A creditor is a person or company to whom money is owed.
Distinguishing characteristics of creditors include:
- The relationship between debtor and creditor and exemplifies the idea of the transfer of debt. This is important because the "function of money as means of payment begins to spread out beyond the sphere of circulation of commodities. It becomes the universal material of contracts."
- With the advent of contracts, among other similarly related social institutions and constructs, due to fixed payments, debtors are forced to hoard money in preparation for these dead-lines. It is this inequity between creditor and debtor which gives rise to an imbalance in the capitalist mode of production, and thus to class struggle.
- In other words, all else being equal, if production fails to grow sufficiently, the level of debt will increase, ultimately causing a breakdown of the accumulation process when debtors cannot pay creditors.
- Marx denies that commerce adds value. The debtors and the creditors could just as easily have met in a marketplace without a merchant to facilitate exchange.
"It is no longer a mere accident that capitalist and labourer confront each other in the market as buyer and seller. It is the process itself that incessantly hurls back the labourer on to the market as a vendor of his labour power, and that incessantly converts his own product into a means by which another man can purchase him." [Marx]