People's Republic of China
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The People's Republic of China (PRC) is a country in East Asia governed by the Communist Party of China. It is the world's most populous country, and the third or fourth largest country in the world (depending on the metric used). China is a controversial subject among leftists, with strong support and opposition to China occurring on all sides.
|People's Republic of China|
Map of the People's Republic of China
- 1 Politics
- 2 History
- 3 Political Economy
- 4 See also
- 5 References
After the fall of Qing Dynasty in 1911, China was ravaged by foreign influence by Japanese, British and French. On 1921, with patrons from Soviet Union, the communist party of China was founded. The Communist and Nationalist shared a front to restore China to it's past greatness. The united front which was founded in 1924 focused on the internal enemy which were the warlord. After the front proved successful, the nationalist slaughtered communist in 1927. Mao Zhedong differed from the founders in that he thought the true revolutionary force in China, wasn't the proletariat, but rather the peasantry. In 1934 communist in the encircled in their base in Jiangxi. To escape the nationalist they set out on the long march. During the long march of 1934, by criticizing Zhang Guato, Mao in large part rose to power. According to him, the communist were loosing because of bad organization. What was observed during the march was the different culture of Miao had compared to the Han. He promised that different nationalities could form their own nations, or willingly join the PRC. The Hui Muslims were promised to be able to choose their own religion and attend visits to mosques. Because of the war with Japan that started in 1930's, there were multiple attempts for nationalist and communist to cooperate, or at least stop fighting. In 1935 a CPC sent to Guomindang (nationalist) was sent to stop fighting in north east. During the december of 1936, Chiang Kai-shek was kidnapped by his own generals who urged him to cooperate with CPC. In 1937, Marco Polo Bridge incident caused a full scale war with Japan and an united front was formed. During the war Mao showed ability for compromise if it helped the CPC. Various Warlords were convinced to become an ally or join the CPC. Yan Xishan, who was in charge of Shanxi, declared neutrally with CPC on 1939. There was cooperation with American forces, with intelligence sharing and neutrality. A land reform was pursued in 1934 which allowed private farms to peasants. After the bombs on Japan fell the war was declared to have been ended.
With the end of war talks between the nationalist and communist began in Chongqing, but the talks proved fruitless. In December of 1945, US arranged second talks with the opposing forces. The talks proved fruitless yet again with communist never trusting Guangdong in keeping liberated areas for the CPC, and the Guangdong not trusting CPC in recognizing Chiang as the leader of China. Imminently after the war Chiang sent his troops toward north-east China, where the communist troops and bases were. During this time both the CPC and the nationalist prepared for war. In 1945 party congress in Yanan took place in preparation of the upcoming civil war. The central military committee was established with high ranking CPC members having being appointed to leading roles. While nationalist certainly had a larger piece of the land and army, they weren't approved by the general population. Desertions among the soldier was common, with men being roped together to not escape. From 1937 to 1949, fifteen million starved because troops used to sell their rations to the peasants. Since a great deal of the army had troops from the warlords, rape and plunder was common. On CPC side, Mao got 200,000 troops from Manchuguo. Those who didn't join the PLA were executed. The CPC also gained a great number of troops from the deserted ones from the nationalist army. Other failure of the nationalist was that they allowed landlords, which were unpopular with the peasantry, to return after the war to their property. The Communists, knowing well how unpopular landlords were among the peasantry, humiliated and executed them. The CPC control over Harbin, area which the Japanese occupation industrialized, proved to be important in their victory, and allowed CPC to build a modern army. With communist evacuated from the area, Yanan fell to Guangdong in 1947. After this Mao declared the annihilation of the Chiang's regime. After that Guangdong tried spreading their reach within the country. With most of it's units being sparse, a counter-attack by the communist proved easy. In 1947 the CPC in Ningxia and Gansu were winning against the Muslim warlords. By 1948, Mao was convinced an attack, rather than defense, on the Guangdong was possible. the CPC was winning against the nationalist in north east, and with it overtook Shenyang and moved south.
Chiang troops gathered around Xuzhou with the hope of having enough time to counter-act the movement of PLA into the heart of China. With CPC having enlisted POW from Guangdong troops into PLA, the attack could start instantaneous. Within five days Xuzhou, with it's supplies cut off and heavy rain making it's tank useless, was under CPC's wing with it's general Baitao committing suicide. At this time Mao though that Beijing, while useless in strategy, would give much prestige. On January of 1949, Fu Zuoyi, who guarded Beijing, was promised that if he allowed the CPC to take Beijing, his war-crimes would be absolved, his fortune kept, and would be allowed to live where he wishes. On January of 1949, he accepted the term and People's liberation army stormed Beijing in. In April of 1949, Zhang Zhizhong, the governor of Xinjiang, joined the CPC. The majority of nationalist forces were defeated, and with it Chiang fled on a plane from Chengdu to Taiwan, which he brutally took over. On first of October, 1949, Mao declared from the forbidden city than the civil war has been won and People's Republic of China was found.
Great Leap Forward
The Great Chinese Famine
The Great Chinese Famine (1958 till 1961) was caused and its severity compounded by a number of factors:
- Bad weather conditions, floods and droughts at the same time;
- The Four Pests Campaign;
- Forcing peasants into steel production;
- The adaptation of pseudo-scientific theories of Soviet biologist Trofim Lysenko;
- Bureaucratic mismanagement.
Millions of people lost their lives. Official government statistics say 15 million people perished as a result of the famine, Maoists claim that this is exaggerated and meant to discredit Mao and legitimise Deng Xiaoping's policy changes, and mainstream Western historians usually claim that between 20 and 40 million people died.