Difference between revisions of "User:Anarcho-Bolshevik/compendium/section 5"

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{{DISPLAYTITLE:Communists are just as vile, if not worse, than fascists and white nationalists}}
 
{{DISPLAYTITLE:Communists are just as vile, if not worse, than fascists and white nationalists}}
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Long‐time Jewish antifascist Efraim Zuroff stated that “''There are two major components of Holocaust distortion. One is to hide or minimize the role of local collaborators. The other one is to claim that Communism is just as bad as [Fascism], and that Communism should be categorized as genocide.''” He argues that this is anti‐Semitic “''because if Communism is categorized as genocide, it means that Jews committed genocide. Jewish communists were among those who committed the crimes of the [people’s republics]. If Jews committed genocide, how can we complain about their committing genocide,''<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Ahren|first=Raphael|title=On Holocaust distortion, Poland is the ‘tip of the iceberg,’ Nazi hunter says|url=https://www.timesofisrael.com/?p=1785196|year=2018}}</ref>” he said. Holocaust scholar Dovid Katz likewise condemned the comparison (even in spite of his own disdain for [[Bolshevism]]), and stated that the ‘''Holocaust cannot, must not, be subsumed — but that is precisely what the Double Genocide theory seeks to do. It is the primary new mainstream form of Holocaust Denial, and should be treated with at least as much outrage as […] Trump’s invocation of supposed moral equivalence between people who came to Charlottesville, Virginia in [neofascist] torch-lit processions […] and those who came to protest them.''’<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Katz|first=Dovid|title=The “Double Genocide” Theory|url=https://JewishCurrents.org/?p=64731|year=2017}}</ref> Katz has noted that some of Eastern Europe’s antisocialist states have been actively prosecuting some Holocaust survivors (and honoring Axis collaborators meanwhile) as a result of this popular false equivalence.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Katz|first=Dovid|title=Understanding ‘Double Genocide’: a lethal new threat to Holocaust memory and honesty|url=http://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Dovid-Katz-on-Double-Genocide-20111.pdf}}</ref> Associate Professor Daniel Ben‐Moshe likewise agreed: ‘''Jewish organizations have for the most part failed to act in response to the emergence of double genocide in Lithuania. If they don’t want Hungary to be part of a spreading of this form of Holocaust denial they must act now. It is now time for all individuals and organizations to add their names to the declaration, which they can do at www.seventyyearsdeclation.org.''’<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Double genocide rewrites history| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.jpost.com/printarticle.aspx?id=346173}}</ref> With two exceptions, ‘''most Ukrainian Jewish leaders do not support recognizing the Holodomor as genocide. Jewish leaders say [that] it is unfair to link the Holodomor and the Holocaust[.] “We regret the tragedy of the Ukrainian people, but [Ukraine’s head of state] can’t equate the Holocaust and the tragedy […] in Ukraine,” said Rabbi Yaakov Dov Bleich, one of Ukraine’s chief rabbis.''’<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Matveyev|first=Vladimir|title=Ukraine president preps for Israel visit|url=https://www.jta.org/?p=420158|year=2007}}</ref> President of the World Zionist Organization, Nahum Goldmann, acknowledged that to ‘''compare in any way the policy of the Soviet government with the [Fascists] is not only a hideous distortion, but highly unfair to Soviet Russia, which has saved hundred of thousands of Jews when they escaped from the [Axis] at the beginning of the Second World War.''’<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=On Russia, Today’s Liberal Luminaries Take Their Cues From Fascists|url=https://wp.me/p1UbB0-mR/#four|date=2017-10-11|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171127165444/https://lorenzoae.wordpress.com/2017/10/11/on-russia-todays-liberals/#four|archivedate=2017-11-27}}</ref> More recently, the (otherwise centrist) historian, Edna Friedberg, issued on behalf of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum an advisory against Holocaust analogies in general.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Friedberg|first=Edna|title=Why Holocaust Analogies Are Dangerous|url=https://www.ushmm.org/information/press/press-releases/why-holocaust-analogies-are-dangerous|date=2018-12-12|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20190619082339/https://www.ushmm.org/information/press/press-releases/why-holocaust-analogies-are-dangerous|archivedate=2019-06-19|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref>
  
Long‐time Jewish antifascist Efraim Zuroff stated that “''There are two major components of Holocaust distortion. One is to hide or minimize the role of local collaborators. The other one is to claim that Communism is just as bad as [Fascism], and that Communism should be categorized as genocide.''” He argues that this is anti‐Semitic “''because if Communism is categorized as genocide, it means that Jews committed genocide. Jewish communists were among those who committed the crimes of the [people’s republics]. If Jews committed genocide, how can we complain about their committing genocide,''<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Ahren|first=Raphael|title=On Holocaust distortion, Poland is the ‘tip of the iceberg,’ Nazi hunter says|url=https://www.timesofisrael.com/?p=1785196|year=2018}}</ref>” he said. Holocaust scholar Dovid Katz likewise condemned the comparison (even in spite of his own disdain for Bolshevism), and stated that the ‘''Holocaust cannot, must not, be subsumed — but that is precisely what the Double Genocide theory seeks to do. It is the primary new mainstream form of Holocaust Denial, and should be treated with at least as much outrage as […] Trump’s invocation of supposed moral equivalence between people who came to Charlottesville, Virginia in [neofascist] torch-lit processions […] and those who came to protest them.''’<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Katz|first=Dovid|title=The “Double Genocide” Theory|url=https://JewishCurrents.org/?p=64731|year=2017}}</ref> Katz has noted that some of Eastern Europe’s antisocialist states have been actively prosecuting some Holocaust survivors (and honoring Axis collaborators meanwhile) as a result of this popular false equivalence.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Katz|first=Dovid|title=Understanding ‘Double Genocide’: a lethal new threat to Holocaust memory and honesty|url=http://defendinghistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Dovid-Katz-on-Double-Genocide-20111.pdf}}</ref> Associate Professor Daniel Ben‐Moshe likewise agreed: ‘''Jewish organizations have for the most part failed to act in response to the emergence of double genocide in Lithuania. If they don’t want Hungary to be part of a spreading of this form of Holocaust denial they must act now. It is now time for all individuals and organizations to add their names to the declaration, which they can do at www.seventyyearsdeclation.org.''<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Double genocide rewrites history| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.jpost.com/printarticle.aspx?id=346173}}</ref> With two exceptions, ‘''most Ukrainian Jewish leaders do not support recognizing the Holodomor as genocide. Jewish leaders say [that] it is unfair to link the Holodomor and the Holocaust[.] “We regret the tragedy of the Ukrainian people, but [Ukraine’s head of state] can’t equate the Holocaust and the tragedy […] in Ukraine,” said Rabbi Yaakov Dov Bleich, one of Ukraine’s chief rabbis.''’<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Matveyev|first=Vladimir|title=Ukraine president preps for Israel visit|url=https://www.jta.org/?p=420158|year=2007}}</ref> President of the World Zionist Organization, Nahum Goldmann, acknowledged that to ‘''compare in any way the policy of the Soviet government with the [Fascists] is not only a hideous distortion, but highly unfair to Soviet Russia, which has saved hundred of thousands of Jews when they escaped from the [Axis] at the beginning of the Second World War.''’<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=On Russia, Today’s Liberal Luminaries Take Their Cues From Fascists|url=https://wp.me/p1UbB0-mR/#four|date=2017-10-11|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171127165444/https://lorenzoae.wordpress.com/2017/10/11/on-russia-todays-liberals/#four|archivedate=2017-11-27}}</ref> More recently, the (otherwise centrist) historian, Edna Friedberg, issued on behalf of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum an advisory against Holocaust analogies in general.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Friedberg|first=Edna|title=Why Holocaust Analogies Are Dangerous|url=https://www.ushmm.org/information/press/press-releases/why-holocaust-analogies-are-dangerous|date=2018-12-12|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20190619082339/https://www.ushmm.org/information/press/press-releases/why-holocaust-analogies-are-dangerous|archivedate=2019-06-19|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref>
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But briefly put: neither white supremacy,<ref>https://i.redd.it/vyd9kx43hzyx.jpg</ref> nor misogyny,<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=An Anarchist FAQ|url=https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/index.html|section=A.3.5|sectionurl=http://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secA3.html#seca35|accessdate=2020-01-28}}</ref> <ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Oppression of Women and Communist Revolution, 1979| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = http://www.international-communist-party.org/English/REPORTS/79_Women.htm}}</ref> nor heterosexism,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/9rwlvr/_/e8kfddy</ref> <ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/6gy78v/_/div44jv</ref> nor cissexism,<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Smith|first=Lydia|title=Inside Cuba's LGBT revolution: How the island's attitudes to sexuality and gender were transformed|url=https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/cuba-lgbt-revolution-gay-lesbian-transgender-rights-havana-raul-castro-a8122591.html|date=2018-01-04|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180104101506/http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/cuba-lgbt-revolution-gay-lesbian-transgender-rights-havana-raul-castro-a8122591.html|archivedate=2018-01-04|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> nor any other form of discrimination is central to the establishment of socialism. Most socialists (but not all—more on that later) '''reject''' such discriminations, in fact recognising them as obstacles to world revolution.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=An Anarchist FAQ|url=https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/index.html|section=B.1.4|sectionurl=https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secB1.html#secb14|accessdate=2020-01-28}}</ref> Certainly there are few socialists, especially today, who make such nuisances primary components of their politics. Nonetheless, many socialists<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=An Anarchist FAQ|url=https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/index.html|section=A.3.4|sectionurl=https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secA3.html#seca34|accessdate=2020-01-28}}</ref>—it is true—have argued that it can be acceptable to use violence or even lethal force against their small but powerful minority of oppressors:<ref>{{cite book|last=Engels|first=Friedrich|tite=The Principles of Communism|url=https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1847/11/prin-com.htm|year=1847|section=16|sectionurl=https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1847/11/prin-com.htm#16|trans=Paul Sweezy}}</ref> <ref>{{cite book|last=Malatesta|first=Errico|editor=Vernon Richards|chapter=I|title=Errico Malatesta: His Life & Ideas|url=https://libcom.org/files/Malatesta%20-%20Life%20and%20Ideas.pdf|location=London|publisher=Freedom Press|year=1965|section=5|page=55}}</ref> the upper classes and their loyalest henchmen, but it is also possible (if improbable) to have a bloodless revolution:<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Marx|first=Karl|title=The Setting for the Fifth Congress of the International Workingmen's Association|url=https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/iwma/documents/1872/hague-conference/introduction.htm|year=1872}}</ref> <ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Marx|first=Karl|coauthors=Friedrich Engels|title=The Class Struggles In France|url=https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1850/class-struggles-france/intro.htm|year=1895}}</ref> the upper classes could surrender or allow their wealth to be seized, since class is merely a societal trait into which one is born, rather than a trait that is biologically inherited. Indeed, this reflects the October Revolution, which had surprisingly little violence,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/mAK9G8f87fw</ref> and so did the February events in Czechoslovakia.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=W. Douglas|first=Dorothy|chapter=V|chapterurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=Wj8tFpWhxIMC&pg=PA85|coauthors=Lynn Turgeon|title=Transitional Economic Systems, The Polish-Czech Example|url=https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7iUwYR74MlbcFBxbWxsdHNLMHM|accessdate=2019-10-09|edition=|location=New York and London|publisher=Monthly Review Press|year=1972|isbn=|oclc=|section=|pages=85–9}}</ref>
  
But briefly put: neither white supremacy,<ref>https://i.redd.it/vyd9kx43hzyx.jpg</ref> nor misogyny,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Oppression of Women and Communist Revolution, 1979| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = http://www.international-communist-party.org/English/REPORTS/79_Women.htm}}</ref> nor heterosexism,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/9rwlvr/_/e8kfddy</ref> <ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/6gy78v/_/div44jv</ref> nor cissexism,<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Smith|first=Lydia|title=Inside Cuba's LGBT revolution: How the island's attitudes to sexuality and gender were transformed|url=https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/cuba-lgbt-revolution-gay-lesbian-transgender-rights-havana-raul-castro-a8122591.html|date=2018-01-04|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180104101506/http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/cuba-lgbt-revolution-gay-lesbian-transgender-rights-havana-raul-castro-a8122591.html|archivedate=2018-01-04|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> nor any other form of discrimination is central to the establishment of socialism. Most socialists (but not all—more on that later) '''reject''' such discriminations, in fact recognising them as obstacles to world revolution.<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secB1.html#secb14</ref> Certainly there are few socialists, especially today, who make such nuisances primary components of their politics. Nonetheless, many socialists<ref>https://anarchism.pageabode.com/afaq/secA3.html#seca34</ref>—it is true—have argued that it can be acceptable to use violence or even lethal force against their small but powerful minority of oppressors:<ref>{{cite book|last=Engels|first=Friedrich|tite=The Principles of Communism|url=https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1847/11/prin-com.htm|year=1847|section=16|sectionurl=https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1847/11/prin-com.htm#16|trans=Paul Sweezy}}</ref> <ref>{{cite book|last=Malatesta|first=Errico|editor=Vernon Richards|chapter=I|title=Errico Malatesta: His Life & Ideas|url=https://libcom.org/files/Malatesta%20-%20Life%20and%20Ideas.pdf|location=London|publisher=Freedom Press|year=1965|section=5|page=55}}</ref> the upper classes and their loyalest henchmen, but it is also possible (if improbable) to have a bloodless revolution:<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Marx|first=Karl|title=The Setting for the Fifth Congress of the International Workingmen's Association|url=https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/iwma/documents/1872/hague-conference/introduction.htm|year=1872}}</ref> <ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Marx|first=Karl|coauthors=Friedrich Engels|title=The Class Struggles In France|url=https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1850/class-struggles-france/intro.htm|year=1895}}</ref> the upper classes could surrender or allow their wealth to be seized, since class is merely a societal trait into which one is born, rather than a trait that is biologically inherited. Indeed, this reflects the October Revolution, which had surprisingly little violence,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/mAK9G8f87fw</ref> and so did the February events in Czechoslovakia.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=W. Douglas|first=Dorothy|chapter=V|chapterurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=Wj8tFpWhxIMC&pg=PA85|coauthors=Lynn Turgeon|title=Transitional Economic Systems, The Polish-Czech Example|url=https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7iUwYR74MlbcFBxbWxsdHNLMHM|accessdate=2019-10-09|edition=|location=New York and London|publisher=Monthly Review Press|year=1972|isbn=|oclc=|section=|pages=85–9}}</ref>
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Many notable socialists were women, humans of colour, or both,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7anlc9/_/dpbet83</ref> and they frequently spoke out against both white supremacy and misogyny. Similarly, many socialists both historically and presently<ref>https://redd.it/8n8r7k</ref> have been nonheterosexual;<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=Wolf|first=Sherry|chapter=two|title=Sexuality and Socialism: History, Politics, and Theory of LGBT Liberation|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=tITJsxo5y2gC|location=Chicago|publisher=Haymarket Books|year=2009|page=64|pageurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=tITJsxo5y2gC&pg=PA64|ISBN=978-1931859-79-0}}</ref> <ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=Gay Left: A Socialist Journal Produced by Gay Men|url=https://libcom.org/library/gay-left-socialist-journal-produved-gay-men|accessdate=2020-02-09}}</ref> <ref>https://i.redd.it/x8yuh5zco2b11.png</ref> as, [[Emma Goldman]], Oscar Wilde, Magnus Hirschfeld, Harry Whyte,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7s2ebb/_/dt1otm1</ref> Bayard Rustin, James Baldwin, Harry Hay,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Remembering Harry Hay| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://jacobinmag.com/2017/04/harry-hay-communist-mattachine-society-lgbtq}}</ref> Judith Butler, TQILA,<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=Rojava: The Formation of the Queer Liberation and Insurrection Army (TQILA) – IRPGF|url=https://wp.me/p6AZaG-3KW|date=2017-07-24|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170803024628/https://insurrectionnewsworldwide.com/2017/07/24/rojava-the-formation-of-the-queer-liberation-and-insurrection-army-tqila-irpgf|archivedate=2017-08-03|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> and others. Indeed, the connexion between minorities and socialism is an old one. [[Friedrich Engels]] explicitly opposed anti‐Semitism,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = On Anti-Semitism by Frederick Engels April 19 1890| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1890/04/19.htm}}</ref> [[Vladimir Lenin]] openly spoke out against anti‐Semitism,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/XZzOgFY45s8</ref> and perhaps to the surprise of some, [[Joseph Stalin]] did as well and acted accordingly!<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7d0y5c/_/dpua7kl</ref> <ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=Episode 31: Stalin Was A Mensch - A Look at the ‘Antisemitism’ of the USSR|url=https://www.prolespod.com/episodes/2019/6/15/episode-31-stalin-was-a-mensch-a-look-at-the-antisemitism-of-the-ussr}}</ref> The Soviets helped evacuate over one million Jews from Axis territory.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=Russia Helped 1,750,000 Jews to Escape Nazis, Says James N. Rosenberg|url=https://www.jta.org/?p=576802|date=1943-07-02|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150728085122/http://www.jta.org/1943/07/02/archive/russia-helped-1750000-jews-to-escape-nazis-says-james-n-rosenberg|archivedate=2015-07-28|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> There have also been many Ukrainian anarchists<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = H.6.9 Were the Makhnovists anti-Semitic and pogromists?| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.nestormakhno.info/english/makfaq/h_6_9.htm}}</ref> (not all<ref>https://redd.it/64wkgf</ref> of course but still many) who fought aggressively against anti‐Semitism, as likewise have Spanish Republicans.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20070707081354/http://www.eui.eu/Personal/Researchers/Zaagsma/thesis.pdf</ref> <ref>https://invidio.us/embed/KgqoXU83v4g</ref> (Concerning [[Marx]]’s own relation with other Jews, see here.<ref>https://www.Marxists.org/subject/jewish/#marx</ref> Professor David McLellan in particular, one of the world’s foremost Marx scholars, analyses ''On the Jewish Question'' and refutes the claim that Marx was an anti-Semitic.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=McLellan|first=David|chapter=6|title=Marx before Marxism|location=Edinburgh|publisher=R. & R. Clark Ltd|year=1970|pages=132–142}}</ref> For Marx’s relations with Slavs, see here.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/c8lq66/_/esoiaxz</ref>) The Soviets created a national intelligentsia in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, and in the mid‐1930s Leningrad directed the K.S.S.R. and trained thousands of cadres for the republic’s economy.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=Was the famine of 1932-33 in Kazakhstan a genocide?|url=https://www.idcommunism.com/2019/03/was-the-famine-of-1932-33-in-kazakhstan-a-genocide.html|year=2019}}</ref> The Soviet Union critic Amadeo Bordiga helped push for the establishment of a trade union front with the unions and other various proletarian groups associated to the Communist Party of Italy, standing against the Fascist police, military and of course the Blackshirts.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Bourrinet|first=Philippe|title=The “Bordigist” Current|url=http://www.left-dis.nl/uk/bordigist.pdf|accessdate=2020-02-09}}</ref> It is inaccurate to imply that the anti-Church sentiment among the Iberian anarchists was due to religion. Not only did the Protestant churches remain unattacked, but the Church itself was attacked in previous popular revolts. This was an unpopular institution that allied with the ruling class and capitalist despotism, exploitation and repression.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=Thomas|first=Hugh|title=The Spanish Civil War|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=4a5RAQAAQBAJ|location=New York|publisher=The Modern Library|year=2013|page=269f|pageurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=4a5RAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA269|ISBN=0-375-75515-2}}</ref>
  
Many notable socialists were women, humans of colour, or both,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7anlc9/_/dpbet83</ref> and they frequently spoke out against both white supremacy and misogyny. Similarly, many socialists both historically and presently<ref>https://redd.it/8n8r7k</ref> have been nonheterosexual;<ref>https://i.redd.it/x8yuh5zco2b11.png</ref> as, Emma Goldman, Oscar Wilde, Magnus Hirschfeld, Harry Whyte,<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7s2ebb/_/dt1otm1</ref> Bayard Rustin, James Baldwin, Harry Hay,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Remembering Harry Hay| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://jacobinmag.com/2017/04/harry-hay-communist-mattachine-society-lgbtq}}</ref> Judith Butler, TQILA,<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=Rojava: The Formation of the Queer Liberation and Insurrection Army (TQILA) – IRPGF|url=https://wp.me/p6AZaG-3KW|date=2017-07-24|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170803024628/https://insurrectionnewsworldwide.com/2017/07/24/rojava-the-formation-of-the-queer-liberation-and-insurrection-army-tqila-irpgf|archivedate=2017-08-03|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> and others. Indeed, the connexion between minorities and socialism is an old one.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7h1sal/_/dqniddg</ref> Engels explicitly opposed anti‐Semitism,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = On Anti-Semitism by Frederick Engels April 19 1890| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1890/04/19.htm}}</ref> Lenin openly spoke out against anti‐Semitism,<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/XZzOgFY45s8</ref> and perhaps to the surprise of some, Joseph Stalin did as well and acted accordingly!<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/7d0y5c/_/dpua7kl</ref> <ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=Episode 31: Stalin Was A Mensch - A Look at the ‘Antisemitism’ of the USSR|url=https://www.prolespod.com/episodes/2019/6/15/episode-31-stalin-was-a-mensch-a-look-at-the-antisemitism-of-the-ussr}}</ref> The Soviets helped evacuate over one million Jews from Axis territory.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=Russia Helped 1,750,000 Jews to Escape Nazis, Says James N. Rosenberg|url=https://www.jta.org/?p=576802|date=1943-07-02|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150728085122/http://www.jta.org/1943/07/02/archive/russia-helped-1750000-jews-to-escape-nazis-says-james-n-rosenberg|archivedate=2015-07-28|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> There have also been many Ukrainian anarchists<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = H.6.9 Were the Makhnovists anti-Semitic and pogromists?| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.nestormakhno.info/english/makfaq/h_6_9.htm}}</ref> (not all<ref>https://redd.it/64wkgf</ref> of course but still many) who fought aggressively against anti‐Semitism, as likewise have Spanish Republicans.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20070707081354/http://www.eui.eu/Personal/Researchers/Zaagsma/thesis.pdf</ref> <ref>https://invidio.us/embed/KgqoXU83v4g</ref> (Concerning Marx’s own relation with other Jews, see here.<ref>https://www.Marxists.org/subject/jewish/#marx</ref> Professor David McLellan in particular, one of the world’s foremost Marx scholars, analyses ''On the Jewish Question'' and refutes the claim that Marx was an anti-Semitic.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=McLellan|first=David|chapter=6|title=Marx before Marxism|location=Edinburgh|publisher=R. & R. Clark Ltd|year=1970|pages=132–142}}</ref> For Marx’s relations with Slavs, see here.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/c8lq66/_/esoiaxz</ref>) The Soviets created a national intelligentsia in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, and in the mid‐1930s Leningrad directed the K.S.S.R. and trained thousands of cadres for the republic’s economy.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=Was the famine of 1932-33 in Kazakhstan a genocide?|url=https://www.idcommunism.com/2019/03/was-the-famine-of-1932-33-in-kazakhstan-a-genocide.html|year=2019}}</ref> The Soviet Union critic Amadeo Bordiga helped push for the establishment of a trade union front with the unions and other various proletarian groups associated to the Communist Party of Italy, standing against the Fascist police, military and of course the Blackshirts.<ref>http://www.left-dis.nl/uk/bordigist.pdf</ref>
+
[[Karl Marx]] strongly opposed both slavery and the Southern Confederacy<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/internationalist/pamphlets/MARX-on-Slavery-OptV5.pdf</ref> just like [[Peter Kropotkin]] did,<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Kropotkin|first=Pëtr|title=Are We Good Enough?|url=https://libcom.org/files/petr-kropotkin-are-we-good-enough.pdf|date=1888-06-21|accessdate=2020-02-09}}</ref> and he told us that labor ‘''cannot emancipate itself in the white skin where in the black it is branded.''’<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=Marx|first=Karl|chapter=10|title=Capital: A Critique of Political Economy
 
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|publisher=Progress Publishers|volume=I|year=1867|section=VII|sectionurl=https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1867-c1/ch10.htm#S7|trans=Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling|accessdate=2020-02-09}}</ref> (Marx hisself may have used a racial slur several times, though the correspondence was in German.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite news| issn = 0028-792X| last = McGrane| first = Sally| title = A Fight in Germany Over Racist Language| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2013-01-31| url = https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/a-fight-in-germany-over-racist-language}}</ref>) [[Leon Trotsky]] opposed both misogyny<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Trotsky|first=Leon|title=Perspectives and Tasks in the East|url=https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1924/04/perspectives.htm|date=1924-04-21|publisher=New Park Publications Ltd|trans=R. Chappell|accessdate=2020-02-09}}</ref> and white supremacy<ref>{{safesubst:cite journal|last=Trotsky|first=Leon|title=The Agrarian and National Questions|journal=Fourth International|volume=6|number=11|url=https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1935/04/wpsa.htm|date=1935-04-20|pages=345–347|trans=Fourth International}}</ref> and stated that we ‘''do not compel [black humans] to separate from the States, but they have the full right to self‐determination when they so desire and we will support and defend them with all the means at our disposal in the [conquest] of this right, the same as we defend all oppressed peoples.''’<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = The Negro Question| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/works/1940/negro1.htm}}</ref> On June 15, 1940, he observed that the ‘''white slaveholders accustom [black humans] not to speak first. But on the picket line they show more courage. That is true of all oppressed nationalities''’, and boldly suggested that we ‘''must approach them everywhere by advocating that for every lynching they should lynch ten or twenty lynchers.''’ He also wisely recommended that we ‘''should pay more attention to the Latin American workers in relation to [Yankee] imperialism. We should turn in the direction of Latin America.''<ref>https://archive.org/stream/LeonTrotskyCollectedWritings19391940#page/n284/mode/1up</ref> He was likewise fiercely opposed to violence against the lower‐class Cossacks.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/bjug5d/_/emd5i2z</ref> Similarly, Bordiga recognised racism as ‘''the petit bourgeois reaction to the pressures of big capital''’<ref>https://www.Marxists.org/subject/jewish/bordiga/auschwitz.htm#a2</ref> and was an advocate ‘''not only for the mobilisation of the world proletariat for the defence of soviet power and to direct the assault on the western, bourgeois powers, but for the extension of the revolutionary struggle to continents inhabited by [humans of colour], in short the mobilisation of all forces able to carry on an armed fight against white capitalist metropoles.''’<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Amadeo Bordiga. 1951| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.marxists.org/archive/bordiga/works/1951/charthes.htm}}</ref> The democialist Salvador Allende condemned anti‐Semitism and the [[Third Reich]] in particular.<ref>https://redd.it/acvzur</ref> In 1989, Kim Jong‐Il correctly stated that we ‘''do not assert that the Koreans’ biological constitution is more developed than those of other races. Defining the superiority of a nation according to biological or ethnic characteristics is the practice of reactionary, bourgeois ethnology.''’<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| last = Korea| first = counterpropaganda re| title = Propaganda claiming that “DPRK is racist” relies on willful mistranslations by imperial clerks who ignore DPRK’s own English translations and transplant DPRK’s language into the linguistic landscape of racialized capitalism.https://korcounterprop.tumblr.com/post/176252087082| work = @korcounterprop| format = Tweet| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2018-07-24| url = https://twitter.com/i/status/1021960285454708737}}</ref> (In many cases, the accusations of racial chauvinism in the [[Democratic People’s Republic of Korea]] are based on mistranslations.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| last = Korea| first = counterpropaganda re| title = Propaganda claiming that “DPRK is racist” relies on willful mistranslations by imperial clerks who ignore DPRK’s own English translations and transplant DPRK’s language into the linguistic landscape of racialized capitalism.https://korcounterprop.tumblr.com/post/176252087082| work = @korcounterprop| format = Tweet| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2018-07-24| url = https://twitter.com/i/status/1021960285454708737}}</ref>) The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia valued diversity and unity, and attempted to suppress its unauthorized paramilitary forces, arresting the irregular, self‐appointed leaders (some of whom were tried and sentenced to two decades in prison).<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = GUILTY FOR 9-11: BUSH, RUMSFELD, MYERS| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = http://www.emperors-clothes.com/articles/jared/milosaid.html}}</ref> Despite the repetitive accusations, the little evidence used against them does not support the conclusion that they were ethnonationalists (quite the contrary).<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last1=S. Herman|first1=Edward|last2=Peterson|first2=David|chapter=I|title=The Dismantling of Yugoslavia|url=https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=2404|date=2007-10-01|accessdate=2020-01-12}}</ref> Similar to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,<ref>{{safesubst:cite book |last=Syzmański |first=Albert |authorlink= |chapter=2 |title=Human Rights in the Soviet Union |url=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion |location=London |publisher=Zed Books Ltd. |year=1984 |section=Soviet Policy Towards Islam |pages=62–3 |pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n39/mode/1up |isbn=0 086232 018 6 |oclc=}}</ref> the [[People’s Republic of China]] is accepting towards most Muslims. (The Muslims that they are persecuting are a minority of violent antisocialists.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| last = Goodrum| first = Ian| title = China is not eradicating Islam. A thread.pic.twitter.com/8mc5jzfiN2| work = @isgoodrum| format = Tweet| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2018-06-07| url = https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/1004884261051092993.html}}</ref>) Likewise, the United Nations did not report any ‘internment camps’ for Muslims.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last1=Norton|first1=Ben|last2=Singh|first2=Ajit|title=No, the UN did not report China has ‘massive internment camps’ for Uighur Muslims|url=https://wp.me/p9MxL0-dW|accessdate=2020-01-12}}</ref> The minority of them are simply undergoing rehabilitation.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Brown|first=Jeff|title=Time to Get Real about China’s 25 Million Muslims|url=https://chinarising.puntopress.com/?p=8587|date=2018-08-27|accessdate=2020-01-12}}</ref> <ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Engdahl|first=F.|title=The Truth Behind China’s ‘Uyghur Problem’|url=https://21stcenturywire.com/?p=122568|date=2018-12-14|accessdate=2020-01-12}}</ref> <ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Pakistani diplomat narrates visit to China’s Xinjiang| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.thenews.com.pk/latest/422970-pakistani-diplomat-narrates-visit-to-chinas-xinjiang}}</ref> <ref>{{safesubst:Cite web|last1=Blumenthal|last2=Singh|first1=Max|first2=Ajit| title = China detaining millions of Uyghurs? Serious problems with claims by US-backed NGO and far-right researcher ‘led by God’ against Beijing| accessdate = 2019-12-82| url = https://wp.me/p9MxL0-4Iz}}</ref>
Karl Marx strongly opposed both slavery and the Southern Confederacy<ref>https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/internationalist/pamphlets/MARX-on-Slavery-OptV5.pdf</ref> just like Peter Kropotkin did,<ref>https://libcom.org/files/petr-kropotkin-are-we-good-enough.pdf</ref> and he told us that labor ‘''cannot emancipate itself in the white skin where in the black it is branded.''’<ref>https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1867-c1/ch10.htm#160a</ref> (Marx hisself may have used a racial slur several times, though the correspondence was in German.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite news| issn = 0028-792X| last = McGrane| first = Sally| title = A Fight in Germany Over Racist Language| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2013-01-31| url = https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/a-fight-in-germany-over-racist-language}}</ref>) Leon Trotsky opposed white supremacy<ref>{{safesubst:cite journal|last=Trotsky|first=Leonard|title=The Agrarian and National Questions|journal=Fourth International|volume=6|number=11|url=https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1935/04/wpsa.htm|date=1935-04-20|pages=345–347|trans=Fourth International}}</ref> and stated that we ‘''do not compel [black humans] to separate from the States, but they have the full right to self‐determination when they so desire and we will support and defend them with all the means at our disposal in the [conquest] of this right, the same as we defend all oppressed peoples.''’<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = The Negro Question| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/works/1940/negro1.htm}}</ref> On June 15, 1940, he observed that the ‘''white slaveholders accustom [black humans] not to speak first. But on the picket line they show more courage. That is true of all oppressed nationalities''’, and boldly suggested that we ‘''must approach them everywhere by advocating that for every lynching they should lynch ten or twenty lynchers.''’ He also wisely recommended that we ‘''should pay more attention to the Latin American workers in relation to [Yankee] imperialism. We should turn in the direction of Latin America.''’<ref>https://archive.org/stream/LeonTrotskyCollectedWritings19391940#page/n284/mode/1up</ref> He was likewise fiercely opposed to violence against the lower‐class Cossacks.<ref>https://www.reddit.com/comments/bjug5d/_/emd5i2z</ref> Similarly, Bordiga recognised racism as ‘''the petit bourgeois reaction to the pressures of big capital''’<ref>https://www.Marxists.org/subject/jewish/bordiga/auschwitz.htm#a2</ref> and was an advocate ‘''not only for the mobilisation of the world proletariat for the defence of soviet power and to direct the assault on the western, bourgeois powers, but for the extension of the revolutionary struggle to continents inhabited by [humans of colour], in short the mobilisation of all forces able to carry on an armed fight against white capitalist metropoles.''’<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Amadeo Bordiga. 1951| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.marxists.org/archive/bordiga/works/1951/charthes.htm}}</ref> The democialist Salvador Allende condemned anti‐Semitism and the Third Reich in particular.<ref>https://redd.it/acvzur</ref> In 1989, Kim Jong‐Il correctly stated that we ‘''do not assert that the Koreans’ biological constitution is more developed than those of other races. Defining the superiority of a nation according to biological or ethnic characteristics is the practice of reactionary, bourgeois ethnology.''’<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| last = Korea| first = counterpropaganda re| title = Propaganda claiming that “DPRK is racist” relies on willful mistranslations by imperial clerks who ignore DPRK’s own English translations and transplant DPRK’s language into the linguistic landscape of racialized capitalism.https://korcounterprop.tumblr.com/post/176252087082| work = @korcounterprop| format = Tweet| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2018-07-24| url = https://twitter.com/i/status/1021960285454708737}}</ref> (In many cases, the accusations of racial chauvinism in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea are based on mistranslations.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| last = Korea| first = counterpropaganda re| title = Propaganda claiming that “DPRK is racist” relies on willful mistranslations by imperial clerks who ignore DPRK’s own English translations and transplant DPRK’s language into the linguistic landscape of racialized capitalism.https://korcounterprop.tumblr.com/post/176252087082| work = @korcounterprop| format = Tweet| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2018-07-24| url = https://twitter.com/i/status/1021960285454708737}}</ref>) The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia valued diversity and unity, and attempted to suppress its unauthorized paramilitary forces, arresting the irregular, self‐appointed leaders (some of whom were tried and sentenced to two decades in prison).<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = GUILTY FOR 9-11: BUSH, RUMSFELD, MYERS| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = http://www.emperors-clothes.com/articles/jared/milosaid.html}}</ref> Despite the repetitive accusations, the little evidence used against them does not support the conclusion that they were ethnonationalists (quite the contrary).<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last1=S. Herman|first1=Edward|last2=Peterson|first2=David|chapter=I|title=The Dismantling of Yugoslavia|url=https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=2404|date=2007-10-01|accessdate=2020-01-12}}</ref> Similar to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,<ref>{{safesubst:cite book |last=Syzmański |first=Albert |authorlink= |chapter=2 |title=Human Rights in the Soviet Union |url=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion |location=London |publisher=Zed Books Ltd. |year=1984 |section=Soviet Policy Towards Islam |pages=62–3 |pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n39/mode/1up |isbn=0 086232 018 6 |oclc=}}</ref> the People’s Republic of China is accepting towards most Muslims. (The Muslims that they are persecuting are a minority of violent antisocialists.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| last = Goodrum| first = Ian| title = China is not eradicating Islam. A thread.pic.twitter.com/8mc5jzfiN2| work = @isgoodrum| format = Tweet| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2018-06-07| url = https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/1004884261051092993.html}}</ref>) Likewise, the United Nations did not report any ‘internment camps’ for Muslims.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last1=Norton|first1=Ben|last2=Singh|first2=Ajit|title=No, the UN did not report China has ‘massive internment camps’ for Uighur Muslims|url=https://wp.me/p9MxL0-dW|accessdate=2020-01-12}}</ref> The minority of them are simply undergoing rehabilitation.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Brown|first=Jeff|title=Time to Get Real about China’s 25 Million Muslims|url=https://chinarising.puntopress.com/?p=8587|date=2018-08-27|accessdate=2020-01-12}}</ref> <ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Engdahl|first=F.|title=The Truth Behind China’s ‘Uyghur Problem’|url=https://21stcenturywire.com/?p=122568|date=2018-12-14|accessdate=2020-01-12}}</ref> <ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Pakistani diplomat narrates visit to China’s Xinjiang| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.thenews.com.pk/latest/422970-pakistani-diplomat-narrates-visit-to-chinas-xinjiang}}</ref> <ref>{{safesubst:Cite web|last1=Blumenthal|last2=Singh|first1=Max|first2=Ajit| title = China detaining millions of Uyghurs? Serious problems with claims by US-backed NGO and far-right researcher ‘led by God’ against Beijing| accessdate = 2019-12-82| url = https://wp.me/p9MxL0-4Iz}}</ref>
 
  
 
The Eastern Bloc and its allies were the forerunners in opposing African colonisation and specifically the South African Apartheid.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| last1 = RBTH| last2 = Kamalakaran| first2 = Ajay| title = Mandela and the Soviet Union: The struggle against apartheid| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2013-12-06| url = https://www.rbth.com/international/2013/12/06/mandela_and_the_soviet_union_the_struggle_against_apartheid_32329.html}}</ref> The Soviets were outspoken against child abuse<ref>https://redd.it/b8hxuo</ref> and sexual harassment.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| last = Imgur| title = Soviet anti-harassment poster: ‘Down with drooling lechers, we’ll discipline the wretches!’, ‪1930s. [1860×2631]| work = Imgur| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://imgur.com/XPmkZ5c}}</ref> Largely as planned,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Third Congress of the Communist International| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.marxists.org/history/international/comintern/3rd-congress/women-theses.htm}}</ref> the status of women improved greatly<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/oYFA2wCDw7A</ref> (even if imperfectly);<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = M. Pichugina-Women in the U.S.S.R| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.marxists.org/subject/women/authors/pichugina/women.html}}</ref> the proportion of Soviet women engineers in 1980 was 58%,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = The Decline of Women in Russian Engineering Education: American Society for Engineering Education| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.asee.org/public/conferences/20/papers/6985/view}}</ref> they achieved suffrage before the U.S. did,<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Thompson|first=Thomas|title=Equality begets Equality: Women's Suffrage in 1917|url=https://web.mit.edu/Russia1917/papers/0319-EqualityBegetsEquality.pdf|accessdate=2020-01-26}}</ref> they could retire five years earlier than men,<ref>{{safesubst:cite book |last=Syzmański |first=Albert |authorlink= |chapter=4 |title=Human Rights in the Soviet Union |url=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion |location=London |publisher=Zed Books Ltd. |year=1984 |section=Protective Legislation |page=118 |pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n67/mode/1up |isbn=0 086232 018 6 |oclc=}}</ref> they were more present in STEM than their U.S. equivalents,<ref>{{safesubst:cite book |last=Syzmański |first=Albert |authorlink= |chapter=4 |title=Human Rights in the Soviet Union |url=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion |location=London |publisher=Zed Books Ltd. |year=1984 |section=Labour Outside the Home |pages=114–5 |pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n65/mode/1up |isbn=0 086232 018 6 |oclc=}}</ref> and they could serve in the frontlines as well,<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Nazemroaya|first=Mahdi|title=The Historic Role That Soviet Women Played in Defeating the Nazis in World War II|url=https://wp.me/p2vCQD-mxDH|date=2018-03-08|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140309022019/http://www.globalresearch.ca/how-the-west-ignores-women-as-actors-in-otherized-societies-a-sociological-unraveling-of-the-logos-of-the-soviet-amazons/5372529|archivedate=2014-03-09|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> for instance. The People’s Republic of China made similar progress.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=Mao reconsidered|url=https://mronline.org/?p=81130|date=2017-10-18|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171019104212/https://mronline.org/2017/10/18/mao-reconsidered|archivedate=2017-10-19|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> In 2011 they liberated twenty‐four thousand abducted women and children.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Gabel|first=Emmalie|editor=Susan Rahman|title=China frees 24,000 abducted women, children in 2011|url=https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=3815|date=2012-12-03|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref>
 
The Eastern Bloc and its allies were the forerunners in opposing African colonisation and specifically the South African Apartheid.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| last1 = RBTH| last2 = Kamalakaran| first2 = Ajay| title = Mandela and the Soviet Union: The struggle against apartheid| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2013-12-06| url = https://www.rbth.com/international/2013/12/06/mandela_and_the_soviet_union_the_struggle_against_apartheid_32329.html}}</ref> The Soviets were outspoken against child abuse<ref>https://redd.it/b8hxuo</ref> and sexual harassment.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| last = Imgur| title = Soviet anti-harassment poster: ‘Down with drooling lechers, we’ll discipline the wretches!’, ‪1930s. [1860×2631]| work = Imgur| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://imgur.com/XPmkZ5c}}</ref> Largely as planned,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Third Congress of the Communist International| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.marxists.org/history/international/comintern/3rd-congress/women-theses.htm}}</ref> the status of women improved greatly<ref>https://invidio.us/embed/oYFA2wCDw7A</ref> (even if imperfectly);<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = M. Pichugina-Women in the U.S.S.R| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.marxists.org/subject/women/authors/pichugina/women.html}}</ref> the proportion of Soviet women engineers in 1980 was 58%,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = The Decline of Women in Russian Engineering Education: American Society for Engineering Education| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.asee.org/public/conferences/20/papers/6985/view}}</ref> they achieved suffrage before the U.S. did,<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Thompson|first=Thomas|title=Equality begets Equality: Women's Suffrage in 1917|url=https://web.mit.edu/Russia1917/papers/0319-EqualityBegetsEquality.pdf|accessdate=2020-01-26}}</ref> they could retire five years earlier than men,<ref>{{safesubst:cite book |last=Syzmański |first=Albert |authorlink= |chapter=4 |title=Human Rights in the Soviet Union |url=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion |location=London |publisher=Zed Books Ltd. |year=1984 |section=Protective Legislation |page=118 |pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n67/mode/1up |isbn=0 086232 018 6 |oclc=}}</ref> they were more present in STEM than their U.S. equivalents,<ref>{{safesubst:cite book |last=Syzmański |first=Albert |authorlink= |chapter=4 |title=Human Rights in the Soviet Union |url=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion |location=London |publisher=Zed Books Ltd. |year=1984 |section=Labour Outside the Home |pages=114–5 |pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n65/mode/1up |isbn=0 086232 018 6 |oclc=}}</ref> and they could serve in the frontlines as well,<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Nazemroaya|first=Mahdi|title=The Historic Role That Soviet Women Played in Defeating the Nazis in World War II|url=https://wp.me/p2vCQD-mxDH|date=2018-03-08|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140309022019/http://www.globalresearch.ca/how-the-west-ignores-women-as-actors-in-otherized-societies-a-sociological-unraveling-of-the-logos-of-the-soviet-amazons/5372529|archivedate=2014-03-09|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> for instance. The People’s Republic of China made similar progress.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|title=Mao reconsidered|url=https://mronline.org/?p=81130|date=2017-10-18|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171019104212/https://mronline.org/2017/10/18/mao-reconsidered|archivedate=2017-10-19|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> In 2011 they liberated twenty‐four thousand abducted women and children.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Gabel|first=Emmalie|editor=Susan Rahman|title=China frees 24,000 abducted women, children in 2011|url=https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=3815|date=2012-12-03|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref>
Line 27: Line 27:
 
The psycho‐endocrinologist Aron Belkin, a pioneer of Soviet research into sexual reassignment, carried out operations without conducting any psychological testing or employing any other type of psychological expertise (not because he didn’t will it; the republic simply lacked literate psychologists or approved tests to assist him at that time).<ref>{{safesubst:Cite book| publisher = Simon and Schuster| isbn = 978-0-02-917541-5| last = Кон| first = Игорь Семенович| title = The Sexual Revolution in Russia: From the Age of the Czars to Today| date = 1995|pageurl = https://books.google.com/books?id=ygJ1RG0PQ70C&pg=PA94| page = 94}}</ref> Similarly, today the [[Republic of Cuba]] offers genital reconstructions gratis,<ref>https://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/americas/06/01/cuba.sex.change</ref> and in 2017 the [[Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela]] officially recognised people’s right to change their names and correct their genders.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Boothroyd-Rojas|first=Rachael|title=Venezuela’s LGBTQ Community Celebrates Supreme Court’s Acceptance of Landmark Transgender Rights Case|url=https://venezuelanalysis.com/Nop5|date=2017-06-12|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20190228223018/https://venezuelanalysis.com/news/13179|archivedate=2019-02-28|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> Earlier during the same year, the Bolivarian Republic also legally recognised a youth with two mothers.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Charles|first=Jeanette|title=Venezuela Legally Recognizes First Child with Two Mothers|url=https://venezuelanalysis.com/NJYT|date=2017-01-31|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170601044508/https://venezuelanalysis.com/news/12913|archivedate=2017-06-01|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref>
 
The psycho‐endocrinologist Aron Belkin, a pioneer of Soviet research into sexual reassignment, carried out operations without conducting any psychological testing or employing any other type of psychological expertise (not because he didn’t will it; the republic simply lacked literate psychologists or approved tests to assist him at that time).<ref>{{safesubst:Cite book| publisher = Simon and Schuster| isbn = 978-0-02-917541-5| last = Кон| first = Игорь Семенович| title = The Sexual Revolution in Russia: From the Age of the Czars to Today| date = 1995|pageurl = https://books.google.com/books?id=ygJ1RG0PQ70C&pg=PA94| page = 94}}</ref> Similarly, today the [[Republic of Cuba]] offers genital reconstructions gratis,<ref>https://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/americas/06/01/cuba.sex.change</ref> and in 2017 the [[Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela]] officially recognised people’s right to change their names and correct their genders.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Boothroyd-Rojas|first=Rachael|title=Venezuela’s LGBTQ Community Celebrates Supreme Court’s Acceptance of Landmark Transgender Rights Case|url=https://venezuelanalysis.com/Nop5|date=2017-06-12|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20190228223018/https://venezuelanalysis.com/news/13179|archivedate=2019-02-28|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> Earlier during the same year, the Bolivarian Republic also legally recognised a youth with two mothers.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Charles|first=Jeanette|title=Venezuela Legally Recognizes First Child with Two Mothers|url=https://venezuelanalysis.com/NJYT|date=2017-01-31|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170601044508/https://venezuelanalysis.com/news/12913|archivedate=2017-06-01|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref>
  
A significant number of Africans came to the Soviet Union<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Лили Голден и Лили Диксон. Телепроект "Черные русские": синопсис.| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.africana.ru/Golden/info/black_russians_project_engl.htm}}</ref> and they were generally well treated there,<ref name=Matusevich>{{safesubst:cite journal|last=Matusevich|first=Maxim|title=An exotic subversive: Africa, Africans and the Soviet everyday|url=https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0306396808089288|journal=Race & Class|volume=49|issue=4|date=2008-04-01|doi=10.1177/0306396808089288|pages=57–81}}</ref> especially in comparison to the pre‐Soviet era, the post‐Soviet one,<ref>http://articles.latimes.com/1995-08-27/news/mn-39320_1_african-students</ref> and North America (as even the obnoxiously antisocialist Radio Free Europe admits,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20160422022641/http://www.rferl.org/content/soviet-union-yosif-stalin-black-american-kremlin-virginia/27663044.html</ref> and as the anti‐Bolshevik ''Russia Beyond'' has confirmed<ref>https://www.rbth.com/document/103300000000001000100525/amp</ref> repeatedly<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Yegorov|first=Oleg|title=Trading lynch mobs for Stalin: Why did an African-American live in the USSR?|url=https://www.rbth.com/document/5ae49fa885600a773e4267fd/amp|date=2018-05-01|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20190326230315/https://www.rbth.com/document/5ae49fa885600a773e4267fd/amp|archivedate=2019-03-26|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref>). The Soviets theirselves were frequently outspoken against both colonialism and white supremacy.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Rose|first=Steve|title=Racial harmony in a Marxist utopia: how the Soviet Union capitalised on US discrimination|url=https://amp.theguardian.com/artanddesign/shortcuts/2016/jan/24/racial-harmony-in-a-marxist-utopia-how-the-soviet-union-capitalised-on-us-discrimination-in-pictures|date=2016-01-24|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160311005028/https://amp.theguardian.com/artanddesign/shortcuts/2016/jan/24/racial-harmony-in-a-marxist-utopia-how-the-soviet-union-capitalised-on-us-discrimination-in-pictures|archivedate=2016-03-11|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> That is certainly not to say that things couldn’t have been better though; in particular depictions of Africans theirselves could sometimes be rather exotified or primitive (sometimes thanks to naïvely using the West for research);<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Hacizade|first=Nigar|title=Raquel Greene explores construction of race in 1920s Soviet children’s literature|url=https://wp.me/p8E8Vz-J6|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20191213163708/http://jordanrussiacenter.org/event-recaps/raquel-greene-explores-construction-race-1920s-soviet-childrens-literature|archivedate=2019-12-13|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> representation needed improvement, and sometimes the locals behaved in ways that came across as condescending or paternalistic as well rather than acting natural.<ref name=Matusevich/> But overall, they still treated Africans much better in comparison to other industrialised countries.
+
A significant number of Africans came to the Soviet Union<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Лили Голден и Лили Диксон. Телепроект "Черные русские": синопсис.| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.africana.ru/Golden/info/black_russians_project_engl.htm}}</ref> and they were generally well treated there,<ref name=Matusevich>{{safesubst:cite journal|last=Matusevich|first=Maxim|title=An exotic subversive: Africa, Africans and the Soviet everyday|url=https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0306396808089288|journal=Race & Class|volume=49|issue=4|date=2008-04-01|doi=10.1177/0306396808089288|pages=57–81}}</ref> especially in comparison to the pre‐Soviet era, the post‐Soviet one,<ref>{{safesubst:cite news|last=Charlton|first=Angela|title=Bitter, Broke, African Students Abandon Russia : Education: The Soviet regime had offered them full scholarships plus monthly stipends, free room and board, free medical care and free winter clothing. But hard times have arrived.|url=http://articles.latimes.com/1995-08-27/news/mn-39320_1_african-students|date=1995-08-27|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121216212415/http://articles.latimes.com/1995-08-27/news/mn-39320_1_african-students|archivedate=2012-12-16|accessdate=2020-02-09}}</ref> and North America (as even the obnoxiously antisocialist Radio Free Europe admits,<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20160422022641/http://www.rferl.org/content/soviet-union-yosif-stalin-black-american-kremlin-virginia/27663044.html</ref> and as the anti‐Bolshevik ''Russia Beyond'' has confirmed<ref>https://www.rbth.com/document/103300000000001000100525/amp</ref> repeatedly<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Yegorov|first=Oleg|title=Trading lynch mobs for Stalin: Why did an African-American live in the USSR?|url=https://www.rbth.com/document/5ae49fa885600a773e4267fd/amp|date=2018-05-01|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20190326230315/https://www.rbth.com/document/5ae49fa885600a773e4267fd/amp|archivedate=2019-03-26|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref>). The Soviets theirselves were frequently outspoken against both colonialism and white supremacy.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Rose|first=Steve|title=Racial harmony in a Marxist utopia: how the Soviet Union capitalised on US discrimination|url=https://amp.theguardian.com/artanddesign/shortcuts/2016/jan/24/racial-harmony-in-a-marxist-utopia-how-the-soviet-union-capitalised-on-us-discrimination-in-pictures|date=2016-01-24|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160311005028/https://amp.theguardian.com/artanddesign/shortcuts/2016/jan/24/racial-harmony-in-a-marxist-utopia-how-the-soviet-union-capitalised-on-us-discrimination-in-pictures|archivedate=2016-03-11|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> That is certainly not to say that things couldn’t have been better though; in particular depictions of Africans theirselves could sometimes be rather exotified or primitive (sometimes thanks to naïvely using the West for research);<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Hacizade|first=Nigar|title=Raquel Greene explores construction of race in 1920s Soviet children’s literature|url=https://wp.me/p8E8Vz-J6|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20191213163708/http://jordanrussiacenter.org/event-recaps/raquel-greene-explores-construction-race-1920s-soviet-childrens-literature|archivedate=2019-12-13|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> representation needed improvement, and sometimes the locals behaved in ways that came across as condescending or paternalistic as well rather than acting natural.<ref name=Matusevich/> But overall, they still treated Africans much better in comparison to other industrialised countries.
  
The Red Army liberated the Roma from Fascist concentration camps,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite book| publisher = Univ of Hertfordshire Press| isbn = 978-1-902806-07-5| last = Guy| first = Will| title = Between Past and Future: The Roma of Central and Eastern Europe| date = 2001|pageurl = https://books.google.com/books?id=lpBHAM3qafwC&pg=PA74| page = 74}}</ref> and in many people’s democracies (such as the Hungarian P. Rep.,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite book| publisher = Univ of Hertfordshire Press| isbn = 978-1-902806-07-5| last = Guy| first = Will| title = Between Past and Future: The Roma of Central and Eastern Europe| date = 2001|pageurl = https://books.google.com/books?id=lpBHAM3qafwC&pg=PA71| page = 71}}</ref> the P. Rep. of Bulgaria,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite book| publisher = Springer| isbn = 978-1-137-10596-7| last = Crowe| first = D.| title = A History of The Gypsies of Eastern Europe and Russia| date = 2007|pageurl = https://books.google.com/books?id=jVQBDgAAQBAJ&pg=PA23| page = 23}}</ref> the Soc. Rep. of Romania) living conditions for the Roma improved; they gained housing, welfare, healthcare, employment, and gradually certain social rights.<ref>https://www.researchgate.net/publication/250009232_On_the_social_construction_of_otherness_Identifying_the_Roma_in_post-socialist_communities</ref> Nonetheless, things still could have been much better: the nomadic lifestyles were (still) not tolerated and sometimes the Roma and their culture were overlooked or neglected. The locals’ prejudices against them most likely never fully faded away either; Czechoslovakian doctors unconsensually sterilised hundreds of Roma women in the 1970s and later.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Jurovschi|first=Mihaela|editor=Elliot D. Cohen|title=Forced Sterilization of Roma Women in Czech Republic|url=https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=16839|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> Yet in spite of all this, one could argue that this era was still the least unpleasant one for the Roma (since the introduction of neoliberalism didn’t exactly help with their problems;<ref>{{safesubst:Cite book| publisher = Univ of Hertfordshire Press| isbn = 978-1-902806-07-5| last = Guy| first = Will| title = Between Past and Future: The Roma of Central and Eastern Europe| date = 2001|pageurl = https://books.google.com/books?id=lpBHAM3qafwC&pg=PA296| page = 296}}</ref> the xenophobic doctors '''continued''' their sterilisations after the [[short twentieth century]] and remain unpunished today, and in Kosovo it was the anticommunist reinvasion and reoccupation, not the Serbian presence, that destroyed over twelve thousand Romani homes and reduced Kosovo’s Romani population by over 75%<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last1=S. Herman|first1=Edward|last2=Peterson|first2=David|chapter=IV|title=The Dismantling of Yugoslavia|url=https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=8415|section=10|sectionurl=https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=8415/#fn162|date=2007-10-01|accessdate=2020-01-12}}</ref>).
+
The Red Army liberated the Roma from Fascist concentration camps,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite book| publisher = Univ of Hertfordshire Press| isbn = 978-1-902806-07-5| last = Guy| first = Will| title = Between Past and Future: The Roma of Central and Eastern Europe| date = 2001|pageurl = https://books.google.com/books?id=lpBHAM3qafwC&pg=PA74| page = 74}}</ref> and in many people’s democracies (such as the Hungarian P. Rep.,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite book| publisher = Univ of Hertfordshire Press| isbn = 978-1-902806-07-5| last = Guy| first = Will| title = Between Past and Future: The Roma of Central and Eastern Europe| date = 2001|pageurl = https://books.google.com/books?id=lpBHAM3qafwC&pg=PA71| page = 71}}</ref> the P. Rep. of Bulgaria,<ref>{{safesubst:Cite book| publisher = Springer| isbn = 978-1-137-10596-7| last = Crowe| first = D.| title = A History of The Gypsies of Eastern Europe and Russia| date = 2007|pageurl = https://books.google.com/books?id=jVQBDgAAQBAJ&pg=PA23| page = 23}}</ref> the Soc. Rep. of Romania) living conditions for the Roma improved; they gained housing, welfare, healthcare, employment, and gradually certain social rights.<ref>{{safesubst:cite journal|last=Kligman|first=Gail|title=On the social construction of "otherness": Identifying "the Roma" in post-socialist communities|journal=Review of Sociology|url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/250009232_On_the_social_construction_of_otherness_Identifying_the_Roma_in_post-socialist_communities|volume|year=2001|pages=61–78|doi=10.1556/RevSoc.7.2001.2.4}}</ref> Nonetheless, things still could have been much better: the nomadic lifestyles were (still) not tolerated and sometimes the Roma and their culture were overlooked or neglected. The locals’ prejudices against them most likely never fully faded away either; Czechoslovakian doctors unconsensually sterilised hundreds of Roma women in the 1970s and later.<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last=Jurovschi|first=Mihaela|editor=Elliot D. Cohen|title=Forced Sterilization of Roma Women in Czech Republic|url=https://www.projectcensored.org/?p=16839|accessdate=2020-01-25}}</ref> Yet in spite of all this, one could argue that this era was still the least unpleasant one for the Roma (since the introduction of neoliberalism didn’t exactly help with their problems;<ref>{{safesubst:Cite book| publisher = Univ of Hertfordshire Press| isbn = 978-1-902806-07-5| last = Guy| first = Will| title = Between Past and Future: The Roma of Central and Eastern Europe| date = 2001|pageurl = https://books.google.com/books?id=lpBHAM3qafwC&pg=PA296| page = 296}}</ref> the xenophobic doctors '''continued''' their sterilisations after the [[short twentieth century]] and remain unpunished today, and in Kosovo it was the anticommunist reinvasion and reoccupation, not the Serbian presence, that destroyed over twelve thousand Romani homes and reduced Kosovo’s Romani population by over 75%<ref>{{safesubst:cite web|last1=S. Herman|first1=Edward|last2=Peterson|first2=David|chapter=IV|title=The Dismantling of Yugoslavia|url=https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=8415|section=10|sectionurl=https://MonthlyReview.org/?p=8415/#fn162|date=2007-10-01|accessdate=2020-01-12}}</ref>).
  
Planned economies, such as those of the [[Czechoslovak Socialist Republic]] and the [[Polish People’s Republic]], endeavored to establish a system of social insurance benefits on a very broad base (far beyond what would ordinarily be considered corresponding to its level of economic development generally). They provided a closely integrated and complete single system for the provision of succour for all disabilities.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=W. Douglas|first=Dorothy|chapter=XII|coauthors=Lynn Turgeon|title=Transitional Economic Systems, The Polish-Czech Example|url=https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7iUwYR74MlbcFBxbWxsdHNLMHM|accessdate=2019-10-09|edition=|location=New York and London|publisher=Monthly Review Press|year=1972|isbn=|oclc=|section=|page=237}}</ref> The cost of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic’s system in particular were to be high, nearly 18% of payroll, contribution rates being 10% for old age and disability, 1% for accidents and 6.8% for illness (Ibid., page 241). The Soviet Union acknowledged deaf‐blind humans and provided them with education.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Awakening to Life by Alexander Meshcheryakov 1974| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.marxists.org/archive/meshcheryakov/awakening/index.htm}}</ref> While some market economies equalled or even exceeded the Soviet Union in certain social security rights, as medical care and disability and retirement benefits, none matched them overall.<ref name=HRSU72>{{safesubst:cite book |last=Syzmański |first=Albert |authorlink= |chapter=5 |title=Human Rights in the Soviet Union |url=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion |location=London |publisher=Zed Books Ltd. |year=1984 |section=Living Standards|pages=128–9 |pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n72/mode/1up |isbn=0 086232 018 6 |oclc=}}</ref> In fact, the Soviet retirement and disability system (especially for disabilities unrelated to employment) was generous by U.S. standards, especially taking taking into consideration the heavily subsidised basics of life.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book |last=Syzmański |first=Albert |authorlink= |chapter=9 |title=Human Rights in the Soviet Union |url=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion |location=London |publisher=Zed Books Ltd. |year=1984|pages=296–7 |pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n156/mode/1up |isbn=0 086232 018 6 |oclc=}}</ref> Similarly today, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea accommodates people with mobility impairments.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| last = Korea| first = counterpropaganda re| title = You can see Pyongyang's wheelchair-using citizens for yourself.pic.twitter.com/AvluAtDY1k| work = @korcounterprop| format = Tweet| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2018-09-21| url = https://twitter.com/i/status/1043310274852220928}}</ref>
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Planned economies, such as those of the [[Czechoslovak Socialist Republic]] and the [[Polish People’s Republic]], endeavored to establish a system of social insurance benefits on a very broad base (far beyond what would ordinarily be considered corresponding to its level of economic development generally). They provided a closely integrated and complete single system for the provision of succour for all disabilities.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book|last=W. Douglas|first=Dorothy|chapter=XII|coauthors=Lynn Turgeon|title=Transitional Economic Systems, The Polish-Czech Example|url=https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7iUwYR74MlbcFBxbWxsdHNLMHM|accessdate=2019-10-09|edition=|location=New York and London|publisher=Monthly Review Press|year=1972|isbn=|oclc=|section=|page=237}}</ref> The cost of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic’s system in particular were to be high, nearly 18% of payroll, contribution rates being 10% for old age and disability, 1% for accidents and 6.8% for illness (Ibid., page 241). The Soviet Union acknowledged deaf‐blind humans and provided them with education.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| title = Awakening to Life by Alexander Meshcheryakov 1974| accessdate = 2019-10-09| url = https://www.marxists.org/archive/meshcheryakov/awakening/index.htm}}</ref> While some market economies equalled or even exceeded the Soviet Union in certain social security rights, as medical care and disability and retirement benefits, none matched them overall.<ref name=HRSU72>{{safesubst:cite book |last=Syzmański |first=Albert |authorlink= |chapter=5 |title=Human Rights in the Soviet Union |url=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion |location=London |publisher=Zed Books Ltd. |year=1984 |section=Living Standards|pages=128–9 |pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n72/mode/1up |isbn=0 086232 018 6 |oclc=}}</ref> In fact, the Soviet retirement and disability system (especially for disabilities unrelated to employment) was generous by U.S. standards, especially taking taking into consideration the heavily subsidised basics of life.<ref>{{safesubst:cite book |last=Syzmański |first=Albert |authorlink= |chapter=9 |title=Human Rights in the Soviet Union |url=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion |location=London |publisher=Zed Books Ltd. |year=1984|pages=296–7 |pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n156/mode/1up |isbn=0 086232 018 6 |oclc=}}</ref> Similarly today, the [[Democratic People’s Republic of Korea]] accommodates people with mobility impairments.<ref>{{safesubst:Cite web| last = Korea| first = counterpropaganda re| title = You can see Pyongyang's wheelchair-using citizens for yourself.pic.twitter.com/AvluAtDY1k| work = @korcounterprop| format = Tweet| accessdate = 2019-10-09| date = 2018-09-21| url = https://twitter.com/i/status/1043310274852220928}}</ref>
  
See also [[user:Anarcho-Bolshevik/compendium#Socialism_has_not_and_never_will_work|§12]] for our further contributions in people’s republics and territories. For an exhaustive response to accusations of Soviet ‘self‐colonization’, ‘neocolonialism’, ‘Russification’, and so forth… read ''Human Rights in the Soviet Union.''<ref>{{safesubst:cite book |last=Syzmański |first=Albert |authorlink= |chapter=2 |title=Human Rights in the Soviet Union |url=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion |location=London |publisher=Zed Books Ltd. |year=1984|pages= |pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n24/mode/1up|isbn=0 086232 018 6 |oclc=}}</ref> All of this may seem a trivial point, but remember that this is a response to the antisocialists who repetitively equate us with the Fascists.
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See also [[user:Anarcho-Bolshevik/compendium/section 12|§12]] for our further contributions in people’s republics and territories. For an exhaustive response to accusations of Soviet ‘self‐colonization’, ‘neocolonialism’, ‘Russification’, and so forth… read ''Human Rights in the Soviet Union.''<ref>{{safesubst:cite book |last=Syzmański |first=Albert |authorlink= |chapter=2 |title=Human Rights in the Soviet Union |url=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion |location=London |publisher=Zed Books Ltd. |year=1984|pages= |pageurl=https://archive.org/stream/HumanRightsInTheSovietUnion#page/n24/mode/1up|isbn=0 086232 018 6 |oclc=}}</ref> All of this may seem a trivial point, but remember that this is a response to the antisocialists who repetitively equate us with the Fascists.
  
 
==References==
 
==References==

Revision as of 21:21, 9 February 2020

Long‐time Jewish antifascist Efraim Zuroff stated that “There are two major components of Holocaust distortion. One is to hide or minimize the role of local collaborators. The other one is to claim that Communism is just as bad as [Fascism], and that Communism should be categorized as genocide.” He argues that this is anti‐Semitic “because if Communism is categorized as genocide, it means that Jews committed genocide. Jewish communists were among those who committed the crimes of the [people’s republics]. If Jews committed genocide, how can we complain about their committing genocide,[1]” he said. Holocaust scholar Dovid Katz likewise condemned the comparison (even in spite of his own disdain for Bolshevism), and stated that the ‘Holocaust cannot, must not, be subsumed — but that is precisely what the Double Genocide theory seeks to do. It is the primary new mainstream form of Holocaust Denial, and should be treated with at least as much outrage as […] Trump’s invocation of supposed moral equivalence between people who came to Charlottesville, Virginia in [neofascist] torch-lit processions […] and those who came to protest them.[2] Katz has noted that some of Eastern Europe’s antisocialist states have been actively prosecuting some Holocaust survivors (and honoring Axis collaborators meanwhile) as a result of this popular false equivalence.[3] Associate Professor Daniel Ben‐Moshe likewise agreed: ‘Jewish organizations have for the most part failed to act in response to the emergence of double genocide in Lithuania. If they don’t want Hungary to be part of a spreading of this form of Holocaust denial they must act now. It is now time for all individuals and organizations to add their names to the declaration, which they can do at www.seventyyearsdeclation.org.[4] With two exceptions, ‘most Ukrainian Jewish leaders do not support recognizing the Holodomor as genocide. Jewish leaders say [that] it is unfair to link the Holodomor and the Holocaust[.] “We regret the tragedy of the Ukrainian people, but [Ukraine’s head of state] can’t equate the Holocaust and the tragedy […] in Ukraine,” said Rabbi Yaakov Dov Bleich, one of Ukraine’s chief rabbis.[5] President of the World Zionist Organization, Nahum Goldmann, acknowledged that to ‘compare in any way the policy of the Soviet government with the [Fascists] is not only a hideous distortion, but highly unfair to Soviet Russia, which has saved hundred of thousands of Jews when they escaped from the [Axis] at the beginning of the Second World War.[6] More recently, the (otherwise centrist) historian, Edna Friedberg, issued on behalf of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum an advisory against Holocaust analogies in general.[7]

But briefly put: neither white supremacy,[8] nor misogyny,[9] [10] nor heterosexism,[11] [12] nor cissexism,[13] nor any other form of discrimination is central to the establishment of socialism. Most socialists (but not all—more on that later) reject such discriminations, in fact recognising them as obstacles to world revolution.[14] Certainly there are few socialists, especially today, who make such nuisances primary components of their politics. Nonetheless, many socialists[15]—it is true—have argued that it can be acceptable to use violence or even lethal force against their small but powerful minority of oppressors:[16] [17] the upper classes and their loyalest henchmen, but it is also possible (if improbable) to have a bloodless revolution:[18] [19] the upper classes could surrender or allow their wealth to be seized, since class is merely a societal trait into which one is born, rather than a trait that is biologically inherited. Indeed, this reflects the October Revolution, which had surprisingly little violence,[20] and so did the February events in Czechoslovakia.[21]

Many notable socialists were women, humans of colour, or both,[22] and they frequently spoke out against both white supremacy and misogyny. Similarly, many socialists both historically and presently[23] have been nonheterosexual;[24] [25] [26] as, Emma Goldman, Oscar Wilde, Magnus Hirschfeld, Harry Whyte,[27] Bayard Rustin, James Baldwin, Harry Hay,[28] Judith Butler, TQILA,[29] and others. Indeed, the connexion between minorities and socialism is an old one. Friedrich Engels explicitly opposed anti‐Semitism,[30] Vladimir Lenin openly spoke out against anti‐Semitism,[31] and perhaps to the surprise of some, Joseph Stalin did as well and acted accordingly![32] [33] The Soviets helped evacuate over one million Jews from Axis territory.[34] There have also been many Ukrainian anarchists[35] (not all[36] of course but still many) who fought aggressively against anti‐Semitism, as likewise have Spanish Republicans.[37] [38] (Concerning Marx’s own relation with other Jews, see here.[39] Professor David McLellan in particular, one of the world’s foremost Marx scholars, analyses On the Jewish Question and refutes the claim that Marx was an anti-Semitic.[40] For Marx’s relations with Slavs, see here.[41]) The Soviets created a national intelligentsia in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, and in the mid‐1930s Leningrad directed the K.S.S.R. and trained thousands of cadres for the republic’s economy.[42] The Soviet Union critic Amadeo Bordiga helped push for the establishment of a trade union front with the unions and other various proletarian groups associated to the Communist Party of Italy, standing against the Fascist police, military and of course the Blackshirts.[43] It is inaccurate to imply that the anti-Church sentiment among the Iberian anarchists was due to religion. Not only did the Protestant churches remain unattacked, but the Church itself was attacked in previous popular revolts. This was an unpopular institution that allied with the ruling class and capitalist despotism, exploitation and repression.[44]

Karl Marx strongly opposed both slavery and the Southern Confederacy[45] just like Peter Kropotkin did,[46] and he told us that labor ‘cannot emancipate itself in the white skin where in the black it is branded.[47] (Marx hisself may have used a racial slur several times, though the correspondence was in German.[48]) Leon Trotsky opposed both misogyny[49] and white supremacy[50] and stated that we ‘do not compel [black humans] to separate from the States, but they have the full right to self‐determination when they so desire and we will support and defend them with all the means at our disposal in the [conquest] of this right, the same as we defend all oppressed peoples.[51] On June 15, 1940, he observed that the ‘white slaveholders accustom [black humans] not to speak first. But on the picket line they show more courage. That is true of all oppressed nationalities’, and boldly suggested that we ‘must approach them everywhere by advocating that for every lynching they should lynch ten or twenty lynchers.’ He also wisely recommended that we ‘should pay more attention to the Latin American workers in relation to [Yankee] imperialism. We should turn in the direction of Latin America.[52] He was likewise fiercely opposed to violence against the lower‐class Cossacks.[53] Similarly, Bordiga recognised racism as ‘the petit bourgeois reaction to the pressures of big capital[54] and was an advocate ‘not only for the mobilisation of the world proletariat for the defence of soviet power and to direct the assault on the western, bourgeois powers, but for the extension of the revolutionary struggle to continents inhabited by [humans of colour], in short the mobilisation of all forces able to carry on an armed fight against white capitalist metropoles.[55] The democialist Salvador Allende condemned anti‐Semitism and the Third Reich in particular.[56] In 1989, Kim Jong‐Il correctly stated that we ‘do not assert that the Koreans’ biological constitution is more developed than those of other races. Defining the superiority of a nation according to biological or ethnic characteristics is the practice of reactionary, bourgeois ethnology.[57] (In many cases, the accusations of racial chauvinism in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea are based on mistranslations.[58]) The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia valued diversity and unity, and attempted to suppress its unauthorized paramilitary forces, arresting the irregular, self‐appointed leaders (some of whom were tried and sentenced to two decades in prison).[59] Despite the repetitive accusations, the little evidence used against them does not support the conclusion that they were ethnonationalists (quite the contrary).[60] Similar to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,[61] the People’s Republic of China is accepting towards most Muslims. (The Muslims that they are persecuting are a minority of violent antisocialists.[62]) Likewise, the United Nations did not report any ‘internment camps’ for Muslims.[63] The minority of them are simply undergoing rehabilitation.[64] [65] [66] [67]

The Eastern Bloc and its allies were the forerunners in opposing African colonisation and specifically the South African Apartheid.[68] The Soviets were outspoken against child abuse[69] and sexual harassment.[70] Largely as planned,[71] the status of women improved greatly[72] (even if imperfectly);[73] the proportion of Soviet women engineers in 1980 was 58%,[74] they achieved suffrage before the U.S. did,[75] they could retire five years earlier than men,[76] they were more present in STEM than their U.S. equivalents,[77] and they could serve in the frontlines as well,[78] for instance. The People’s Republic of China made similar progress.[79] In 2011 they liberated twenty‐four thousand abducted women and children.[80]

Unfortunately, not all socialists have spotless records.[81] For example, after anticommunists incited ethnic tensions in the East and manipulated the nations into collaboration,[82] the Kremlin was unfortunately forced to relocate[83] most of them (except for the veterans) elsewhere, and at least a thousand of them (unintentionally) perished[84] (it was either this or leaving them at the hands of the Axis), but even so these actions would not fit the official criteria for genocide; documented evidence shows that Soviet authorities themselves at least allowed these people to return home[85] in the mid‐1950s.[86] Likewise, the Red Army’s men carnally abused thousands of people, but the other Soviets shot many of the abusers.[87] Sometimes the Allies expelled the (privileged[88]) German families from Eastern Europe, but it was either this or leaving them with the thousands of disgruntled civilians,[89] who were theirselves responsible for many of the expulsions such as those in Sudetenland. When the Soviets exiled antisocialist terrorists (Operation Priboi), they had to send their wives and children along with them. (It was either this or forcibly separating the families, leaving them without somebody to help support them. The Soviets were not ‘imprisoning’ or ‘punishing’ these relatives for the fathers’ crimes.) NKVD Order № 00485 was (both in theory and practice) an operation that had far more to do with espionage rather than ‘nationality’.[90] Guevara[91] in his youth was a white supremacist,[92] but he became more antiracist in the later decades of his life.[93] [94] Castro’s administration also discriminated against gay men and incarcerated them for a couple decades, but he later felt deep regret over his misdeeds[95] and tried to make reparations for them in later decades. Gay rights in the P.R.C. have always been lacklustre, but they are steadily making progress now.[96] Some, such as Stalin[97] and Durruti,[98] unfortunately never had such awakenings, and certain early socialist theorists in particular exhibited at least a few indisputable prejudices: Bakunin’s anti‐Semitism and Engels’s heterosexism for example. But many serious socialists still feel that they erred tremendously there[99] and would not force anybody to forgive them for those injustices.[100] When antisocialists stress this point though, they commit the exact same mistake that evolution‐deniers do when they stress Darwin’s (supposed)[101] white supremacy: even if their prejudices were relevant to their findings, somebody would simply have arrived at the nondiscriminatory conclusions, as most socialists now already do; if a nondiscriminatory tendency somehow did not exist, then it would have been necessary to invent it, and people would have supported socialism even if they knew (or thought) that some other socialist theorists were prejudiced against them. Most tellingly however is how little influence that their prejudices had: many Ukrainian anarchists and Spanish Republicans fought aggressively against antisemitism in spite of Bakunin’s and Proudhon’s own prejudices; gay communists[102] fought aggressively against heterosexism in spite of Engels’s prejudices; communist Africans, Mexicans, and Yugoslavians[103] fought aggressively against white supremacy and colonialism in spite of Marx’s or Engels’s (disputed) prejudices against them, & cetera. Were we to take the ‘theory, not practice’ cliché to its logical conclusion, then these criticisms would be utterly meaningless, by antisocialists’ own argumentation.

Nonetheless, there is still a minority of socialists who play down the importance of inherited traits and characteristics, and tend to shrug off accusations of discrimination. Such individuals are formally called ‘class reductionists’ due to their frequent emphasis on class in defence of their misbehaviour. Less politely, they’re also called ‘brocialists’ or specifically ‘manarchists’. The extreme end of the spectrum contains so‐called third‐positionists, who explicitly attempt to connect their anticapitalism to their disgusting prejudices. Another camp is the trans‐exclusionists or so‐called ‘gender critics’ who sometimes appeal to anticapitalism in favour of their cissexism. These groups are normally despised by intersectionalists (that’s us!) and sometimes considered little better than the alt‐right.

Notable socialists include but are not limited to: Albert Einstein, H.G. Wells,[104] Alexandra Kollontai, Angela Davis, Bela Lugosi,[105] Bill Haywood, Charlie Chaplin, Claudia Jones,[106] David Rovics, Eugene V. Debs, Frida Kahlo, He Zhen,[107] Helen Keller, Howard Zinn, Hélder Câmara, Jean‐Paul Sartre, Leila Kahled, Malala Yousafzai, Martin Luther King,[108] Nelson Mandela, Pablo Picasso, Paul Robeson, Pete Seeger, Rosa Luxemburg, Stephen William Bragg, Thomas Sankara,[109] Víctor Jara, Woody Guthrie, CNT[110]‐FAI,[111] the IWW,[112] and the other socialists mentioned in this section. In addition, the labour & civil rights activist César Chávez, whilst he did deny being communist,[113] still advocated a movement that resembles perhaps most closely (libertarian) communism:[114]

‘I guess that I have an ideology, but it probably cannot be described in terms of any political or economic system. But I think that some power has to come to farm workers and the poor so that they can manage their lives. I don’t care what system that it be; it is not going to work if they don’t have power.’[115] (Paraphrased; emphasis added. It may also be worth mentioning that Chávez was influenced by the socialist Eugene V. Debs.[116])

Aside from our interest in equity, some of us (such as Mandela) have also campaigned for prison reform, and some of us have been fixing up streets,[117] giving away food[118] and medicine[119] to people,[120] making the streets safer for the homeless,[121] healing people gratis,[122] providing[123] abortions gratis,[124] [125] establishing housing cooperatives,[126] organizing thousands of landless peasants,[127] struggling for the eight‐hour workday,[128] empowering agriculturalists,[129] supporting miners,[130] creating entertainment and luxuries for others, constructing shelters for others,[131] and more. There is an Argentinian factory called FaSinPat[132] which is managed and operated by the proletariat, subsequently improving conditions there. They have provided a tile floor for a café in Hotel Bauen,[133] likewise proletarian‐controlled. In the 1980s, 784 Cubans travelled to Grenada, some being construction workers, medical personnel, diplomatic personnel, teachers, and a little military personnel. They constructed a new, all‐weather, 24‐hour aeroport with a 10,000 foot runway for jumbo jets carrying tourists; they constructed new port facilities for banana boats; and they opened many free health clinics. Fidel Castro said this in Monthly Review’s June 1995 issue:

‘The [Cuban] revolution has sent teachers, doctors, and workers to dozens of Third World countries without charging a penny. It shed its own blood fighting colonialism, fighting apartheid, and fascism. […] At one point we had 25,000 Third World students studying on scholarships. We still have many scholarship students from Africa and other countries. In addition, our [republic] has treated[134] more children [13,000] who were victims[135] of the Chernobyl tragedy[136] than all other countries put together. […] [We are] the country with the most teachers per capita of all countries in the world, including developed countries. The country with the most doctors per capita of all countries [one for every 214 inhabitants]. The country with the most art instructors per capita of all countries in the world. The country with the most sports instructors in the world. That gives you an idea of the effort involved. A country where life expectancy is more than 75 years.’

Similarly over a decade later, they would become the most important supporter to the Haitians after the 2010 earthquake,[137] assisted Mozambicans after they suffered a hurricane,[138] and provided the most important medical support to western Africa during the Ebola outbreak.[139]

The psycho‐endocrinologist Aron Belkin, a pioneer of Soviet research into sexual reassignment, carried out operations without conducting any psychological testing or employing any other type of psychological expertise (not because he didn’t will it; the republic simply lacked literate psychologists or approved tests to assist him at that time).[140] Similarly, today the Republic of Cuba offers genital reconstructions gratis,[141] and in 2017 the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela officially recognised people’s right to change their names and correct their genders.[142] Earlier during the same year, the Bolivarian Republic also legally recognised a youth with two mothers.[143]

A significant number of Africans came to the Soviet Union[144] and they were generally well treated there,[145] especially in comparison to the pre‐Soviet era, the post‐Soviet one,[146] and North America (as even the obnoxiously antisocialist Radio Free Europe admits,[147] and as the anti‐Bolshevik Russia Beyond has confirmed[148] repeatedly[149]). The Soviets theirselves were frequently outspoken against both colonialism and white supremacy.[150] That is certainly not to say that things couldn’t have been better though; in particular depictions of Africans theirselves could sometimes be rather exotified or primitive (sometimes thanks to naïvely using the West for research);[151] representation needed improvement, and sometimes the locals behaved in ways that came across as condescending or paternalistic as well rather than acting natural.[145] But overall, they still treated Africans much better in comparison to other industrialised countries.

The Red Army liberated the Roma from Fascist concentration camps,[152] and in many people’s democracies (such as the Hungarian P. Rep.,[153] the P. Rep. of Bulgaria,[154] the Soc. Rep. of Romania) living conditions for the Roma improved; they gained housing, welfare, healthcare, employment, and gradually certain social rights.[155] Nonetheless, things still could have been much better: the nomadic lifestyles were (still) not tolerated and sometimes the Roma and their culture were overlooked or neglected. The locals’ prejudices against them most likely never fully faded away either; Czechoslovakian doctors unconsensually sterilised hundreds of Roma women in the 1970s and later.[156] Yet in spite of all this, one could argue that this era was still the least unpleasant one for the Roma (since the introduction of neoliberalism didn’t exactly help with their problems;[157] the xenophobic doctors continued their sterilisations after the short twentieth century and remain unpunished today, and in Kosovo it was the anticommunist reinvasion and reoccupation, not the Serbian presence, that destroyed over twelve thousand Romani homes and reduced Kosovo’s Romani population by over 75%[158]).

Planned economies, such as those of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Polish People’s Republic, endeavored to establish a system of social insurance benefits on a very broad base (far beyond what would ordinarily be considered corresponding to its level of economic development generally). They provided a closely integrated and complete single system for the provision of succour for all disabilities.[159] The cost of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic’s system in particular were to be high, nearly 18% of payroll, contribution rates being 10% for old age and disability, 1% for accidents and 6.8% for illness (Ibid., page 241). The Soviet Union acknowledged deaf‐blind humans and provided them with education.[160] While some market economies equalled or even exceeded the Soviet Union in certain social security rights, as medical care and disability and retirement benefits, none matched them overall.[161] In fact, the Soviet retirement and disability system (especially for disabilities unrelated to employment) was generous by U.S. standards, especially taking taking into consideration the heavily subsidised basics of life.[162] Similarly today, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea accommodates people with mobility impairments.[163]

See also §12 for our further contributions in people’s republics and territories. For an exhaustive response to accusations of Soviet ‘self‐colonization’, ‘neocolonialism’, ‘Russification’, and so forth… read Human Rights in the Soviet Union.[164] All of this may seem a trivial point, but remember that this is a response to the antisocialists who repetitively equate us with the Fascists.

References

  1. Ahren, Raphael (2018). "On Holocaust distortion, Poland is the ‘tip of the iceberg,’ Nazi hunter says". https://www.timesofisrael.com/?p=1785196. 
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