Difference between revisions of "World War II"

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Starting in 1933, with the rise of the [[NSDAP|Nazi party]] in [[Weimar Republic|Germany]], Stalin began to [[Industrialization|industrialize]] the USSR for [[War|war]]. Having reportedly read [[Adolf Hitler|Hitler's]] ''[[Mein Kampf]]'', Stalin knew exactly what [[Adolf Hitler|Adolf Hitler's]] plans for [[Europe]] and the World were, and spent most of the 1930s repeatedly petitioning the French, British and Polish Governments to form an [[Anti-Fascism|Anti-Fascist]] alliance and preemptively destroy the Nazi threat before it became too powerful. Hitler and Stalin spent the 1930s denouncing each other, as each built up their respective nations for War. During the [[Munich Crisis of 1937]], Stalin threatened to Invade Germany if Hitler invaded [[Czechoslovakia]], and likewise, Hitler formalized the [[Anti-Comintern Pact]] between Various nations throughout Europe to specifically spite Stalin's antifascist efforts. Nevertheless, Stalin's repeated petitions to the [[League of Nations]] and Western Europe proved fruitless. And, a few days before [[Invasion of Poland (WWII)|Germany invaded Poland]], Stalin sent a mission to Germany to formalize [[Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact|a non-aggression pact with Germany]], much like the one they'd made with Japan. The infamous [[Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact]] assured that neither Germany nor the USSR would attack each other for a period of ten years (which both sides knew was not going to last) but also contained numerous secret clauses: The USSR would not interfere with Germany's conquest of Europe, and Germany would not interfere with the USSR if they were to retake numerous territories lost to them in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War - Particularly [[Karelia]], near Finland, the Baltic States of [[Latvia]], [[Lithuania]] and [[Estonia]], [[Bessabarabia]] (Moldova) in [[Romania]]; and the territories of [[Brest]] and [[Grodno]] (occupied by [[Poland]] but historically a part of Belarus) and numerous territories claimed by Western Ukraine but occupied by Poland. When [[World War II]] started, both sides adhered to the treaty, and two weeks after the [[Invasion of Poland (WWII)|Invasion of Poland]] the USSR occupied their claimed territories. In 1940 the Soviets annexed the [[Baltics]] and occupied Bessabarabia (Moldova) and went to war with Finland over Karelia in what became the rather disastrous [[Winter War of 1939-40]].  
 
Starting in 1933, with the rise of the [[NSDAP|Nazi party]] in [[Weimar Republic|Germany]], Stalin began to [[Industrialization|industrialize]] the USSR for [[War|war]]. Having reportedly read [[Adolf Hitler|Hitler's]] ''[[Mein Kampf]]'', Stalin knew exactly what [[Adolf Hitler|Adolf Hitler's]] plans for [[Europe]] and the World were, and spent most of the 1930s repeatedly petitioning the French, British and Polish Governments to form an [[Anti-Fascism|Anti-Fascist]] alliance and preemptively destroy the Nazi threat before it became too powerful. Hitler and Stalin spent the 1930s denouncing each other, as each built up their respective nations for War. During the [[Munich Crisis of 1937]], Stalin threatened to Invade Germany if Hitler invaded [[Czechoslovakia]], and likewise, Hitler formalized the [[Anti-Comintern Pact]] between Various nations throughout Europe to specifically spite Stalin's antifascist efforts. Nevertheless, Stalin's repeated petitions to the [[League of Nations]] and Western Europe proved fruitless. And, a few days before [[Invasion of Poland (WWII)|Germany invaded Poland]], Stalin sent a mission to Germany to formalize [[Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact|a non-aggression pact with Germany]], much like the one they'd made with Japan. The infamous [[Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact]] assured that neither Germany nor the USSR would attack each other for a period of ten years (which both sides knew was not going to last) but also contained numerous secret clauses: The USSR would not interfere with Germany's conquest of Europe, and Germany would not interfere with the USSR if they were to retake numerous territories lost to them in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War - Particularly [[Karelia]], near Finland, the Baltic States of [[Latvia]], [[Lithuania]] and [[Estonia]], [[Bessabarabia]] (Moldova) in [[Romania]]; and the territories of [[Brest]] and [[Grodno]] (occupied by [[Poland]] but historically a part of Belarus) and numerous territories claimed by Western Ukraine but occupied by Poland. When [[World War II]] started, both sides adhered to the treaty, and two weeks after the [[Invasion of Poland (WWII)|Invasion of Poland]] the USSR occupied their claimed territories. In 1940 the Soviets annexed the [[Baltics]] and occupied Bessabarabia (Moldova) and went to war with Finland over Karelia in what became the rather disastrous [[Winter War of 1939-40]].  
  
The time bought by the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact served valuable for the USSR, it allowed them to complete the construction of the Stalin line and move precious industry to the [[Ural Mountains]], far out of reach from the Germans. Soviet generals estimated the USSR would be ready for war with Germany by October 1942, but, they were not granted this luxury and Germany invaded on 21 June 1941.
+
The time bought by the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact served valuable for the USSR, it allowed them to complete the construction of the Stalin line and move precious industry to the [[Ural Mountains]], far out of reach from the Germans. Soviet generals estimated the USSR would be ready for war with Germany by October 1942, but, they were not granted this luxury and Germany invaded on 22 June 1941.
  
 
Originally, the USSR was totally unprepared for the Soviet Invasion - Stalin reportedly ignored reports of German military buildup at the border and refused to allow Soviet forces to mass at the border as well. [[Georgy Zhukov]] later wrote in his memoirs in 1957 that Stalin was right - if they had massed their forces then they would've been destroyed then and there. In the initial six months of the war, Germany performed extremely well, making rapid advances deep into Soviet territory, occupying all of Belarus, the Baltics, Ukraine and surrounding the city of [[Leningrad]], besieging the city. The Germans took hundreds of thousands of prisoners and [[SS-Ostgruppen]] troops committed unspeakable horrors against the Slavic people living there, whom they considered "[[Untermenschen]]". Yet, by December 1941, four months after the campaign was supposed to have ended, the Nazis had, by their count, defeated the Red Army three times over. Not only that, but there was the worry that the Soviets could potentially be much stronger and more advanced than they had initially assumed - when the Nazis had invaded, the Soviets were going through a major update of their equipment. Sightings of [[T-34]] and [[KV-1]] tanks were rare, but there were several recorded instances where a single example of those tanks inflicted massive casualties on the Germans. In 1941, at Raseinai, a small town in Lithuania, a lone KV-2 (or KV-1) heavy tank decimated the [[6th Panzer division]] and held the entire town by itself for a whole day before running out of ammunition and being destroyed. Similarly, [[Army Group Center]] reported a lone T-34 tank having ripped through 13 divisions by itself before getting knocked out. By December the Russian winter (which was relatively mild by Russian standards) decimated the Germans, who did not expect the campaign to have lasted this long. German vehicles sank into the mud and snow and equipment froze up, allowing the Red Army time to prepare their defenses and rebuild their disorganized army.
 
Originally, the USSR was totally unprepared for the Soviet Invasion - Stalin reportedly ignored reports of German military buildup at the border and refused to allow Soviet forces to mass at the border as well. [[Georgy Zhukov]] later wrote in his memoirs in 1957 that Stalin was right - if they had massed their forces then they would've been destroyed then and there. In the initial six months of the war, Germany performed extremely well, making rapid advances deep into Soviet territory, occupying all of Belarus, the Baltics, Ukraine and surrounding the city of [[Leningrad]], besieging the city. The Germans took hundreds of thousands of prisoners and [[SS-Ostgruppen]] troops committed unspeakable horrors against the Slavic people living there, whom they considered "[[Untermenschen]]". Yet, by December 1941, four months after the campaign was supposed to have ended, the Nazis had, by their count, defeated the Red Army three times over. Not only that, but there was the worry that the Soviets could potentially be much stronger and more advanced than they had initially assumed - when the Nazis had invaded, the Soviets were going through a major update of their equipment. Sightings of [[T-34]] and [[KV-1]] tanks were rare, but there were several recorded instances where a single example of those tanks inflicted massive casualties on the Germans. In 1941, at Raseinai, a small town in Lithuania, a lone KV-2 (or KV-1) heavy tank decimated the [[6th Panzer division]] and held the entire town by itself for a whole day before running out of ammunition and being destroyed. Similarly, [[Army Group Center]] reported a lone T-34 tank having ripped through 13 divisions by itself before getting knocked out. By December the Russian winter (which was relatively mild by Russian standards) decimated the Germans, who did not expect the campaign to have lasted this long. German vehicles sank into the mud and snow and equipment froze up, allowing the Red Army time to prepare their defenses and rebuild their disorganized army.
  
 
[[Great Purge|The Great Purge]] had a massive impact on the [[Red Army|Red Army's]] fighting capacity and many slots for officers were filled with inexperienced soldiers who were just there to replaced those that'd been purged. Over the course of the war this effect was gradually made negligible, but not before a massive amount of Red Army soldiers were taken prisoner or killed and the Nazis had penetrated deep into Soviet territory.
 
[[Great Purge|The Great Purge]] had a massive impact on the [[Red Army|Red Army's]] fighting capacity and many slots for officers were filled with inexperienced soldiers who were just there to replaced those that'd been purged. Over the course of the war this effect was gradually made negligible, but not before a massive amount of Red Army soldiers were taken prisoner or killed and the Nazis had penetrated deep into Soviet territory.
The Nazis continued to advance throughout 1942, albeit at a much slower pace. The Soviet strategy of "defence in depth" was working, the City of Leningrad was holding out, and the Nazis were forced to, at times, fight for strategic points several times to wrestle it from control of stubborn Soviet defenders (See [[Battles of Kharkov]]). Additionally, Soviet resistance behind enemy lines was overwhelming, and continued to be a constant thorn in the German's side for the rest of the war.
+
The Nazis continued to advance throughout 1942, albeit at a much slower pace. The Soviet strategy of "defence in depth" was working, the City of Leningrad was holding out, and the Nazis were forced to, at times, fight for strategic points several times to wrestle it from control of stubborn Soviet defenders (See Battles of Kharkov). Additionally, Soviet resistance behind enemy lines was overwhelming, and continued to be a constant thorn in the German's side for the rest of the war.
In November 1942 Significant portion of Wehrmacht [[Army Group South]] under General [[Friedrich Paulus]] began an assault on the City of Stalingrad, along [[Volga river|the river Volga]], and eventually succeeded in doing so - only to be immediately cut off and surrounded by the Red Army's Stalingrad Front, Don Front and Red Army South. The Battle of Stalingrad continued into February 1943 and resulted in overwhelming victory for the Red Army. The 6th Army had been utterly destroyed and a significant portion of Army Group South was crippled. Around a million or so Germans in the battle were either captured or killed, effectively halting any ability the Germans had to advance into Soviet territory, bringing the invasion to a standstill. This caused a panic amongst the German ranks, who quickly organised a new attack along the Kursk salient in an attempt to restart the push forward. Initially starting with a skirmish at Prokhorovka, the larger [[Battle of Kursk]] was one of the largest tank battles to ever take place, and resulted, again, with a tactical victory for the USSR, thus ending the German's ability to stage offensives in any capacity.
+
In November 1942 Significant portion of Wehrmacht Army Group South under General Friedrich Paulus began an assault on the City of Stalingrad, along the river Volga, and eventually succeeded in doing so - only to be immediately cut off and surrounded by the Red Army's Stalingrad Front, Don Front and Red Army South. The Battle of Stalingrad continued into February 1943 and resulted in overwhelming victory for the Red Army. The 6th Army had been utterly destroyed and a significant portion of Army Group South was crippled. Around a million or so Germans in the battle were either captured or killed, effectively halting any ability the Germans had to advance into Soviet territory, bringing the invasion to a standstill. This caused a panic amongst the German ranks, who quickly organized a new attack along the Kursk salient in an attempt to restart the push forward. Initially starting with a skirmish at Prokhorovka, the larger Battle of Kursk was one of the largest tank battles to ever take place, and resulted, again, with a tactical victory for the USSR, thus ending the German's ability to stage offensives in any capacity. All this has occurred despite Lend-Lease shipments being rather minor before Stalingrad and only picking up after, so that their main role was really to facilitate victory rather than stave off defeat, enabling a more rapid advance by the Red Army on the way to Germany.<ref>''Stalin's Wars'' by Geoffrey Roberts, page 164</ref>
  
The Germans continued on the offensive regardless, despite Soviet Counterattack being much more strong than German attempts at Advances. By January 1944, the Siege of Leningrad was lifted, and one year later to the day (25 January) Red Army soldiers of the 244th Rifle division discovered [[Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp]], subsequently [[Liberation of Auschwitz|liberating the 8,000 or so prisoners still detained there]]. In April 1945 the [[Battle of Berlin]] began, as the crumbling and shattered [[German Reich]] made one last stubborn defence against the so-called "asiatic hordes". Hitler killed himself in his Bunker on 1 May 1945, the same day the Soviet Flag was raised above the [[Reichstag]]. A few days later, it was hung there permanently, and on 9 May 1945, the remnants of the German Government led by Grand Admiral [[Karl Dönitz]] unconditionally surrendered to the [[Red Army|Worker's and Peasant's Red Army of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics]].
+
The Germans continued on the offensive regardless of the Soviet counterattack being much stronger than German attempts at advances. By January 1944, the Siege of Leningrad was lifted, and one year later to the day (25 January) Red Army soldiers of the 244th Rifle division discovered the Auschwitz concentration camp, subsequently liberating the 8,000 or so prisoners still detained there. In April 1945 the Battle of Berlin began, as the crumbling and shattered German Reich made one last stubborn defence against the so-called "Asiatic hordes". Hitler killed himself in his bunker on 1 May 1945, the same day the Soviet Flag was raised above the Reichstag. A few days later, it was hung there permanently, and on 9 May 1945, the remnants of the German Government led by Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz unconditionally surrendered to the [[Red Army|Worker's and Peasant's Red Army of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics]].
  
 
The USSR had borne the brunt of Nazi terror during the War, with some 89% of all Nazi war efforts being focused on the eastern front.   
 
The USSR had borne the brunt of Nazi terror during the War, with some 89% of all Nazi war efforts being focused on the eastern front.   

Latest revision as of 01:42, 1 August 2020

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World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War or World War 2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war. The war is credited to being started by Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany.

Timeline of Events[edit]

1939[edit]

1940[edit]

1941[edit]

1942[edit]

1943[edit]

1944[edit]

1945[edit]

Prelude[edit]

The treaty of Versailles have put Germany into a oppressive semi-colonized nation after the First World War. There as massive reparations and Germany had lost land. The treaty was very one sided which was contrasted by the stalemate that the great war ended up as militarily. The fallout was a large mass of agitated Germans angry at the amount of reparations and perceived and real injustices done to them via the allied powers. As a result a mass movement of proletarians decided to declare independence in a Bavarian Council Republic colloquially known as the Bavarian Soviet Republic. Once the newly formed republic had been squashed by the Freikorps the puppet government Wiemar Republic held ideological dominance over the Germanic peoples.

During this time a ton of radical organizations sprouted and gained popularity all across the spectrum mostly due to the contempt of the treaty and foreign political dominance of their nation. The Communist party of Germany(KPD) surged in membership along with the national socialist German workers party headed by anti-capitalist idealist Anton Drexler at the time.

Later Hitler entered the NSDAP in July 1919 and it became a pro-capitalist party organized to combat Bolshevikism. The Socialist part of the name was kept in by the executive committee. In 1921 to 1922 the Grew further in size through hitlers speaking skills and the cultural deterioration due to the Wiemar Republic's liberal economic policies. With Hitlers increasing dominance in the party leadership the party became centered around national and racial issues, otherwise considered toxic. The Swastika became its symbol.

The National Fascist Party in Italy rose to power by the end of October 1922.

In 1923, failing to meet the harsh reparation payments, France acquired the Rhur region. At this time Whilhem Cuno resigned and the KPD attempted to seize power. This provoked a reaction to the Attempted revolt which brought the NSDAP to twenty thousand members. In November of the same year Hitler attempted to seize power otherwise known as the Beer Hall Putsch. The Nazi's have gathered a couple thousand and planed a march through Munich. This ended in a clash with the military, murdering 16 and placing Hitler in jail, and the Ban of the Nazi party, and the party's subsequent fracture. While in jail Hitler wrote Mien Kampf. After hitler came out of jail the Nazi party was unbanned and its former designation of it being a paramilitary party was dissolved. The Social Democrats have Gained dominance during this time and the three arrows was a popular symbol of anti-communism, anti-fascism, and anti-monarchism.

Nazi German invasions[edit]

"The Nazis found collaborators in almost every country that they invaded. In one Lithuanian town, a crowd cheered while a local man clubbed dozens of Jewish people to death. He then stood atop the corpses and played the Lithuanian anthem on an accordion. German soldiers looked on, taking photographs." [1] - Alex Ross

Eastern Front[edit]

Starting in 1933, with the rise of the Nazi party in Germany, Stalin began to industrialize the USSR for war. Having reportedly read Hitler's Mein Kampf, Stalin knew exactly what Adolf Hitler's plans for Europe and the World were, and spent most of the 1930s repeatedly petitioning the French, British and Polish Governments to form an Anti-Fascist alliance and preemptively destroy the Nazi threat before it became too powerful. Hitler and Stalin spent the 1930s denouncing each other, as each built up their respective nations for War. During the Munich Crisis of 1937, Stalin threatened to Invade Germany if Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia, and likewise, Hitler formalized the Anti-Comintern Pact between Various nations throughout Europe to specifically spite Stalin's antifascist efforts. Nevertheless, Stalin's repeated petitions to the League of Nations and Western Europe proved fruitless. And, a few days before Germany invaded Poland, Stalin sent a mission to Germany to formalize a non-aggression pact with Germany, much like the one they'd made with Japan. The infamous Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact assured that neither Germany nor the USSR would attack each other for a period of ten years (which both sides knew was not going to last) but also contained numerous secret clauses: The USSR would not interfere with Germany's conquest of Europe, and Germany would not interfere with the USSR if they were to retake numerous territories lost to them in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War - Particularly Karelia, near Finland, the Baltic States of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, Bessabarabia (Moldova) in Romania; and the territories of Brest and Grodno (occupied by Poland but historically a part of Belarus) and numerous territories claimed by Western Ukraine but occupied by Poland. When World War II started, both sides adhered to the treaty, and two weeks after the Invasion of Poland the USSR occupied their claimed territories. In 1940 the Soviets annexed the Baltics and occupied Bessabarabia (Moldova) and went to war with Finland over Karelia in what became the rather disastrous Winter War of 1939-40.

The time bought by the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact served valuable for the USSR, it allowed them to complete the construction of the Stalin line and move precious industry to the Ural Mountains, far out of reach from the Germans. Soviet generals estimated the USSR would be ready for war with Germany by October 1942, but, they were not granted this luxury and Germany invaded on 22 June 1941.

Originally, the USSR was totally unprepared for the Soviet Invasion - Stalin reportedly ignored reports of German military buildup at the border and refused to allow Soviet forces to mass at the border as well. Georgy Zhukov later wrote in his memoirs in 1957 that Stalin was right - if they had massed their forces then they would've been destroyed then and there. In the initial six months of the war, Germany performed extremely well, making rapid advances deep into Soviet territory, occupying all of Belarus, the Baltics, Ukraine and surrounding the city of Leningrad, besieging the city. The Germans took hundreds of thousands of prisoners and SS-Ostgruppen troops committed unspeakable horrors against the Slavic people living there, whom they considered "Untermenschen". Yet, by December 1941, four months after the campaign was supposed to have ended, the Nazis had, by their count, defeated the Red Army three times over. Not only that, but there was the worry that the Soviets could potentially be much stronger and more advanced than they had initially assumed - when the Nazis had invaded, the Soviets were going through a major update of their equipment. Sightings of T-34 and KV-1 tanks were rare, but there were several recorded instances where a single example of those tanks inflicted massive casualties on the Germans. In 1941, at Raseinai, a small town in Lithuania, a lone KV-2 (or KV-1) heavy tank decimated the 6th Panzer division and held the entire town by itself for a whole day before running out of ammunition and being destroyed. Similarly, Army Group Center reported a lone T-34 tank having ripped through 13 divisions by itself before getting knocked out. By December the Russian winter (which was relatively mild by Russian standards) decimated the Germans, who did not expect the campaign to have lasted this long. German vehicles sank into the mud and snow and equipment froze up, allowing the Red Army time to prepare their defenses and rebuild their disorganized army.

The Great Purge had a massive impact on the Red Army's fighting capacity and many slots for officers were filled with inexperienced soldiers who were just there to replaced those that'd been purged. Over the course of the war this effect was gradually made negligible, but not before a massive amount of Red Army soldiers were taken prisoner or killed and the Nazis had penetrated deep into Soviet territory. The Nazis continued to advance throughout 1942, albeit at a much slower pace. The Soviet strategy of "defence in depth" was working, the City of Leningrad was holding out, and the Nazis were forced to, at times, fight for strategic points several times to wrestle it from control of stubborn Soviet defenders (See Battles of Kharkov). Additionally, Soviet resistance behind enemy lines was overwhelming, and continued to be a constant thorn in the German's side for the rest of the war. In November 1942 Significant portion of Wehrmacht Army Group South under General Friedrich Paulus began an assault on the City of Stalingrad, along the river Volga, and eventually succeeded in doing so - only to be immediately cut off and surrounded by the Red Army's Stalingrad Front, Don Front and Red Army South. The Battle of Stalingrad continued into February 1943 and resulted in overwhelming victory for the Red Army. The 6th Army had been utterly destroyed and a significant portion of Army Group South was crippled. Around a million or so Germans in the battle were either captured or killed, effectively halting any ability the Germans had to advance into Soviet territory, bringing the invasion to a standstill. This caused a panic amongst the German ranks, who quickly organized a new attack along the Kursk salient in an attempt to restart the push forward. Initially starting with a skirmish at Prokhorovka, the larger Battle of Kursk was one of the largest tank battles to ever take place, and resulted, again, with a tactical victory for the USSR, thus ending the German's ability to stage offensives in any capacity. All this has occurred despite Lend-Lease shipments being rather minor before Stalingrad and only picking up after, so that their main role was really to facilitate victory rather than stave off defeat, enabling a more rapid advance by the Red Army on the way to Germany.[2]

The Germans continued on the offensive regardless of the Soviet counterattack being much stronger than German attempts at advances. By January 1944, the Siege of Leningrad was lifted, and one year later to the day (25 January) Red Army soldiers of the 244th Rifle division discovered the Auschwitz concentration camp, subsequently liberating the 8,000 or so prisoners still detained there. In April 1945 the Battle of Berlin began, as the crumbling and shattered German Reich made one last stubborn defence against the so-called "Asiatic hordes". Hitler killed himself in his bunker on 1 May 1945, the same day the Soviet Flag was raised above the Reichstag. A few days later, it was hung there permanently, and on 9 May 1945, the remnants of the German Government led by Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz unconditionally surrendered to the Worker's and Peasant's Red Army of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

The USSR had borne the brunt of Nazi terror during the War, with some 89% of all Nazi war efforts being focused on the eastern front.

References[edit]