream/TheHoaxers|edition=|location=Boston|publisher=Branden Press, Inc.|year=1970|id=8283-1288-5|volume=I|section=|sectionurl=|page=387|pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/TheHoaxers#page/n381/mode/1up}}</ref>
  
Evidence elsewhere reconfirms that it is usually (though not always)<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/kTl4b0w6mpk</ref> imperialists rather than socialists who cause food deficiencies. The Republic of Chile experienced resistance from the bourgeoisie, who withheld food in protest of the democratically elected socialist Salvador Allende; they even paid truckers to simply stop labouring.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/PFDxX2TKZE4</ref> The case<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/_fV-C1Ag5sI</ref> is<ref>https://venezuelanalysis.com/N3QX</ref> similar<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/YqHzDLSl8U4</ref> in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.<ref name=MR117637>{{safesubst:cite web|last1=Felicien|first1=Ana|last2=Schiavoni|first2=Christina|last3=Romero|first3=Liccia|title=The Politics of Food in Venezuela|url=https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=117637|date=2018-06-01|accessdate=2020-01-12}}</ref> <ref>https://invidio.us/embed/k_JhRVlIR-c</ref> In Korea, antisocialists intentionally destroyed as much land as they could<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/QDJlNQlRbIA</ref> to impede people’s agricultural efforts. In Malaysia, anticommunists deliberately poisoned socialists’ crops.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/80h2f3/_/duvn83q</ref> In the [[German Democratic Republic]], antisocialists deliberately poisoned people’s livestock.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/5kjtdw/_/dbpb418</ref> Anticommunists consciously initiated famines in the invaded Soviet regions.<ref>https://books.google.com/books?id=-h_Z_KK0MQUC&q=Hunger+Plan</ref> In Vietnam, antisocialists deliberately targeted people’s cultivated lands and poisoned their crops.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Agent Orange, exposed: How U.S. chemical warfare in Vietnam unleashed a slow-moving disaster| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://theconversation.com/amp/agent-orange-exposed-how-u-s-chemical-warfare-in-vietnam-unleashed-a-slow-moving-disaster-84572}}</ref> In the 1980s, the Western ruling classes imposed sanctions on the Polish People’s Republic,<ref>https://redd.it/cwuhvl</ref> worsening their food situation. In the Socialist Republic of Romania’s case, part of the reason for insufficient food was that the government spent much of its money on paying all of their foreign debts; trying to become independent. The Republic of Cuba<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=13310</ref> and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=416</ref> experienced food crises in part only after antisocialism destroyed their allies<ref>https://wp.me/p2vCQD-nzUn</ref> (in the DPRK’s case natural disasters were also major contributors). Rather than donating the food that they waste constantly,<ref>https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/wasted-food-IP.pdf</ref> antisocialists sought to punish these republics for their lack of ideological conformity, so they obstructed them and their imports. We must not overlook, however, the factors that cannot be blamed on capitalism: the natural and climatic conditions of agriculture of the Soviet Union in particular were both severe and unstable; no other major country faced such serious issues in overcoming the negative influence on agricultural production. For example, agroclimatologists estimated that on average the conditions were 2–2.5 times worse than those in the U.S.A. Generally over sixty percent of the country’s territory was periodically plagued with droughts and other unfavourable weather influences. At the same time that zone normally accounted for approximately seventy‐five per cent of grain deliveries.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/SovietAgricultureMorozov</ref> Likewise, a prolonged drought forced the P.R.C. to import 112,000,000–186,700,000 bushels of Canadian wheat in 1963 in order to prevent another famine.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=Kominsky|first=Morris|authorlink=Morris Kominsky|chapter=VI|title=The Hoaxers: Plain Liars, Fancy Liars, and Damned Liars|url=https://archive.org/stream/TheHoaxers|edition=|location=Boston|publisher=Branden Press, Inc.|year=1970|id=8283-1288-5|volume=I|section=|sectionurl=|page=387|pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/TheHoaxers#page/n381/mode/1up}}</ref>
+
Ultimately however, the people’s democracies were not in a perpetual state of famine as antisocialists tiresomely imply.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/TMKEhewbaZg</ref> For example, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has their own cuisine<ref>https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/list_of_North_Korean_dishes</ref> like the Soviet Union<ref>https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_cuisine</ref> did; many photos<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/e5q3j7/_/f9n1kw4</ref> and illustrations of foods exist from the Soviet era,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Soviet food site:pinterest.com at DuckDuckGo| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://duckduckgo.com/?q=Soviet+food+site:pinterest.com}}</ref> and so do recordings from the People’s Republic of China during the short twentieth century.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/user/thekinolibrary/search?query=China+food</ref> In the 1930s the Soviets sent large amounts of foodstuffs and other goods to the Spanish Republicans.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/1e1bhf/_/c9w2jva</ref> In May 1945 the Soviets distributed scores of tons of food to the Berlin populace.<ref>{{safesubst:cite journal|last=Bokov|first=F.|title=The Spring of Victory|journal=Soviet Military Review|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=JWnfAAAAMAAJ|year=1981|page=59|pageurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=JWnfAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA7-PA59}} [https://i.imgur.com/LolGa6g.jpg Photographic example.]</ref> <ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=Deborin|first=Grigori|title=Вторая мировая война|url=http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/D/DEBORIN_Grigoriy_Abramovich/_Deborin_G.A..html#002|pages=340–343}}</ref> In 1947 the Soviets also successfully prevented a famine from occurring in Poland.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=W. Douglas|first=Dorothy|chapter=III|coauthors=Lynn Turgeon|title=Transitional Economic Systems, The Polish-Czech Example|url=https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7iUwYR74MlbcFBxbWxsdHNLMHM|accessdate=2019-10-09|edition=|location=New York and London|publisher=Monthly Review Press|year=1972|isbn=|oclc=|section=|pages=63–5}}</ref> They as well as their allies also prevented one in Czechoslovakia<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=W. Douglas|first=Dorothy|chapter=VI|coauthors=Lynn Turgeon|title=Transitional Economic Systems, The Polish-Czech Example|url=https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7iUwYR74MlbcFBxbWxsdHNLMHM|accessdate=2019-10-09|edition=|location=New York and London|publisher=Monthly Review Press|year=1972|isbn=|oclc=|section=|page=105}}</ref> and later would do the same for the DPRK too.<ref>{{safesubst:cite journal|last=K. Armstrong|first=Charles| title = The Destruction and Reconstruction of North Korea, 1950–1960|journal=Asia-Pacific Journal|volume=7|date=2019-03-16| accessdate = 2019-12-31| url = https://apjjf.org/-Charles-K--Armstrong/3460/article.pdf}}</ref> In the 1950s the C.I.A. wrote that, although a planned increase of the area sown to fodder crops was unfulfilled, and their fodder production (still) lagged behind animal husbandry’s increasing demands, the [[Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic]]’s Sovkhozes considerably increased their sown areas and crop yields during the Fourth Five‐Year Plan; they increased livestock as well.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=Latvian SSR Reports Agricultural Data for Fourth Five-Year Plan|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP80-00809A000700030490-3.pdf|archiveurl=https://wp.me/pa7b25-O|archivedate=2018-07-27|accessdate=2020-02-10}}</ref>
 
 
Ultimately however, the people’s democracies were not in a perpetual state of famine as antisocialists tiresomely imply.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/TMKEhewbaZg</ref> For example, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has their own cuisine<ref>https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/list_of_North_Korean_dishes</ref> like the Soviet Union<ref>https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_cuisine</ref> did; many photos<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/e5q3j7/_/f9n1kw4</ref> and illustrations of foods exist from the Soviet era,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Soviet food site:pinterest.com at DuckDuckGo| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://duckduckgo.com/?q=Soviet+food+site:pinterest.com}}</ref> and so do recordings from the People’s Republic of China during the short twentieth century.<ref>https://www.youtube.com/user/thekinolibrary/search?query=China+food</ref> In the 1930s the Soviets sent large amounts of foodstuffs and other goods to the Spanish Republicans.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/1e1bhf/_/c9w2jva</ref> In May 1945 the Soviets distributed scores of tons of food to the Berlin populace.<ref>https://redd.it/avpumz</ref> In 1947 the Soviets also successfully prevented a famine from occurring in Poland.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=W. Douglas|first=Dorothy|chapter=III|coauthors=Lynn Turgeon|title=Transitional Economic Systems, The Polish-Czech Example|url=https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7iUwYR74MlbcFBxbWxsdHNLMHM|accessdate=2019-10-09|edition=|location=New York and London|publisher=Monthly Review Press|year=1972|isbn=|oclc=|section=|pages=63–5}}</ref> They as well as their allies also prevented one in Czechoslovakia<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=W. Douglas|first=Dorothy|chapter=VI|coauthors=Lynn Turgeon|title=Transitional Economic Systems, The Polish-Czech Example|url=https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7iUwYR74MlbcFBxbWxsdHNLMHM|accessdate=2019-10-09|edition=|location=New York and London|publisher=Monthly Review Press|year=1972|isbn=|oclc=|section=|page=105}}</ref> and later would do the same for the DPRK too.<ref>{{safesubst:cite journal|last=K. Armstrong|first=Charles| title = The Destruction and Reconstruction of North Korea, 1950–1960|journal=Asia-Pacific Journal|volume=7|date=2019-03-16| accessdate = 2019-12-31| url = https://apjjf.org/-Charles-K--Armstrong/3460/article.pdf}}</ref> In the 1950s the C.I.A. wrote that, although a planned increase of the area sown to fodder crops was unfulfilled, and their fodder production (still) lagged behind animal husbandry’s increasing demands, the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic’s Sovkhozes considerably increased their sown areas and crop yields during the Fourth Five‐Year Plan; they increased livestock as well.<ref>https://wp.me/pa7b25-O</ref>
 
  
 
Concerning the U.S.S.R. and the Indians:
 
Concerning the U.S.S.R. and the Indians:
Line 11: Line 10:
 
<blockquote>“Soon after Indian independence in 1947, the country was faced with an alarming shortage of food grain. The Indian government urgently requested both USA and USSR to send in food aid. While, the American officials were working on the modalities for food grain aid, working out its terms and conditions, when the Indian request reached Kremlin, USSR, Stalin immediately ordered a food‐grain laden ship that was already on its way to a different destination, to change course and go to India. A top Kremlin official intervened saying that documents are yet to be completed and signed, to which Stalin said ‘Documents can wait, hunger cannot.’<ref>https://m.facebook.com/TheIndianEnlightenment/posts/895087330700011</ref>” (Indian diplomat, P. Ratnam disclosed the above conversation to a group of journalists at the Indian Embassy in Moscow in 1950. See Mazdoor Bigul archive, December, 2005.)<ref>http://www.mazdoorbigul.net/pdf/Bigul-2005-12.pdf</ref></blockquote>
 
<blockquote>“Soon after Indian independence in 1947, the country was faced with an alarming shortage of food grain. The Indian government urgently requested both USA and USSR to send in food aid. While, the American officials were working on the modalities for food grain aid, working out its terms and conditions, when the Indian request reached Kremlin, USSR, Stalin immediately ordered a food‐grain laden ship that was already on its way to a different destination, to change course and go to India. A top Kremlin official intervened saying that documents are yet to be completed and signed, to which Stalin said ‘Documents can wait, hunger cannot.’<ref>https://m.facebook.com/TheIndianEnlightenment/posts/895087330700011</ref>” (Indian diplomat, P. Ratnam disclosed the above conversation to a group of journalists at the Indian Embassy in Moscow in 1950. See Mazdoor Bigul archive, December, 2005.)<ref>http://www.mazdoorbigul.net/pdf/Bigul-2005-12.pdf</ref></blockquote>
  
Unsurprisingly,<ref>https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/chengchuang-agricultural-labor-school-peasants-of-the-news-photo/183970752</ref> <ref>https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/peasant-farmers-of-the-hungching-production-brigade-news-photo/170971758</ref> annual grain production in the Kwangtung Province increased.<ref>https://i.imgur.com/nCdpDKX.jpg</ref> A British Field Marshal reported in 1961 that he was no longer able to find any cases of malnutrition in the People’s Republic of China.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=Kominsky|first=Morris|authorlink=Morris Kominsky|chapter=V|title=The Hoaxers: Plain Liars, Fancy Liars, and Damned Liars|url=https://archive.org/stream/TheHoaxers|edition=|location=Boston|publisher=Branden Press, Inc.|year=1970|id=8283-1288-5|volume=I|section=|sectionurl=|page=328|pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/TheHoaxers#page/n322/mode/1up}}</ref> Writing four years later, a Danish foreign affairs commentator agreed, reporting that ‘''only rice and cotton cloth are rationed, but you can have a large bowl of rice without giving up ration cards in any restaurant or canteen for only 0.15 yuan.''’<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=Kominsky|first=Morris|authorlink=Morris Kominsky|chapter=V|title=The Hoaxers: Plain Liars, Fancy Liars, and Damned Liars|url=https://archive.org/stream/TheHoaxers|edition=|location=Boston|publisher=Branden Press, Inc.|year=1970|id=8283-1288-5|volume=I|section=|sectionurl=|page=373|pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/TheHoaxers#page/n367/mode/1up}}</ref> In the 1970s, the People’s Republic of China exported food aid to Cambodians after imperialists devastated their agriculture.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = What Went Wrong with the Pol Pot Regime| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = http://www.bannedthought.net/International/RIM/AWTW/1999-25/PolPot_eng25.htm}}</ref> By 1976 the average caloric intake of the Soviet population was 3,330.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book| publisher = Springer| isbn = 978-1-349-10349-2| last = Birman| first = Igor| title = Personal Consumption in the USSR and the USA| date = 1989-06-18| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=_hexCwAAQBAJ|page=36|pageurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=_hexCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA36}}</ref> Similarly, a 1983 report discovered that Soviets and U.S. citizens ate about the same amount of food quotidianly, but the Soviet diet may have be more eutrophic; they put the daily caloric intake at 3,280.<ref>https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP84B00274R000300150009-5.pdf</ref> <ref>https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000498133.pdf</ref> (If the C.I.A. is writing something positive about their enemies, then it was likely never meant for public announcements.) The Republic of Cuba has been a world leader in organic farming<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=354</ref> for a while now.<ref>https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=5636</ref> All Cuban citizens are legally entitled to food;<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/JSEIKHcYtQU</ref> the FAO concluded that the Republic of Cuba’s ‘''remarkably low percentages of child malnutrition put [them] at the forefront of developing countries''’<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Nutrition country profiles: Cuba summary| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/nutrition/cub_en.stm}}</ref> and World Food Program USA has likewise concluded that their ‘''comprehensive social protection programs''’ have ‘''largely eliminated hunger and poverty.''’<ref>https://www.wfpusa.org/countries/cuba/#</ref> The German Democratic Republic had their own foods, such as Spreewald pickles, Mocha Fix, Schnittchen, and Schnitzel, among others. Albanians ate mutton, garlic soup, sea trout, salami, shish qebab, apricots, &c. Quote:
+
Unsurprisingly,<ref>https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/chengchuang-agricultural-labor-school-peasants-of-the-news-photo/183970752</ref> <ref>https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/peasant-farmers-of-the-hungching-production-brigade-news-photo/170971758</ref> annual grain production in the Kwangtung Province increased.<ref>https://i.imgur.com/nCdpDKX.jpg</ref> A British Field Marshal reported in 1961 that he was no longer able to find any cases of malnutrition in the People’s Republic of China.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=Kominsky|first=Morris|authorlink=Morris Kominsky|chapter=V|title=The Hoaxers: Plain Liars, Fancy Liars, and Damned Liars|url=https://archive.org/stream/TheHoaxers|edition=|location=Boston|publisher=Branden Press, Inc.|year=1970|id=8283-1288-5|volume=I|section=|sectionurl=|page=328|pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/TheHoaxers#page/n322/mode/1up}}</ref> Writing four years later, a Danish foreign affairs commentator agreed, reporting that ‘''only rice and cotton cloth are rationed, but you can have a large bowl of rice without giving up ration cards in any restaurant or canteen for only 0.15 yuan.''’<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=Kominsky|first=Morris|authorlink=Morris Kominsky|chapter=V|title=The Hoaxers: Plain Liars, Fancy Liars, and Damned Liars|url=https://archive.org/stream/TheHoaxers|edition=|location=Boston|publisher=Branden Press, Inc.|year=1970|id=8283-1288-5|volume=I|section=|sectionurl=|page=373|pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/TheHoaxers#page/n367/mode/1up}}</ref> In the 1970s, the People’s Republic of China exported food aid to Cambodians after imperialists devastated their agriculture.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = What Went Wrong with the Pol Pot Regime| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = http://www.bannedthought.net/International/RIM/AWTW/1999-25/PolPot_eng25.htm}}</ref> By 1976 the average caloric intake of the Soviet population was 3,330.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book| publisher = Springer| isbn = 978-1-349-10349-2| last = Birman| first = Igor| title = Personal Consumption in the USSR and the USA| date = 1989-06-18| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=_hexCwAAQBAJ|page=36|pageurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=_hexCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA36}}</ref> Similarly, a 1983 report discovered that Soviets and U.S. citizens ate about the same amount of food quotidianly, but the Soviet diet may have be more eutrophic; they put the daily caloric intake at 3,280.<ref>https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP84B00274R000300150009-5.pdf</ref> <ref>https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/DOC_0000498133.pdf</ref> (If the C.I.A. is writing something positive about their enemies, then it was likely never meant for public announcements.) The Republic of Cuba has been a world leader in organic farming<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last1=Harden|first1=Bruce|last2=Balicki|first2=Dana|editors=Tony White and Albert Wahrhaftig|title=Cuba Leads the World in Organic Farming|url=https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=354|year=2000|accessdate=2020-02-10}}</ref> for a while now.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Ruxton|first=Caitlin|editor=Chip McAuley|title=Cuba Years Ahead in Eat Local Movement|url=https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=5636|year=2009|accessdate=2020-02-10}}</ref> All Cuban citizens are legally entitled to food;<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/JSEIKHcYtQU</ref> the FAO concluded that the Republic of Cuba’s ‘''remarkably low percentages of child malnutrition put [them] at the forefront of developing countries''’<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Nutrition country profiles: Cuba summary| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/nutrition/cub_en.stm}}</ref> and World Food Program USA has likewise concluded that their ‘''comprehensive social protection programs''’ have ‘''largely eliminated hunger and poverty.''’<ref>https://www.wfpusa.org/countries/cuba/#</ref> They have been reducing their reliance on foreign imports for a couple decades now.<ref>{{safesubst:cite journal|last1=A. Altieri|first1=Miguel|last2=R. Funes-Monzote|first2=Fernando|title=The Paradox of Cuban Agriculture|journal=The Monthly Review|url=https://monthlyreview.org/?p=7672|volume=63|number=8|date=2012-01-01|accessdate=2020-02-09}}</ref> The German Democratic Republic had their own foods, such as Spreewald pickles, Mocha Fix, Schnittchen, and Schnitzel, among others. Albanians ate mutton, garlic soup, sea trout, salami, shish qebab, apricots, &c. Quote:
  
 
<blockquote>‘[The People’s Socialist Republic of] Albania is among the European countries with least arable land per head of population. Nevertheless, by relying on the cooperativist order, the ever increasing needs of consumption, industry and export for bread grain and other agricultural and livestock products are ever better fulfilled in conformity with the requirements of the socio‐economic development of the country.’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/erol/albania/al-degeneration-81.pdf</ref></blockquote>
 
<blockquote>‘[The People’s Socialist Republic of] Albania is among the European countries with least arable land per head of population. Nevertheless, by relying on the cooperativist order, the ever increasing needs of consumption, industry and export for bread grain and other agricultural and livestock products are ever better fulfilled in conformity with the requirements of the socio‐economic development of the country.’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/erol/albania/al-degeneration-81.pdf</ref></blockquote>
Line 25: Line 24:
 
Concerning the Spanish revolution of the 1930s:
 
Concerning the Spanish revolution of the 1930s:
  
<blockquote>‘Many of these peasants, together with the C.N.T., organised collectives, pooling their land, animals, tools, chickens, grain, fertiliser, and even their harvested crops. […] In Montblanc the collective dug up the old useless vines and planted new vineyards. The land, improved by modern cultivation with tractors, yielded much bigger and better crops. […] In many places I observed plants growing in the shade of the orange trees. ‘What is this?,’ I asked. I learned that the Levant peasants (famous for their ingenuity) have abundantly planted potatoes among the orange groves. The peasants demonstrate more intelligence than all the bureaucrats in the Ministry of Agriculture combined. They do more than just plant potatoes. Throughout the whole region of the Levant, wherever the soil is suitable, they grow crops. They take advantage of the four month fallow period in the rice fields. Had the Minister of Agriculture followed the example of these peasants throughout the Republican zone, the bread shortage problem would have been overcome in a few months.’<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secI8.html#seci86</ref> (These rural collectives also supplied food to front‐line troops!)</blockquote>
+
<blockquote>‘Many of these peasants, together with the C.N.T., organised collectives, pooling their land, animals, tools, chickens, grain, fertiliser, and even their harvested crops. […] In Montblanc the collective dug up the old useless vines and planted new vineyards. The land, improved by modern cultivation with tractors, yielded much bigger and better crops. […] In many places I observed plants growing in the shade of the orange trees. ‘What is this?,’ I asked. I learned that the Levant peasants (famous for their ingenuity) have abundantly planted potatoes among the orange groves. The peasants demonstrate more intelligence than all the bureaucrats in the Ministry of Agriculture combined. They do more than just plant potatoes. Throughout the whole region of the Levant, wherever the soil is suitable, they grow crops. They take advantage of the four month fallow period in the rice fields. Had the Minister of Agriculture followed the example of these peasants throughout the Republican zone, the bread shortage problem would have been overcome in a few months.’<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=An Anarchist FAQ|url=https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/index.html|sections=I.8.5–8|sectionurl=https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secI8.html#seci85|accessdate=2020-02-10}}</ref> (These rural collectives also supplied food to front‐line troops!)</blockquote>
  
Emma Goldman adds:
+
[[Emma Goldman]] adds:
  
<blockquote>‘I learned that they work eight hours a day, that the richness of the soil had been increased; that before the 19th the crops realized 400,000 pesetas; now they exceeded a million. The entire agricultural production of 1937 consisted of the following: 300 loads of melons; 2 50,000 kilos. of potatoes; 1 28,000 kilos. of barley; 175,000 kilos. of wheat; part of it had been sent to the Centre Federation of Peasants in Madrid, part to the front and the surplus for the needs of the collective. Of the crop in 1936, 125,000 pesetas worth of produce was contributed free of charge to the needs of Madrid. The comrade also spoke of the increase in livestock and in the quality of it. Among others, one of the members from Ganiz, a peasant who formerly tilled his own bit of ground, had contributed 8 milking cows of the finest quality. The collective also has built its own bakery, rabbit hutches and chicken coops.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| accessdate = 2019-10-09| title = ¡Vision on Fire! Emma Goldman on the Spanish Revolution (2006)|url = https://communism.lemmy.ml/post/844}}</ref></blockquote>
+
{{quote|I learned that they work eight hours a day, that the richness of the soil had been increased; that before the 19th the crops realized 400,000 pesetas; now they exceeded a million. The entire agricultural production of 1937 consisted of the following: 300 loads of melons; 2 50,000 kilos. of potatoes; 1 28,000 kilos. of barley; 175,000 kilos. of wheat; part of it had been sent to the Centre Federation of Peasants in Madrid, part to the front and the surplus for the needs of the collective. Of the crop in 1936, 125,000 pesetas worth of produce was contributed free of charge to the needs of Madrid. The comrade also spoke of the increase in livestock and in the quality of it. Among others, one of the members from Ganiz, a peasant who formerly tilled his own bit of ground, had contributed 8 milking cows of the finest quality. The collective also has built its own bakery, rabbit hutches and chicken coops.|Emma Goldman|<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| accessdate = 2019-10-09| title = ¡Vision on Fire! Emma Goldman on the Spanish Revolution (2006)|url = https://communism.lemmy.ml/post/844}}</ref>}}
  
 
Paraphrasing Michael Parenti, ''Inventing Reality'' had this to say about the U.S.S.R. of the early 1980s:
 
Paraphrasing Michael Parenti, ''Inventing Reality'' had this to say about the U.S.S.R. of the early 1980s:
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Today the Soviets produce more than enough grain to feed theirselves. They import foreign grain to help feed their livestock & thereby increase their meat & dairy consumption.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book |last=Syzmański |first=Albert |authorlink= |chapter=5 |title=Human Rights in the Soviet Union |url=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion |location=London |publisher=Zed Books Ltd. |year=1984 |section=Imports |page=132 |pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n74/mode/1up |isbn=0 086232 018 6 |oclc=}}</ref> (This is seen in both the East & West as an ‘improved’ diet, even though there is evidence suggesting that a high meat & dairy intake is not necessarily the best diet.) It takes between seven & fourteen pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. And '''that''' is the cause of the Soviet ‘grain shortage.’ In actuality, per capita meat consumption in the U.S.S.R. has doubled in the last two decades & exceeds such nations as Norway, Italy, Greece, Spain,<ref>{{safesubst:cite book |last=Syzmański |first=Albert |authorlink= |chapter=5 |title=Human Rights in the Soviet Union |url=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion |location=London |publisher=Zed Books Ltd. |year=1984 |section=Living Standards|pages=128–9 |pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n72/mode/1up |isbn=0 086232 018 6 |oclc=}}</ref> Japan, & Israel. Milk production has jumped almost sixty percent in two decades so that today the U.S.S.R. is by far the largest milk‐producing country in the world. According to the 1982 C.I.A. report on the Soviet economy, ‘The Soviet Union remains basically self‐sufficient with respect to food.’<ref>{{safesubst:Cite book| publisher = Transaction Publishers| isbn = 978-1-4128-3909-9| last1 = Hoffmann| first1 = Erik P.| last2 = Laird| first2 = Robbin Frederick| title = The Soviet Polity in the Modern Era| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=63_obglArrMC&pg=PA431| page = 431}}</ref> These are the accomplishments of an agrarian labour force that decreased from 42% in 1960 to 20% in 1980, working in a country where over 90% of the land is either too arid or too frigid for farming.’<ref>{{safesubst:Cite news| issn = 0882-7729| title = Soviet farming: more success than failure?| work = Christian Science Monitor| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 1982-12-13| url = https://www.csmonitor.com/1982/1213/121323.html}}</ref></blockquote>
 
Today the Soviets produce more than enough grain to feed theirselves. They import foreign grain to help feed their livestock & thereby increase their meat & dairy consumption.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book |last=Syzmański |first=Albert |authorlink= |chapter=5 |title=Human Rights in the Soviet Union |url=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion |location=London |publisher=Zed Books Ltd. |year=1984 |section=Imports |page=132 |pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n74/mode/1up |isbn=0 086232 018 6 |oclc=}}</ref> (This is seen in both the East & West as an ‘improved’ diet, even though there is evidence suggesting that a high meat & dairy intake is not necessarily the best diet.) It takes between seven & fourteen pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. And '''that''' is the cause of the Soviet ‘grain shortage.’ In actuality, per capita meat consumption in the U.S.S.R. has doubled in the last two decades & exceeds such nations as Norway, Italy, Greece, Spain,<ref>{{safesubst:cite book |last=Syzmański |first=Albert |authorlink= |chapter=5 |title=Human Rights in the Soviet Union |url=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion |location=London |publisher=Zed Books Ltd. |year=1984 |section=Living Standards|pages=128–9 |pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n72/mode/1up |isbn=0 086232 018 6 |oclc=}}</ref> Japan, & Israel. Milk production has jumped almost sixty percent in two decades so that today the U.S.S.R. is by far the largest milk‐producing country in the world. According to the 1982 C.I.A. report on the Soviet economy, ‘The Soviet Union remains basically self‐sufficient with respect to food.’<ref>{{safesubst:Cite book| publisher = Transaction Publishers| isbn = 978-1-4128-3909-9| last1 = Hoffmann| first1 = Erik P.| last2 = Laird| first2 = Robbin Frederick| title = The Soviet Polity in the Modern Era| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=63_obglArrMC&pg=PA431| page = 431}}</ref> These are the accomplishments of an agrarian labour force that decreased from 42% in 1960 to 20% in 1980, working in a country where over 90% of the land is either too arid or too frigid for farming.’<ref>{{safesubst:Cite news| issn = 0882-7729| title = Soviet farming: more success than failure?| work = Christian Science Monitor| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 1982-12-13| url = https://www.csmonitor.com/1982/1213/121323.html}}</ref></blockquote>
  
A detailed Western report from 1985 concerning agricultural output.<ref>https://archive.org/stream/yoa1985#page/n106</ref> Pages 100–106 deal specifically with the agriculture in the Eastern Bloc. Quote:
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A detailed Western report from 1985 concerning agricultural output.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last1=Cook|first1=Edward|last2=Cummings|first2=Robert|editor=Larry B. Marton|title=U.S. Agriculture in a Global Economy|url=https://archive.org/stream/yoa1985|year=1985|pages=108–18|pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/yoa1985#page/n106}}</ref> Pages 100–106 deal specifically with the agriculture in the Eastern Bloc. Quote:
  
<blockquote>‘In the past two decades gains in crop and livestock production and meat consumption have been impressive. […] The Eastern Bloc accounts for a significant share of world production of wheat, rye, barley, oats, potatoes, sunflowerseed, and sugar beets. The U.S.S.R. is the world’s largest producer of potatoes, barley, rye, oats, sunflowerseed and sugar beets. It is second in wheat production and roughly equal with the United States in second place in cotton production.’</blockquote>
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{{quote|In the past two decades gains in crop and livestock production and meat consumption have been impressive. […] The Eastern Bloc accounts for a significant share of world production of wheat, rye, barley, oats, potatoes, sunflowerseed, and sugar beets. The U.S.S.R. is the world’s largest producer of potatoes, barley, rye, oats, sunflowerseed and sugar beets. It is second in wheat production and roughly equal with the United States in second place in cotton production.|Edward Cook and Robert Cummings|Agriculture in Eastern Europe and the U.S.S.R.}}
  
Data from the World Health Organization as of 2017 indicate that the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the People’s Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam all have a malnutrition rate of less than 2.00.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = MALNUTRITION DEATH RATE BY COUNTRY| work = World Life Expectancy| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.worldlifeexpectancy.com/cause-of-death/malnutrition/by-country/}}</ref> This was also true in 2016.<ref>https://ourworldindata.org/causes-of-death#malnutrition</ref> Similarly, as of 2018<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = 2018 Global Hunger Index Results - Global, Regional, and National Trends - Global Hunger Index - peer-reviewed annual publication designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger at the global, regional, and country levels| work = Global Hunger Index - A Peer-Reviewed Publication| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.globalhungerindex.org/results/}}</ref> the Global Hunger Index has rated the Republic of Cuba and the People’s Republic of China as ‘low’ on their index, and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, the Republic of Nicaragua, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam scored ‘moderate’. (Admittedly, they did confusingly score the DPRK as ‘serious’, but the reasons for this are probably complicated…)<ref>{{safesubst:Cite journal| doi = 10.1080/14672715.2014.863581| issn = 1467-2715| volume = 46| issue = 1| page = 127–143| last = Smith| first = Hazel| title = Crimes Against Humanity?| journal = Critical Asian Studies| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2014-01-02| url = https://doi.org/10.1080/14672715.2014.863581}}</ref>
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Data from the World Health Organization as of 2017 indicate that the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the People’s Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam all have a malnutrition rate of less than 2.00.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = MALNUTRITION DEATH RATE BY COUNTRY| work = World Life Expectancy| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.worldlifeexpectancy.com/cause-of-death/malnutrition/by-country/}}</ref> This was also true in 2016.<ref>https://ourworldindata.org/causes-of-death#malnutrition</ref> Similarly, as of 2018<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = 2018 Global Hunger Index Results - Global, Regional, and National Trends - Global Hunger Index - peer-reviewed annual publication designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger at the global, regional, and country levels| work = Global Hunger Index - A Peer-Reviewed Publication| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.globalhungerindex.org/results/}}</ref> the Global Hunger Index has rated the Republic of Cuba and the People’s Republic of China as ‘low’ on their index, and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, the Republic of Nicaragua, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam scored ‘moderate’. (Admittedly, they did confusingly score the DPRK as ‘serious’, but the reasons for this are probably complicated…<ref>{{safesubst:Cite journal| doi = 10.1080/14672715.2014.863581| issn = 1467-2715| volume = 46| issue = 1| page = 127–143| last = Smith| first = Hazel| title = Crimes Against Humanity?| journal = Critical Asian Studies| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2014-01-02| url = https://doi.org/10.1080/14672715.2014.863581}}</ref>)
  
 
Concerning the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea as of 2017:
 
Concerning the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea as of 2017:
  
<blockquote>‘International sanctions on the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea appear to be biting their civilian economy more than in the past, arousing concerns that the country’s historically precarious food supply, which has also been adversely affected by dry weather this spring, is jeopardised. However, the context matters. '''Food production in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has grown remarkably over the past few years; even if food production declines a bit, it may not be disastrous.''' Moreover, estimates by U.N. agencies, which are generally regarded as authoritative, tend to overstate how much food distribution by the state really matters. '''Although the evidence is far from conclusive, current market prices do not indicate that a food crisis or emergency is presently at hand.'''<ref>https://www.38north.org/?p=14023</ref></blockquote>
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{{quote|International sanctions on the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea appear to be biting their civilian economy more than in the past, arousing concerns that the country’s historically precarious food supply, which has also been adversely affected by dry weather this spring, is jeopardised. However, the context matters. '''Food production in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has grown remarkably over the past few years; even if food production declines a bit, it may not be disastrous.''' Moreover, estimates by U.N. agencies, which are generally regarded as authoritative, tend to overstate how much food distribution by the state really matters. '''Although the evidence is far from conclusive, current market prices do not indicate that a food crisis or emergency is presently at hand.'''|Benjamin Katzeff Silberstein|<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Silberstein|first=Benjamin|title=Between Sanctions, Drought and Tensions: How Bad is North Korea’s Food Situation?|url=https://www.38north.org/?p=14023|date=2017-11-14|accessdate=2020-02-10}}</ref>}}
  
So were there food deficiencies or empty shelves in the Eastern Bloc ''& alibi''? There were empty shelves there and then, yes, but that does not necessarily mean that the citizens were all famished; refrigerators were often well stocked even if the stores theirselves were not.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/eV2lTkCRrfI</ref> The Soviet breadlines came from their system of food distribution: basically all food was freshly made and trucked out to the stores every morning, therefore every morning people would queue up at the stores to wait for those trucks to arrive, often with the youths doing this for their families. The lines cleared in approximately one hour (two on busy days) and since at least the late 1940s everyone got their share sooner or later. Hunger had not been, and was not in later decades, a part of the Soviet scene. As Dr. Kenneth Gray, the White House’s top expert on Soviet agriculture, said in his testimony to the Joint Economic Committee of Congress ‘…'''the food shortages in the USSR are occurring at fairly respectable levels of consumption.'''’<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| accessdate = 2019-10-09| title = Soviet Agriculture: A Critique of the Myths Constructed by Western Critics|url = https://web.archive.org/web/20110611145106/http://www.usm.maine.edu/eco/joe/works/Soviet.html}}</ref> The causes for empty shelves furthermore are fairly complex and cannot simply be reduced to a lack of capitalism. For example, many managers made the seemingly logical but ultimately erroneously assumption that productive labourers ought to be given grander workloads while relatively unproductive labourers should receive lighter workloads, unintentionally encouraging many to work lightly. Another instance is the Polish People’s Republic during the 1970s, where the prices of food were artificially reduced to low prices, partially in commitment to egalitarian principles but also by worker demand. Both consumption and production rose, but in disequilibrium. The Polish People’s Republic’s main exports were food<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| last = routine| first = Ah, the familiar "not real socialism"| title = The United Kingdom used to get their bacon and eggs from… oh dear… the Polish People’s Republic! #coldwarhistpic.twitter.com/grZkGQ2sLO| work = @LeMisandre| format = Tweet| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2019-01-14| url = https://twitter.com/i/status/1084890146896523269}}</ref> and coal, but later the balance turned negative; cash stopped flowing in, the debt became overwhelming, the Polish People’s Republic’s economy was obliged to export even more for payments, and then food deficiencies and rationing occurred. A black market and extra civil unrest naturally followed, though neither helped with the problem.<ref>{{cite book|last=Szymański|first=Albert|chapter=6|title=Class Struggle in Socialist Poland: With Comparisons to Yugoslavia|location=New York|publisher=Praeger Publishers|page=165|pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/ClassStruggleInSocialistPoland#page/n183/mode/1up|ISBN=0-03-070539-8}}</ref> In the end though, these territories were not constantly suffering severe levels of malnutrition. (One has to wonder how the citizens maintained their high lifespans and average physiques as they waited in long queues only to presumably receive absolutely nothing.)
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So were there food deficiencies or empty shelves in the Eastern Bloc ''& alibi''? There were empty shelves there and then, yes, but that does not necessarily mean that the citizens were all famished; refrigerators were often well stocked even if the stores theirselves were not.<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/eV2lTkCRrfI</ref> The Soviet breadlines came from their system of food distribution: basically all food was freshly made and trucked out to the stores every morning, therefore every morning people would queue up at the stores to wait for those trucks to arrive, often with the youths doing this for their families. The lines cleared in approximately one hour (two on busy days) and since at least the late 1940s everyone got their share sooner or later. Hunger had not been, and was not in later decades, a part of the Soviet scene. As Dr. Kenneth Gray, the White House’s top expert on Soviet agriculture, said in his testimony to the Joint Economic Committee of Congress ‘…'''the food shortages in the USSR are occurring at fairly respectable levels of consumption.'''’<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Medley|first=Joseph|title=Soviet Agriculture: A Critique of the Myths Constructed by Western Critics|url=http://www.usm.maine.edu/eco/joe/works/Soviet.html|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110611145106/http://www.usm.maine.edu/eco/joe/works/Soviet.html|archivedate=2011-06-11}}</ref> The causes for empty shelves furthermore are fairly complex and cannot simply be reduced to a lack of capitalism. For example, many managers made the seemingly logical but ultimately erroneously assumption that productive labourers ought to be given grander workloads while relatively unproductive labourers should receive lighter workloads, unintentionally encouraging many to work lightly. Another instance is the Polish People’s Republic during the 1970s, where the prices of food were artificially reduced to low prices, partially in commitment to egalitarian principles but also by worker demand. Both consumption and production rose, but in disequilibrium. The Polish People’s Republic’s main exports were food<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=W. Douglas|first=Dorothy|chapter=XIV|coauthors=Lynn Turgeon|title=Transitional Economic Systems, The Polish-Czech Example|url=https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7iUwYR74MlbcFBxbWxsdHNLMHM|accessdate=2019-10-09|edition=|location=New York and London|publisher=Monthly Review Press|year=1972|isbn=|oclc=|section=|page=292|pageurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=sErFBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA292|ISBN=9781136229541}}</ref> and coal, but later the balance turned negative; cash stopped flowing in, the debt became overwhelming, the Polish People’s Republic’s economy was obliged to export even more for payments, and then food deficiencies and rationing occurred. A black market and extra civil unrest naturally followed, though neither helped with the problem.<ref>{{cite book|last=Szymański|first=Albert|chapter=6|title=Class Struggle in Socialist Poland: With Comparisons to Yugoslavia|location=New York|publisher=Praeger Publishers|page=165|pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/ClassStruggleInSocialistPoland#page/n183/mode/1up|ISBN=0-03-070539-8}}</ref> In the end though, these territories were not constantly suffering severe levels of malnutrition. (One has to wonder how the citizens maintained their high lifespans and average physiques as they waited in long queues only to presumably receive absolutely nothing.)
  
 
==References==
 
==References==

Latest revision as of 22:39, 10 February 2020

It is true that many illiberal republics experienced famines, but rarely are all of the causes closely examined. For example, the Ukrainian one of the 1930s probably cannot be traced to any single cause, but overall it was neither exclusively nor even fundamentally induced by artificial means:[1] awful weather[2] and pestilence[3] were a few factors, as they were in the People’s Republic of China,[4] but it didn’t help that many of the landowners were protesting Soviet collectivization by destroying their crops[5] [6] and generally making a mess of the place; the Western sanctions on Soviet gold (yet not on their grain) contributed[7] as well.[8] Nonetheless, like the one in the People’s Republic of China,[9] perhaps some responsibility should be given to—yes—the authorities or central planners (though these flaws are amendable within the socialist context).[10] [11] What is remarkable about these places however is that although they did experience some famines after they were revolutionized, the socialists also stopped the series of famines that the countries were experiencing long before they were revolutionized,[12] with little or no thanks to the capitalists. For example, after 1947 the Soviet Union experienced no more famines, but even before then they distributed famine relief to the Uk.S.S.R. in the 1920s[13] and the 1930s,[14] including to hundreds of thousands of their Ukrainian youths.[15] Even the anti‐Bolshevist historians R. W. Davies and Stephen G. Wheatcroft (who claim that Soviet officials were still partially responsible for the crisis) admitted that the Soviets at least responded to the Uk.S.S.R.’s famine by reducing food exports, reducing food quotas, and sending food aid.[16] Respected scholars Alexander Dallin, J. Arch Getty, Lynne Viola, Moshe Lewin (a Holocaust survivor), and Roberta Manning likewise all reject the ‘famine‐genocide’ conspiracy theory; even the notorious antisocialist Robert Conquest later renounced it.[17] (And our much referenced Professor Tauger, for those unaware, has argued elsewhen that the British Empire had little to do with the Bengal famine:[18] this wouldn’t exactly support somebody’s suspicion that he’s simply a ‘biased’ writer.) All of this should be little surprise since Stalin was consistently very sympathetic to the landless and poor peasants,[19] and many landless peasants supported his administration.[20] Likewise, the Chinese suffered no more famines after 1961. (And even this last one was not[21] their worst.[22] Recent[23] research[24] indicates that the toll was almost certainly closer to four million or five million: worrisome statistics regardless, but clearly not ones that antisocialists would like.) Finally, the People’s Socialist Republic of Albania, the People’s Republic of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Hungarian People’s Republic, the Mongolian People’s Republic, the Polish People’s Republic, the Romanian Socialist Republic, and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, simply never experienced any famines at all.

Evidence elsewhere reconfirms that it is usually (though not always)[25] imperialists rather than socialists who cause food deficiencies. The Republic of Chile experienced resistance from the bourgeoisie, who withheld food in protest of the democratically elected socialist Salvador Allende; they even paid truckers to simply stop labouring.[26] The case[27] is[28] similar[29] in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.[30] [31] In Korea, antisocialists intentionally destroyed as much land as they could[32] to impede people’s agricultural efforts. In Malaysia, anticommunists deliberately poisoned socialists’ crops.[33] In the German Democratic Republic, antisocialists deliberately poisoned people’s livestock.[34] Anticommunists consciously initiated famines in the invaded Soviet regions.[35] In Vietnam, antisocialists deliberately targeted people’s cultivated lands and poisoned their crops.[36] In the People’s Republic of Mozambique, the antisocialists stole food, devastated farms, figuratively and literally destroyed rural families, prevented food aid from reaching areas suffering from droughts, and more, all in a conscious effort to destabilize the people’s republic.[37] In the 1980s, the Western ruling classes imposed sanctions on the Polish People’s Republic,[38] worsening their food situation. In the Socialist Republic of Romania’s case, part of the reason for insufficient food was that the government spent much of its money on paying all of their foreign debts; trying to become independent. The Republic of Cuba[39] and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea[40] experienced food crises in part only after antisocialism destroyed their allies[41] (in the DPRK’s case natural disasters were also major contributors). Rather than donating the food that they waste constantly,[42] antisocialists sought to punish these republics for their lack of ideological conformity, so they obstructed them and their imports. We must not overlook, however, the factors that cannot be blamed on capitalism: the natural and climatic conditions of agriculture of the Soviet Union in particular were both severe and unstable; no other major country faced such serious issues in overcoming the negative influence on agricultural production. For example, agroclimatologists estimated that on average the conditions were 2–2.5 times worse than those in the U.S.A. Generally over sixty percent of the country’s territory was periodically plagued with droughts and other unfavourable weather influences. At the same time that zone normally accounted for approximately seventy‐five per cent of grain deliveries.[43] Likewise, a prolonged drought forced the P.R.C. to import 112,000,000–186,700,000 bushels of Canadian wheat in 1963 in order to prevent another famine.[44]

Ultimately however, the people’s democracies were not in a perpetual state of famine as antisocialists tiresomely imply.[45] For example, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has their own cuisine[46] like the Soviet Union[47] did; many photos[48] and illustrations of foods exist from the Soviet era,[49] and so do recordings from the People’s Republic of China during the short twentieth century.[50] In the 1930s the Soviets sent large amounts of foodstuffs and other goods to the Spanish Republicans.[51] In May 1945 the Soviets distributed scores of tons of food to the Berlin populace.[52] [53] In 1947 the Soviets also successfully prevented a famine from occurring in Poland.[54] They as well as their allies also prevented one in Czechoslovakia[55] and later would do the same for the DPRK too.[56] In the 1950s the C.I.A. wrote that, although a planned increase of the area sown to fodder crops was unfulfilled, and their fodder production (still) lagged behind animal husbandry’s increasing demands, the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic’s Sovkhozes considerably increased their sown areas and crop yields during the Fourth Five‐Year Plan; they increased livestock as well.[57]

Concerning the U.S.S.R. and the Indians:

“Soon after Indian independence in 1947, the country was faced with an alarming shortage of food grain. The Indian government urgently requested both USA and USSR to send in food aid. While, the American officials were working on the modalities for food grain aid, working out its terms and conditions, when the Indian request reached Kremlin, USSR, Stalin immediately ordered a food‐grain laden ship that was already on its way to a different destination, to change course and go to India. A top Kremlin official intervened saying that documents are yet to be completed and signed, to which Stalin said ‘Documents can wait, hunger cannot.’[58]” (Indian diplomat, P. Ratnam disclosed the above conversation to a group of journalists at the Indian Embassy in Moscow in 1950. See Mazdoor Bigul archive, December, 2005.)[59]

Unsurprisingly,[60] [61] annual grain production in the Kwangtung Province increased.[62] A British Field Marshal reported in 1961 that he was no longer able to find any cases of malnutrition in the People’s Republic of China.[63] Writing four years later, a Danish foreign affairs commentator agreed, reporting that ‘only rice and cotton cloth are rationed, but you can have a large bowl of rice without giving up ration cards in any restaurant or canteen for only 0.15 yuan.[64] In the 1970s, the People’s Republic of China exported food aid to Cambodians after imperialists devastated their agriculture.[65] By 1976 the average caloric intake of the Soviet population was 3,330.[66] Similarly, a 1983 report discovered that Soviets and U.S. citizens ate about the same amount of food quotidianly, but the Soviet diet may have be more eutrophic; they put the daily caloric intake at 3,280.[67] [68] (If the C.I.A. is writing something positive about their enemies, then it was likely never meant for public announcements.) The Republic of Cuba has been a world leader in organic farming[69] for a while now.[70] All Cuban citizens are legally entitled to food;[71] the FAO concluded that the Republic of Cuba’s ‘remarkably low percentages of child malnutrition put [them] at the forefront of developing countries[72] and World Food Program USA has likewise concluded that their ‘comprehensive social protection programs’ have ‘largely eliminated hunger and poverty.[73] They have been reducing their reliance on foreign imports for a couple decades now.[74] The German Democratic Republic had their own foods, such as Spreewald pickles, Mocha Fix, Schnittchen, and Schnitzel, among others. Albanians ate mutton, garlic soup, sea trout, salami, shish qebab, apricots, &c. Quote:

‘[The People’s Socialist Republic of] Albania is among the European countries with least arable land per head of population. Nevertheless, by relying on the cooperativist order, the ever increasing needs of consumption, industry and export for bread grain and other agricultural and livestock products are ever better fulfilled in conformity with the requirements of the socio‐economic development of the country.’[75]

Soviet cooperatives in the 1920s were quite important to the economy; they produced butter, sugar beets, eggs, grain, and other goods for the people; agricultural cooperatives had millions of members.[76] After World War II ended, the Soviet Union had a positive population growth for the remainder of their existence. From 1949 to the late 1960s the consumption of meat, dairy, eggs, fish, sugar, tea, and alcohol all rose in the Polish People’s Republic, the German Democratic Republic, and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.[77] The Republic of Chile’s beef and bread consumption increased by 15% from 1971 to 1972. They also initiated a programme to provide every Chilean child with a half‐litre of milk daily. (See Roger Morris’s Through the Looking Glass in Chile.) In 1973 Chilean socialists went out on the street, loading goods with their bare hands, struggling so that the their towns did not go short on food. Some of the carriers (who supported Salvador Allende) organized convoys to distribute food in the provinces. The population also developed a family supply system that they called ‘the people’s basket’.[78] The People’s Republic of China became food‐sufficient by the late 1970s,[79] and today they are the second least food‐wasting country in existence;[80] they are making good progress in addressing the malnutrition issues that do exist in some rural areas.[81] During the short twentieth century the Nicaraguan socialists initiated a food programme: every Nicaraguan child had a ration of beans and rice so that the entire republic, no matter how poor that it was, was being fed; the Republic of Nicaragua’s staple foods consumption increased 30%. (See Alexander Sukhostat, Nicaragua—Defending the Revolution, Political Affairs, December 1981, pages 28–35; Collins, What Difference Could a Revolution Make?) In both the Polish People’s Republic and the Soviet Union, the states refused to raise bread prices, thus a loaf cost only a few pennies, even less than animal feed (which amusingly encouraged farmers to purchase bread over the feed). Grenada’s New JEWEL Movement distributed free milk and other foodstuffs to the needy; they leased unused land in order to establish farm cooperatives and sought to turn agriculture away from their cash‐crop exports in exchange for self‐sufficient food production instead (as documented by Michael Massing in February of 1984).

A report published by the UNDP indicated a steep increase in the number of calories available for Venezuelans between the late 1990s and 2010.[82] The Food and Agriculture Organization gave the republic a special commendation in 2013 for the socialists’ exemplary work reducing malnourishment. The same organization also noted that the number of undernourished Venezuelans was 2.8 million between 1990 and 1992, rose to 3.8 million between 2000 and 2002, but fell to a statistically insignificant number by 2010 to 2012. They likewise calculated that there were 3,020 calories available per person daily in Venezuela, a figure much larger than the 1,800 per person daily that it recommends as a minimum and far larger than the one of under 1,800 available in 1999.[83] (This achievement is admittedly due in some part to their sale of oil,[30] but it is a fine example of rational distribution nonetheless.) Venezuelan communes are expanding small‐scale urban agriculture[84] to help with their homeland’s current food situation,[85] and 70% of the food consumed in Venezuelan houses today is a product of small‐scale family agriculture.[86] Families in Caracas collectively purchase tons of produce directly from a cooperative in Lara state five hours away, because if they had to buy these items in the market or in the street they would be almost impossible to afford.[87] Havana has a good number of food providers,[88] and many of them have their organic urban agriculture to thank for that.[89] In 1947 the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea’s grain output was one hundred and seventy thousand tons larger than yesteryear and agricultural production continued to increase until, at the time of the Korean War’s outbreak, basic self‐sufficiency in food had become possible[90] despite the superabundance of nonarable land.[91] They reachieved self‐sufficiency in food by the 1960s,[92] and recent U.N. statistics note that the DPRK vastly outperforms the Republic of Korea’s production of corn, wheat, soybeans, potatoes, apples, cotton, and hemp.[93] Unsurprisingly,[94] they have been reducing malnourishment consistently this century.[95]

Concerning the Ukrainian Free Territory (written from an anarchocommunist perspective):

‘By late 1917, in the area around Hulyai Pole ‘the toiling masses proceeded […] to consolidate their revolution. The little factories functioned […] under the control of the workers. The estates were split up […] among the peasants […] a certain number of agricultural communes were formed.’ […] agricultural communes ‘were in most cases organised by peasants, though sometimes their composition was a mixture of peasants and work[ers]. Their organisation was based on equality and solidarity of the members. All members of these communes — both men and women — applied themselves willingly to their tasks, whether in the field or the household.’ [P]eople were given the personal space [that] they desired, so ‘any members of the commune who wanted to cook separately for themselves and their children, or to take food from the communal kitchens and eat it in their own quarters, met with no objection from the other members.’ The management of each commune ‘was conducted by a general meeting of all its members.’’[96]

Concerning the Spanish revolution of the 1930s:

‘Many of these peasants, together with the C.N.T., organised collectives, pooling their land, animals, tools, chickens, grain, fertiliser, and even their harvested crops. […] In Montblanc the collective dug up the old useless vines and planted new vineyards. The land, improved by modern cultivation with tractors, yielded much bigger and better crops. […] In many places I observed plants growing in the shade of the orange trees. ‘What is this?,’ I asked. I learned that the Levant peasants (famous for their ingenuity) have abundantly planted potatoes among the orange groves. The peasants demonstrate more intelligence than all the bureaucrats in the Ministry of Agriculture combined. They do more than just plant potatoes. Throughout the whole region of the Levant, wherever the soil is suitable, they grow crops. They take advantage of the four month fallow period in the rice fields. Had the Minister of Agriculture followed the example of these peasants throughout the Republican zone, the bread shortage problem would have been overcome in a few months.’[97] (These rural collectives also supplied food to front‐line troops!)

Emma Goldman adds:

I learned that they work eight hours a day, that the richness of the soil had been increased; that before the 19th the crops realized 400,000 pesetas; now they exceeded a million. The entire agricultural production of 1937 consisted of the following: 300 loads of melons; 2 50,000 kilos. of potatoes; 1 28,000 kilos. of barley; 175,000 kilos. of wheat; part of it had been sent to the Centre Federation of Peasants in Madrid, part to the front and the surplus for the needs of the collective. Of the crop in 1936, 125,000 pesetas worth of produce was contributed free of charge to the needs of Madrid. The comrade also spoke of the increase in livestock and in the quality of it. Among others, one of the members from Ganiz, a peasant who formerly tilled his own bit of ground, had contributed 8 milking cows of the finest quality. The collective also has built its own bakery, rabbit hutches and chicken coops.

—Emma Goldman, [98]

Paraphrasing Michael Parenti, Inventing Reality had this to say about the U.S.S.R. of the early 1980s:

‘The corporate media has made U.S. grain exports to the Soviet Union the most highly publicized international sales agreement in history. Western Europe annually imports far more grain than does the U.S.S.R., but of course no one in the corporate media or the government accuses West Germany or Benilux countries of being unable to feed their own populace. In contrast, every Soviet grain deal with the United States is front page news, a [tiresome] reminder to the Yankee public of the allegedly superior productivity of Yankee agribusiness & the ‘failure’ of collectivism. The truth is something else.
Today the Soviets produce more than enough grain to feed theirselves. They import foreign grain to help feed their livestock & thereby increase their meat & dairy consumption.[99] (This is seen in both the East & West as an ‘improved’ diet, even though there is evidence suggesting that a high meat & dairy intake is not necessarily the best diet.) It takes between seven & fourteen pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. And that is the cause of the Soviet ‘grain shortage.’ In actuality, per capita meat consumption in the U.S.S.R. has doubled in the last two decades & exceeds such nations as Norway, Italy, Greece, Spain,[100] Japan, & Israel. Milk production has jumped almost sixty percent in two decades so that today the U.S.S.R. is by far the largest milk‐producing country in the world. According to the 1982 C.I.A. report on the Soviet economy, ‘The Soviet Union remains basically self‐sufficient with respect to food.’[101] These are the accomplishments of an agrarian labour force that decreased from 42% in 1960 to 20% in 1980, working in a country where over 90% of the land is either too arid or too frigid for farming.’[102]

A detailed Western report from 1985 concerning agricultural output.[103] Pages 100–106 deal specifically with the agriculture in the Eastern Bloc. Quote:

In the past two decades gains in crop and livestock production and meat consumption have been impressive. […] The Eastern Bloc accounts for a significant share of world production of wheat, rye, barley, oats, potatoes, sunflowerseed, and sugar beets. The U.S.S.R. is the world’s largest producer of potatoes, barley, rye, oats, sunflowerseed and sugar beets. It is second in wheat production and roughly equal with the United States in second place in cotton production.

—Edward Cook and Robert Cummings, Agriculture in Eastern Europe and the U.S.S.R.

Data from the World Health Organization as of 2017 indicate that the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the People’s Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam all have a malnutrition rate of less than 2.00.[104] This was also true in 2016.[105] Similarly, as of 2018[106] the Global Hunger Index has rated the Republic of Cuba and the People’s Republic of China as ‘low’ on their index, and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, the Republic of Nicaragua, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam scored ‘moderate’. (Admittedly, they did confusingly score the DPRK as ‘serious’, but the reasons for this are probably complicated…[107])

Concerning the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea as of 2017:

International sanctions on the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea appear to be biting their civilian economy more than in the past, arousing concerns that the country’s historically precarious food supply, which has also been adversely affected by dry weather this spring, is jeopardised. However, the context matters. Food production in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has grown remarkably over the past few years; even if food production declines a bit, it may not be disastrous. Moreover, estimates by U.N. agencies, which are generally regarded as authoritative, tend to overstate how much food distribution by the state really matters. Although the evidence is far from conclusive, current market prices do not indicate that a food crisis or emergency is presently at hand.

—Benjamin Katzeff Silberstein, [108]

So were there food deficiencies or empty shelves in the Eastern Bloc & alibi? There were empty shelves there and then, yes, but that does not necessarily mean that the citizens were all famished; refrigerators were often well stocked even if the stores theirselves were not.[109] The Soviet breadlines came from their system of food distribution: basically all food was freshly made and trucked out to the stores every morning, therefore every morning people would queue up at the stores to wait for those trucks to arrive, often with the youths doing this for their families. The lines cleared in approximately one hour (two on busy days) and since at least the late 1940s everyone got their share sooner or later. Hunger had not been, and was not in later decades, a part of the Soviet scene. As Dr. Kenneth Gray, the White House’s top expert on Soviet agriculture, said in his testimony to the Joint Economic Committee of Congress ‘…the food shortages in the USSR are occurring at fairly respectable levels of consumption.[110] The causes for empty shelves furthermore are fairly complex and cannot simply be reduced to a lack of capitalism. For example, many managers made the seemingly logical but ultimately erroneously assumption that productive labourers ought to be given grander workloads while relatively unproductive labourers should receive lighter workloads, unintentionally encouraging many to work lightly. Another instance is the Polish People’s Republic during the 1970s, where the prices of food were artificially reduced to low prices, partially in commitment to egalitarian principles but also by worker demand. Both consumption and production rose, but in disequilibrium. The Polish People’s Republic’s main exports were food[111] and coal, but later the balance turned negative; cash stopped flowing in, the debt became overwhelming, the Polish People’s Republic’s economy was obliged to export even more for payments, and then food deficiencies and rationing occurred. A black market and extra civil unrest naturally followed, though neither helped with the problem.[112] In the end though, these territories were not constantly suffering severe levels of malnutrition. (One has to wonder how the citizens maintained their high lifespans and average physiques as they waited in long queues only to presumably receive absolutely nothing.)

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